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1.
Presse Med ; 48(12): e369-e381, 2019 Dec.
Artículo en Francés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31785940

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: In 2015, the vaccine against human Papillomavirus (hPV) was recommended in France for children from 11 to 14 years-old. This study assessed the knowledge of parents from Normandy about this vaccine and measured the impact of an information campaign on their intent to have their children vaccinated. METHODS: Parents from Normandy with children in sixth-grade class, aged 10 to 11, during the 2015-2016 school year were included. The secondary schools were selected in collaboration with academic institutions. The intent to have their child vaccinated was measured with a questionnaire distributed to children in April 2016 and collected from May to June 2016 by school nurses. RESULTS: Among the 16 selected secondary schools, 1428 questionnaires were distributed and 864 (60.5 %) were collected regardless of the gender of the child. Among the 439 girls, 85.9 % were not vaccinated against hPV. The intent to vaccinate was higher when the parent who responded was the mother (P<0.001). Among the parents who took note of the information booklet, 73.7 % found this information useful. There was a significant association between the knowledge about the vaccine against hPV and the intent to vaccinate (P<0.001). The percentage of vaccinated girls was significantly higher when their parents were informed (10.9 % versus 3.2 %). We noticed a significant rise of the intent to vaccinate children when information booklets were distributed (P<0.001). CONCLUSION: The vaccination rate after specific information about vaccination against hPV was significantly higher. The information campaign has thus a significant positive impact.


Asunto(s)
Intención , Infecciones por Papillomavirus/prevención & control , Vacunas contra Papillomavirus/uso terapéutico , Padres , Vacunación/estadística & datos numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Niño , Femenino , Francia/epidemiología , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Historia del Siglo XXI , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Relaciones Padres-Hijo , Padres/educación , Padres/psicología , Aceptación de la Atención de Salud/psicología , Aceptación de la Atención de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Servicios de Salud Escolar/historia , Instituciones Académicas/estadística & datos numéricos , Factores Socioeconómicos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Vacunación/psicología
2.
Rev Saude Publica ; 53: 102, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31800913

RESUMEN

We analyzed data from the National School-based Health Survey (PeNSE) carried out in Brazil in 2015 (n = 102,072 adolescents) to estimate how much of the individual variance in the prevalence of health behaviors is attributable to the school level. Multilevel logistic regression models were calculated to estimate the variance partitional coefficient (VPC) of the use of drugs, intake of unhealthy food, leisure physical activity and weight-related behaviors. The between-schools variance was significant in all tested models. The highest VPCs were observed when the use of drugs was analyzed (15%-20% of the total variance of smoking and use of illegal drugs). Lower, but still significant, values were observed in the other outcomes. The school context plays an important role in the adolescents' health and should be considered in the design of public policies and actions in public health.


Asunto(s)
Salud del Adolescente/estadística & datos numéricos , Conductas de Riesgo para la Salud , Instituciones Académicas/estadística & datos numéricos , Estudiantes/estadística & datos numéricos , Adolescente , Peso Corporal , Brasil/epidemiología , Femenino , Preferencias Alimentarias , Encuestas Epidemiológicas , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Sector Privado , Sector Público , Factores de Riesgo , Fumar/epidemiología , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/epidemiología , Consumo de Alcohol en Menores/estadística & datos numéricos
3.
Rev Saude Publica ; 53: 93, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés, Portugués | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31644772

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the potential support of schools for oral health promotion and associated factors in Brazilian capitals. METHODS: Data from 1,339 public and private schools of the 27 Brazilian capitals were obtained from the National Survey of School Health (PeNSE) 2015. Data from the capitals were obtained from the United Nations Development Program and the Department of Informatics of the Brazilian Unified Health System (Datasus). The indicator " ambiente escolar promotor de saúde bucal " (AEPSB - oral health promoting school environment) was designed from 21 variables of the school environment with possible influence on students' oral health employing the categorical principal components analysis (CATPCA). Associations between the AEPSB and characteristics of schools, capitals and regions were tested (bivariate analysis). RESULTS: Ten variables comprised CAPTCA, after excluding those with low correlation or high multicollinearity. The analysis resulted in a model with three dimensions: D1. Within-school aspects (sales of food with added sugar in the canteen and health promotion actions), D2. Aspects of the area around the school (sales of food with added sugar in alternative points) and D3. prohibitive policies at school (prohibition of alcohol and tobacco consumption). The sum of the scores of the dimensions generated the AEPSB indicator, dichotomized by the median. From the total of schools studied, 51.2% (95%CI 48.5-53.8) presented a more favorable environment for oral health (higher AEPSB). In the capitals, this percentage ranged from 36.6% (95%CI 23.4-52.2) in Rio Branco to 80.4% (95%CI 67.2-89.1) in Florianópolis. Among the Brazilian regions, it ranged from 45.5% (95%CI 40.0-51.2) in the North to 67.6% (95%CI 59.4-74.9) in the South. Higher percentages of schools with higher AEPSB were found in public schools [58.1% (95%CI 54.9-61.2)] and in capitals and regions with higher Human Development Index [61.0% (95%IC 55.8-66.0) and 57.4% (95%CI 53.2-61.4), respectively] and lower Gini index [55.7% (95%CI 51.2-60.0) and 52.8 (95%CI 49.8-55.8), respectively]. CONCLUSIONS: The potential to support oral health promotion in schools in Brazilian capitals, assessed by the AEPSB indicator, was associated with contextual factors of schools, capitals and Brazilian regions.


Asunto(s)
Encuestas de Salud Bucal/estadística & datos numéricos , Salud Bucal/estadística & datos numéricos , Servicios de Salud Escolar/estadística & datos numéricos , Medio Social , Adolescente , Brasil/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Conducta Alimentaria , Femenino , Abastecimiento de Alimentos/estadística & datos numéricos , Geografía , Humanos , Masculino , Valores de Referencia , Factores de Riesgo , Instituciones Académicas/estadística & datos numéricos , Factores Socioeconómicos , Análisis Espacial
4.
Parasitol Res ; 118(12): 3449-3457, 2019 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31659453

RESUMEN

We assessed the risk for toxoplasmosis in 10 school restaurants in Armenia (Quindio, Colombia). We analyzed the presence of Toxoplasma gondii DNA in the food, water, and living and inert surfaces of school restaurants, and we correlated these findings with the results of food safety inspection scores and with the prevalence of specific anti-T. gondii antibodies in children who ate at these restaurants. Of the 213 samples, 6.1% were positive using PCR to test for T. gondii DNA. Positive samples were found in meat, water, cucumber, guava juice, inert surfaces, and living surfaces. In 60% (6/10) of the public school restaurants, there was at least one PCR T. gondii-positive sample. In 311 serum samples from children who attended the restaurants, 101 (33%) were positive for IgG and 12 (3.9%) for IgM anti-T. gondii. The median of the compound score for the fulfillment of inspection for food safety conditions was of 60.7% (range 50-72). Higher T. gondii PCR positivity in surfaces, food, or water at each restaurant was correlated with lower inspection scores for water supply and water storage conditions. Lower scores in physical infrastructure and disinfection procedures and higher scores in furniture were correlated with a higher prevalence of IgG anti-T. gondii in children who ate at those restaurants. Inspection scores can identify restaurants with a higher risk for the presence of T. gondii.


Asunto(s)
Contaminación de Alimentos/análisis , Parasitología de Alimentos , Toxoplasma/aislamiento & purificación , Toxoplasmosis/epidemiología , Animales , Anticuerpos Antiidiotipos/sangre , Anticuerpos Antiprotozoarios/sangre , Armenia/epidemiología , Niño , Colombia/epidemiología , Femenino , Inocuidad de los Alimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Carne/parasitología , Prevalencia , Restaurantes/estadística & datos numéricos , Factores de Riesgo , Instituciones Académicas/estadística & datos numéricos , Toxoplasma/clasificación , Toxoplasma/genética , Toxoplasmosis/sangre , Toxoplasmosis/diagnóstico , Toxoplasmosis/parasitología
5.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1390, 2019 Oct 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31660934

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Shisha smoking has re-emerged in the Middle East in the last two decades and has spread rapidly in these communities. Information about shisha smoking in adolescents in Sudan is deficient. Hence, the aim of this study is to estimate the prevalence of shisha smoking among adolescents and determine the associated factors. METHODS: This study is a school based cross sectional study among secondary school students in Khartoum State - Sudan that targets both male and female students aged 14-17 years. A total of 3387 students from 29 public and private schools were selected by multi stage random sampling. The participants completed an anonymous self-administered questionnaire which was based on Arabic version of the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS). RESULTS: The response rate was 100% in schools and among participants, 57.3% were females and 51.6% were from public schools. The overall prevalence of those who had ever smoked shisha was 13.4%, and among male students the prevalence was 16.8%, while it was 10.9% in females. The associated factors were poor academic performance OR 2.90 CI 95% (1.21-6.94), friends smoking shisha OR 2.39 CI 95% (1.65-3.45), friends smoking cigarettes OR 2.76 CI 95% (1.90-4.01), peer pressure to smoke shisha OR 13.76 CI 95% (7.86-24.07) and unexpectedly restriction of selling shisha to minors OR 2.21 CI 95% (1.28-3.82). CONCLUSION: The prevalence of those who had ever smoked shisha is among the lowest in Middle East region; therefore, regular surveillance system is needed. A well-structured peer based comprehensive tobacco control programmes that are supported by strict and rigorous anti-tobacco regulations which control both commercial and social resources of tobacco are needed to contain this issue among adolescents.


Asunto(s)
Pipas de Agua/estadística & datos numéricos , Fumar/epidemiología , Estudiantes/psicología , Adolescente , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Influencia de los Compañeros , Prevalencia , Factores de Riesgo , Instituciones Académicas/estadística & datos numéricos , Estudiantes/estadística & datos numéricos , Sudán/epidemiología , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
6.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 68(39): 839-844, 2019 Oct 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31581163

RESUMEN

The 2009 Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act prohibits the inclusion of characterizing flavors (e.g., candy or fruit) other than tobacco and menthol in cigarettes; however, characterizing flavors are not currently prohibited in other tobacco products at the federal level.* Flavored tobacco products can appeal to youths and young adults and influence initiation and establishment of tobacco-use patterns (1). The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and CDC analyzed data from the 2014-2018 National Youth Tobacco Surveys (NYTS) to determine prevalence of current (past 30-day) use of flavored tobacco products, including electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes), hookah tobacco, cigars, pipe tobacco, smokeless tobacco, bidis, and menthol cigarettes among U.S. middle school (grades 6-8) and high school (grades 9-12) students. In 2018, an estimated 3.15 million (64.1%) youth tobacco product users currently used one or more flavored tobacco products, compared with 3.26 million (70.0%) in 2014. Despite this overall decrease in use of flavored tobacco products, current use of flavored e-cigarettes increased among high school students during 2014-2018; among middle school students, current use of flavored e-cigarettes increased during 2015-2018, following a decrease during 2014-2015. During 2014-2018, current use of flavored hookah tobacco decreased among middle and high school students; current use of flavored smokeless tobacco, cigars, pipe tobacco, and menthol cigarettes decreased among high school students. Full implementation of comprehensive tobacco prevention and control strategies, coupled with regulation of tobacco products by FDA, can help prevent and reduce use of tobacco products, including flavored tobacco products, among U.S. youths (2,3).


Asunto(s)
Aromatizantes , Estudiantes/psicología , Productos de Tabaco/estadística & datos numéricos , Uso de Tabaco/epidemiología , Adolescente , Niño , Sistemas Electrónicos de Liberación de Nicotina/estadística & datos numéricos , Femenino , Encuestas Epidemiológicas , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalencia , Instituciones Académicas/estadística & datos numéricos , Prevención del Hábito de Fumar/legislación & jurisprudencia , Estudiantes/estadística & datos numéricos , Productos de Tabaco/legislación & jurisprudencia , Uso de Tabaco/legislación & jurisprudencia , Uso de Tabaco/prevención & control , Tabaco sin Humo/estadística & datos numéricos , Estados Unidos/epidemiología , United States Food and Drug Administration
7.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 68(39): 845-850, 2019 Oct 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31581164

RESUMEN

Use of marijuana at an early age can affect memory, school performance, attention, and learning; conclusions have been mixed regarding its impact on mental health conditions, including psychosis, depression, and anxiety (1-3). Medical marijuana has been legal in Washington since 1998, and in 2012, voters approved the retail sale of marijuana for recreational use to persons aged ≥21 years. The first retail stores opened for business in July 2014. As more states legalize marijuana use by adults aged ≥21 years, the effect of legalization on use by youths will be important to monitor. To guide planning of activities aimed at reducing marijuana use by youths and to inform ongoing policy development, Public Health-Seattle & King County assessed trends and characteristics of past 30-day marijuana use among King County, Washington, public school students in grades 6, 8, 10, and 12. This report used biennial data for 2004-2016 from the Washington State Healthy Youth Survey. Among grade 6 students there was a decreasing trend in self-reported past 30-day marijuana use from 2004 to 2016, while the percentage of grade 8 students who had used marijuana during the past 30 days did not change during that period. Among students in grades 10 and 12, self-reported past 30-day use of marijuana increased from 2004 to 2012, then declined from 2012 to 2016. In 2016, the percentage of students with past 30-day marijuana use in King County was 0.6% among grade 6, 4.1% among grade 8, 13.9% among grade 10, and 25.5% among grade 12 students. Among grade 10 students, 24.0% of past 30-day marijuana users also smoked cigarettes, compared with 1.3% of nonusers. From 2004 to 2016 the prevalence of perception of great risk of harm from regular marijuana use decreased across all grades. Continued surveillance using consistent measures is needed to monitor the impact of marijuana legalization and emerging public health issues, given variable legislation approaches among jurisdictions.


Asunto(s)
Uso de la Marihuana/epidemiología , Uso de la Marihuana/tendencias , Sector Público , Instituciones Académicas/estadística & datos numéricos , Estudiantes/psicología , Adolescente , Niño , Comercio/legislación & jurisprudencia , Femenino , Encuestas Epidemiológicas , Humanos , Legislación de Medicamentos/estadística & datos numéricos , Masculino , Uso de la Marihuana/efectos adversos , Uso de la Marihuana/legislación & jurisprudencia , Prevalencia , Medición de Riesgo , Estudiantes/estadística & datos numéricos , Washingtón/epidemiología
8.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31505862

RESUMEN

This study examines the association between school absenteeism, health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and happiness among young adults aged 16-26 years attending vocational education. Cross-sectional data from a survey among 676 young adults were analyzed. School absenteeism was measured by the self-reported number of sick days in the past eight weeks and hours of truancy in the past four weeks. HRQOL was measured by the 12-item Short Form Health Survey; physical and mental component summary scores were calculated. General happiness was assessed on a scale of 0-10, higher scores indicating greater happiness. Linear regression analyses were performed. The study population had a mean age of 18.5 years (SD 2.2); 26.1% were boys. Young adults with ≥5 sick days or ≥6 h of truancy reported lower mental HRQOL compared to young adults without sickness absence or truancy (p < 0.05). Young adults with 1-4 and ≥5 sick days reported lower physical HRQOL compared to young adults who had not reported to be sick (p < 0.05). Young adults with 1-5 h and ≥6 h of truancy reported higher physical HRQOL compared to young adults who were not truant (p < 0.05). No associations were observed between school absence and happiness. Lower self-reported mental HRQOL was observed among young adults with more school absenteeism due to sickness or truancy. Sickness absence was additionally associated with lower physical HRQOL.


Asunto(s)
Absentismo , Felicidad , Calidad de Vida , Instituciones Académicas/estadística & datos numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Países Bajos , Autoinforme , Adulto Joven
9.
Pediatrics ; 144(4)2019 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31501238

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Fifteen percent of US children live in households with inadequate food. Children who are food insecure often experience worse physical, emotional, and developmental health outcomes. Authors of previous studies have not examined the quality and cost implications of food insecurity in children. METHODS: This is a retrospective study of 7959 nationally representative US children (aged 1-17 years) in the 2016 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey. Households with food insecurity were identified by ≥3 positive responses to the 30-day, 10-item US Food Security Survey. Main outcomes were annual health expenditures and quality of care indicators: emergency department (ED) and inpatient use, primary care and specialist visits, routine medical and dental care, patient experience measures, and school absenteeism. Logistic and 2-part regression models were constructed to estimate outcomes conditional on sociodemographic and medical covariates. RESULTS: Children in households with food insecurity were more often publicly insured and had special needs compared with all other children. In multivariable logistic regression, household food insecurity was associated with significantly higher adjusted odds of an ED (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 1.37) or primary care treatment visit (aOR = 1.24) during the year. Household food insecurity was associated with significantly higher school absenteeism (aOR = 1.74) and lower access to care for routine (aOR = 0.55) or illness (aOR = 0.57) care. There were no differences in annual health expenditures, hospitalizations, or receipt of routine medical or dental care. CONCLUSIONS: Household food insecurity is associated with higher ED use and school absenteeism and lower access to care; however, it was not associated with higher annual health expenditures in children.


Asunto(s)
Abastecimiento de Alimentos/estadística & datos numéricos , Necesidades y Demandas de Servicios de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Atención Primaria de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Absentismo , Adolescente , Niño , Preescolar , Atención Dental para Niños/estadística & datos numéricos , Servicio de Urgencia en Hospital/estadística & datos numéricos , Femenino , Abastecimiento de Alimentos/economía , Gastos en Salud , Necesidades y Demandas de Servicios de Salud/economía , Hospitalización/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Lactante , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Oportunidad Relativa , Atención Primaria de Salud/economía , Indicadores de Calidad de la Atención de Salud , Estudios Retrospectivos , Instituciones Académicas/estadística & datos numéricos , Estados Unidos
10.
Accid Anal Prev ; 132: 105237, 2019 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31476584

RESUMEN

Traffic safety around school locations is a topic of particular interest given the large number of vulnerable users, such as pedestrians or cyclists, that commute to them at certain times of the day. A dataset of traffic accidents recorded in Valencia (Spain) during 2014 and 2015 is analyzed in order to estimate the effects that school locations produce on traffic risk within their surroundings. The four typologies of school in this city according to the academic levels they offer (All-level, Preschool, Primary, Secondary) are distinguished and taken into consideration for the analysis. Two time windows comprising the starting time in the morning and the evening time once day school has ended are analyzed independently. Several statistical methods are used, including observed vs expected ratios, macroscopic conditional autoregressive modelling, logistic regression in the context of a case-control study design and risk modelling in relation to several school locations. The distances to each type of school and a set of environmental, traffic-related, demographic and socioeconomic covariates are employed for the analysis. The macroscopic modelling of accident counts and the modelling of risk as a function of the distance to each type of school serves to confirm that proximity to a school has an effect on the incidence of traffic accidents in particular time windows. Specifically, school types coexisting in Valencia show differential behaviour in this regard. In addition, several covariates have displayed a positive (bus stop density, complex intersections, main road length) and negative (land use entropy) association with accident counts in the time windows investigated. Finally, the definition of a case-control study design enabled us to observe some differences undetected by the macroscopic approaches that would require further research.


Asunto(s)
Accidentes de Tránsito/estadística & datos numéricos , Instituciones Académicas/estadística & datos numéricos , Entorno Construido/estadística & datos numéricos , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Niño , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , España , Análisis Espacial , Factores de Tiempo
11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31398885

RESUMEN

Bone is influenced by physical activity (PA) throughout life, but childhood and adolescence provide a key opportunity to maximize peak bone mass. Thus, it is important to identify the relationship between PA practiced in childhood and young adulthood to design a promotion plan for bone health. The purpose of this study was to analyze the relationship between different impact-loading PAs (and their continuity throughout school periods from childhood to young adulthood) and bone stiffness index (SI). In this cross-sectional study, which was conducted on 145 university students aged 18-21 years, bone measurements were measured by quantitative ultrasonometry (QUS), and PA information was recalled using a self-administered questionnaire. Associations between the SI and the impact of PA performed during secondary school (p = 0.027), high school (p = 0.002), and university (p = 0.016) periods were observed. The continuity of PA over a longer period of time was related to a higher SI (p = 0.007). Those who practiced PA throughout all school periods had a higher SI than those who practiced during primary school only (p = 0.038) or through primary and secondary schools (p = 0.009). These results suggest that impact-loading PA practiced during different school periods is related to higher values of the SI. Therefore, continuous PA from an early age may be an important contributing factor to achieving and maintaining adequate bone health.


Asunto(s)
Densidad Ósea/fisiología , Ejercicio/fisiología , Instituciones Académicas/estadística & datos numéricos , Estudiantes/estadística & datos numéricos , Universidades/estadística & datos numéricos , Soporte de Peso/fisiología , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Estudios Longitudinales , Masculino , España , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Adulto Joven
12.
Diabetes Metab Syndr ; 13(4): 2495-2501, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31405667

RESUMEN

Childhood obesity prevalence is shooting up at a phenomenal rate worldwide, leading to long-term devastating consequences. A great number of studies have investigated factors contributing to the increase in BMI of children and adolescents. School-based, home-based and clinic-based solutions have been suggested as possible viable strategies, among which school-based interventions is believed to produce a noticeable effect on a massive scale. However, the question of whether school interventions, especially school education exert significant impact on childhood obesity or not, is left with mixing results. This article aims to holistically review the relationship between school education and childhood obesity. Various factors are covered, including health education, nutrition education, school nutrition, physical education, teachers' awareness, teaching practice and school stress, In all, school education is not the answer to childhood obesity but just part of it. More attempts from other stakeholders (parents, community, policy makers, researchers, etc.) should be made in order to solve this complicated puzzle.


Asunto(s)
Educación en Salud/métodos , Obesidad Pediátrica/prevención & control , Obesidad Pediátrica/psicología , Instituciones Académicas/estadística & datos numéricos , Niño , Humanos
13.
Diabetes Metab Syndr ; 13(4): 2565-2569, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31405677

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Both screen time and metabolic syndrome (MetS) are associated with health outcomes. However, limited data exist on the association between screen time and MetS among expatriate adolescents living in United Arab Emirates (UAE). METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional school-based study on 473 expatriate adolescents (47% girls) aged 12-18 years in Al-Ain district of Abu Dhabi Emirates in the UAE. Data was collected with the expertise of trained nurses & IDF criteria was used to define MetS. Information on screen time (computer, television, and video game use combined) during a regular day was self-reported, and divided into two categories: <2, or ≥2 h per day. Using logistic regression analyses, adjusted odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated for the association between screen time and MetS. RESULTS: A high proportion of adolescents (75.3%) spent ≥2 h daily on screen. The prevalence of MetS was 8.5% in those with <2 h per day of screen time compared with 13.5% in those who reported ≥2 h per day. There was a graded positive association between screen time and MetS (P-trend = 0.01). Each hour increase in screen time was associated with 21% (OR, 1.21; 95% CI, 1.08-1.35) greater likelihood of having MetS. The adjusted OR value associated with ≥2 h of daily screen time was 2.20 (95% CI, 1.04-4.67), compared with adolescents who spent less than 2 h of daily screen time. CONCLUSION: Higher screen time by expatriate adolescents was associated with increased likelihood of having MetS.


Asunto(s)
Síndrome Metabólico/epidemiología , Actividad Motora/fisiología , Instituciones Académicas/estadística & datos numéricos , Tiempo de Pantalla , Televisión/estadística & datos numéricos , Adolescente , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Estudios de Seguimiento , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalencia , Pronóstico , Factores de Riesgo , Emiratos Árabes Unidos/epidemiología
14.
Ethiop J Health Sci ; 29(4): 477-486, 2019 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31447521

RESUMEN

Background: Parental verbal communication may influence the sexual knowledge of senior secondary school students in Enugu State, Nigeria. Methods: This study utilized a school based cross-sectional study design and was conducted across the six education zones of Enugu State using three-stage sampling technique. A total of 400 respondents completed the interviewer administered questionnaires on their socio-demographics, sexual knowledge and parents' information on verbal communication skills. Obtainable knowledge scores for sexuality ranged between 0-10; scores of 1-5 were classified as poor and 6-10 as good. Data analysis for the quantitative data was done using IBM SPSS; version 22. Chi square test of statistical significance and multivariate analysis using binary logistic regression were used in the analysis, and the level of significance was set at a p value of less than 0.05. Results: Out of the 400 respondents, 55.5% were girls. The mean age (SD) of the respondents was 15.9 ± 1.3 years. Although 15.5% and 8.8% of the respondents were very comfortable discussing sexually related matters with their mothers and fathers only 34.8% and 16.0% of mothers and fathers were comfortable discussing such matters with the respondents. Less than half of the respondents (42.5%) had good sexual knowledge. Verbal sexual communication between parents and respondents and age above 16 years were found to be predictors of good sexual knowledge. Conclusions: Poor parental verbal communication led to the poor knowledge of sexuality among the respondents. Parents should be encouraged to discuss sexuality matters with their children.


Asunto(s)
Padres , Educación Sexual , Estudiantes/psicología , Adolescente , Niño , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Humanos , Masculino , Nigeria , Relaciones Padres-Hijo , Instituciones Académicas/estadística & datos numéricos , Educación Sexual/estadística & datos numéricos , Estudiantes/estadística & datos numéricos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Adulto Joven
15.
Aerosp Med Hum Perform ; 90(9): 788-791, 2019 Sep 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31426894

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a chronic neurological disorder characterized by persistent patterns of inattention, impulsivity, and hyperactivity. The most common treatment for this disorder is methylphenidate, which is a disqualifying medication for flight. Candidates with previous use of methylphenidate are not necessarily disqualified from the Israeli Air Force (IAF) flight academy.METHODS: Flight cadets from 12 consecutive flight courses who have used methylphenidate at least once in the past were identified according to their medical records. The graduation ratio of cadets with previous use of methylphenidate was compared with that of the rest of the cadets. A comparison was also made with regard to the causes of disqualification from the flight course. Statistical significance was assessed using the Fischer Test.RESULTS: Among the 90 flight cadets who have used methylphenidate, only 2 (2.2%) successfully graduated from the IAF flight academy. Among the 2983 flight cadets who have no history of methylphenidate use, 461 (15.4%) successfully graduated. We found no significant differences in the disqualification causes between the two groups.CONCLUSION: The IAF flight academy graduation rate was meaningfully and significantly lower among cadets who reported previous use of methylphenidate. The study design, however, limits the inference of causal relationship.Sarfati S, Nakdimon I, Tsodyks J, Assa A, Gordon B. Success rates at an air force pilot academy and its relation to methylphenidate use. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2019; 90(9):788-791.


Asunto(s)
Éxito Académico , Estimulantes del Sistema Nervioso Central/farmacología , Cognición/efectos de los fármacos , Metilfenidato/farmacología , Personal Militar/educación , Pilotos/educación , Adolescente , Adulto , Trastorno por Déficit de Atención con Hiperactividad/tratamiento farmacológico , Estimulantes del Sistema Nervioso Central/uso terapéutico , Abuso de Medicamentos , Femenino , Humanos , Israel , Masculino , Metilfenidato/uso terapéutico , Personal Militar/estadística & datos numéricos , Pilotos/estadística & datos numéricos , Estudios Retrospectivos , Instituciones Académicas/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto Joven
16.
J Natl Black Nurses Assoc ; 30(1): 34-39, 2019 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31465683

RESUMEN

This article discusses the Provost Scholars, a novel University five-year Mentoring Program for middle and high school students in an inner-city school district. The Provost Scholars is an innovative enrichment Program in which a partnership was formed between an under-resourced inner city school district and a private research university in Cleveland, Ohio. The Program was formed to help students graduate from high school. As these students experience success and empowerment, their willingness and ability to give back to the health of the community is enhanced. The primary goal of the Provost Scholars Mentoring Program is to prepare students for entry into and graduation from colleges/universities, technical/vocational schools, or to find a successful place in the workforce. This article describes a number of initiatives established to ensure the success of the Scholars. One key aspect of the Programs' success is a strong personal interest, caring, engagement, and partnership between the administrative staffs of the following two educational institutions: Case Western Reserve University and the East Cleveland School District, as well as the committed relationships of the university Mentors and the Scholars. Students who participate in the Program are expected to demonstrate improved grades, higher ACT/SAT scores, and to meet the requirements for admission to the colleges and universities of their choice, or to develop skills for meaningful employment in industry.


Asunto(s)
Tutoría/organización & administración , Estudiantes/psicología , Adolescente , Niño , Ciudades , Humanos , Ohio , Evaluación de Programas y Proyectos de Salud , Instituciones Académicas/organización & administración , Instituciones Académicas/estadística & datos numéricos , Estudiantes/estadística & datos numéricos , Universidades/organización & administración
17.
Sleep Health ; 5(5): 466-469, 2019 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31422069

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether school start time changes impact adolescents' mood, self-regulation, safety, and health. METHODS: In September 2015, two school start time changes were implemented in Fairfax County (VA) Public Schools: a 50-minute delay (to 8:10 am) for high schools and secondary schools and a 30-minute advance (to 7:30 am) for middle schools. We conducted cross-sectional surveys of students' sleep, mood, self-regulation, health, and safety before (2017 students) and after (1180 students) these changes. RESULTS: Adjusted for confounders, a 50-minute delay was associated with a decreased prevalence of low mood (-4.7%; 95% confidence interval [CI]: -8.2%, -1.2%), drowsy driving, (-8.4%; 95% CI: -15.9%, -0.9%), and skipping breakfast (-4.2%; 95% CI: -8.1%, -0.2%) but no other significant changes. There were no significant changes associated with a 30-minute advance. CONCLUSIONS: A 50-minute delay in school start time in high schools and secondary schools was associated with a decreased prevalence of low mood, drowsy driving, and skipping breakfast. A 30-minute advance in start time in middle schools was not associated with any appreciable changes.


Asunto(s)
Afecto , Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Seguridad/estadística & datos numéricos , Instituciones Académicas/estadística & datos numéricos , Autocontrol , Estudiantes/psicología , Estudiantes/estadística & datos numéricos , Adolescente , Conducción de Automóvil/psicología , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Sueño , Factores de Tiempo , Virginia , Vigilia
18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31416245

RESUMEN

(1) Background: Childhood overweight and obesity is a significant and preventable problem worldwide. School environments have been suggested to be plausible targets for interventions seeking to improve the quality of children's dietary intake. The objective of this study was to determine the extent to which the current characteristics of the school food environment were associated with primary school students' dietary intake and Body Mass Index (BMI) z scores in a representative sample in regional Victoria. (2) Methods: This study included 53 schools, comprising a sample of 3,496 students in year levels two (aged 7-8 years), four (9-10 years) and six (11-12 years). Year four and six students completed dietary questionnaires. Principals from each school completed a survey on school food environment characteristics. Mixed-effects logistic regression was used to assess the relationship between students' dietary intake and school food environment scores, controlling for confounders such as socio-economic status, school size and sex. Food environment scores were also analysed against the odds of being healthy weight (defined as normal BMI z score). (3) Results: Mixed associations were found for the relationship between students' dietary intake and food environment scores. Meeting the guidelines for vegetable intake was not associated with food environment scores, but students were more likely (OR: 1.68 95% CI 1.26, 2.24) to meet the guidelines if they attended a large school (>300 enrolments) and were female (OR: 1.28 95% CI: 1.02, 1.59). Healthy weight was not associated with school food environment scores, but being a healthy weight was significantly associated with less disadvantage (OR: 1.24 95% CI 1.05, 1.45). Conclusion: In this study, the measured characteristics of school food environments did not have strong associations with dietary intakes or BMI among students.


Asunto(s)
Índice de Masa Corporal , Peso Corporal , Ingestión de Alimentos , Servicios de Alimentación/estadística & datos numéricos , Obesidad Pediátrica/epidemiología , Instituciones Académicas/estadística & datos numéricos , Estudiantes/estadística & datos numéricos , Niño , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Victoria/epidemiología
19.
J Athl Train ; 54(9): 921-928, 2019 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31454289

RESUMEN

CONTEXT: Exertional heat stroke (EHS) is a leading cause of sudden death in high school football players. Preparedness strategies can mitigate EHS incidence and severity. OBJECTIVE: To examine EHS preparedness among high school football programs and its association with regional and state preseason heat-acclimatization mandates. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Preseason high school football programs, 2017. PATIENTS OR OTHER PARTICIPANTS: A total of 910 athletic trainers (ATs) working with high school football (12.7% completion rate). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): We acquired data on high school football programs' EHS preparedness strategies in the 2017 preseason via an online questionnaire, looking at (1) whether schools' state high school athletic associations mandated preseason heat-acclimatization guidelines and (2) heat safety region based on warm-season wet-bulb globe temperature, ranging from the milder region 1 to the hotter region 3. Six EHS-preparedness strategies were assessed: EHS recognition and treatment education; policy for initiating emergency medical services response; emergency response plan enactment; immersion tub filled with ice water before practice; wet-bulb globe temperature monitoring; and hydration access. Multivariable binomial regression models estimated the prevalence of reporting all 6 strategies. RESULTS: Overall, 27.5% of ATs described their schools as using all 6 EHS-preparedness strategies. The highest prevalence was in region 3 schools with state mandates (52.9%). The multivariable model demonstrated an interaction in which the combination of higher heat safety region and presence of a state mandate was associated with a higher prevalence of reporting all 6 strategies (P = .05). Controlling for AT and high school characteristics, the use of all 6 strategies was higher in region 3 schools with state mandates compared with region 1 schools without state mandates (52.9% versus 17.8%; prevalence ratio = 2.68; 95% confidence interval = 1.81, 3.95). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest a greater use of EHS-preparedness strategies in environmentally warmer regions with state-level mandates for preseason heat acclimatization. Future researchers should identify factors influencing EHS preparedness, particularly in regions 1 and 2 and in states without mandates.


Asunto(s)
Aclimatación/fisiología , Fútbol Americano/fisiología , Golpe de Calor , Calor/efectos adversos , Instituciones Académicas/estadística & datos numéricos , Adolescente , Estudios Transversales , Manejo de la Enfermedad , Femenino , Golpe de Calor/epidemiología , Golpe de Calor/prevención & control , Golpe de Calor/terapia , Humanos , Incidencia , Masculino , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Estados Unidos/epidemiología
20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31382610

RESUMEN

Background This study investigated the relationships between children's friendship ties and their physical activity (PA) both before and after their transition to a new school year. Methods In 2011-2012, children in grades 5-8 attending a Canadian urban middle-school completed web-based health and friendship surveys two times before ("pre-transition") and three times after ("post-transition") they moved up in school grade. Cross-sectional associations between an average daily frequency of ≥60 min/day of moderate-to-vigorous intensity PA (MVPA) and characteristics of children's friendships were estimated for pre-transition (n = 191) and post-transition (n = 255) data. Sociodemographic-adjusted linear regression (ß) estimated associations between a child's MVPA and friendship characteristics. Results We found positive associations between a child's MVPA and the average MVPA of their friends at post-transition only (ß = 0.61, 95% CI 0.10 to 1.13) and the number of sent friendships at pre-transition (ß = 0.03, 95% CI 0.01 to 0.05) and post-transition (ß = 0.02, 95% CI 0.01 to 0.04). A statistically significant interaction between popularity and friends' average PA at pre-transition was also found. Conclusions The PA of friends and the number of school friends that a child identified are positively associated with MVPA. The estimated associations between MVPA and aspects of children's friendships are similar for boys and girls.


Asunto(s)
Ejercicio , Amigos , Instituciones Académicas/estadística & datos numéricos , Conducta Sedentaria , Adolescente , Canadá , Niño , Estudios Transversales , Familia , Femenino , Humanos , Modelos Lineales , Masculino , Factores Socioeconómicos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
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