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1.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(43): e22953, 2020 Oct 23.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33120857

RESUMEN

This study investigated the eating habits of pupils in Nigerian primary schools based on the respective education levels of their parents.Data were obtained using the Child Eating Behavior Questionnaire (CEBQ). Participants included a total of 144 pupils who were purposively selected from 6 primary schools. Based on responses, a cross-sectional analytic study design was implemented to investigate how parental education levels (PELs) influenced the eating habits of their children. Data assessment was performed using a one-way between-group analysis of variance at the .05 probability level.PELs significantly affected the eating habits of participants, respectively. Specifically, low PEL was associated with more satiety responsiveness to food (F [2, 141] = 14.251, P < .001), higher responsiveness to food (F [2, 141] = 36.943, P = <.001) greater food enjoyment (F [2, 141] = 93.322, P < .001), greater drinking desires (F [2, 141] = 23.677, P < .001), and the tendency for emotional over-eating (F [2, 141] = 13.428, P < .001), while high PEL was associated with slower eating (F [2, 141] = 11.665, P < .001), fussier responses to food (F [2, 141] = 14.865, P < .001), and a higher tendency for emotional under-eating (F [2, 141] = 5.137, P < .01).This study examined PELs in relation to the respective eating habits of their children, who were attending Nigerian primary schools. Data showed that children with parents who had high, middle, and low education levels tended to exhibit progressively worse eating habits, in descending order.


Asunto(s)
Conducta Infantil/psicología , Conducta Alimentaria/psicología , Padres/educación , Instituciones Académicas/estadística & datos numéricos , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Niño , Estudios Transversales , Escolaridad , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Nigeria/epidemiología , Encuestas y Cuestionarios/normas
2.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239557, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32970747

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Soil-transmitted helminths (STH) remain one of the most common causes of morbidity among children in Ethiopia. Assessment of the magnitude of STH and its association with water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) and identify barriers for school-level prevention assist public health planners to prioritize promotion strategies and is a basic step for intervention. However, there is a lack of evidence on the prevalence of STH and its association with WASH and barriers for school-level prevention among schoolchildren. OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence of STH and its association with WASH and identify barriers for school level prevention in technology village of Hawassa University; 2019. METHODS: An institution-based analytical cross-sectional study was conducted on a sample of 1080 schoolchildren from September 5 to October 15, 2019. A two-stage cluster and purposive sampling technique were used to draw the study participants. A pretested, structured questionnaire, observation checklist, and in-depth interview were used to collect the data. Two grams of stool samples were collected from each study participant and examined using direct wet mount and Kato-Katz technique. Data were entered into Epi Info version 7 and analyzed using SPSS version 25. Both bi-variable and multivariable logistic regression analyses were done. Qualitative data were analyzed using thematic content analysis method by Atlas-Ti software and presented in narratives. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of STHs was 23.1% (95% CI = 21.4, 27.6). The identified predictors of STHs were large family size (AOR = 2.03; 95% CI = 1.53-3.99), absence of separate toilet room for male and female (AOR = 3.33; 95% CI = 1.91-5.79), toilet not easy to clean (AOR = 2.17; 95% CI = 1.44-3.33), inadequate knowledge about STHs (AOR = 2.08; 95% CI = 1.07-3.44) and children who had travelled greater than 100 meters to access toilet (AOR = 3.45; 95% CI = 2.24-8.92). These results were supported by the individual, institutional, socio-economic and cultural qualitative results. CONCLUSION: The STHs was moderate public health concerns. Reinforcing the existing fragile water, sanitation and hygiene programs and regular deworming of schoolchildren may support to reduce the burden of STHs. Also, increasing modern family planning methods utilization to decrease family size is recommended.


Asunto(s)
Helmintiasis/epidemiología , Helmintiasis/transmisión , Helmintos/patogenicidad , Adolescente , Animales , Niño , Estudios Transversales , Etiopía/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Higiene , Masculino , Prevalencia , Salud Pública , Saneamiento , Servicios de Salud Escolar , Instituciones Académicas/estadística & datos numéricos , Suelo/parasitología , Agua/parasitología
3.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(38): 23484-23489, 2020 09 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32900924

RESUMEN

While over 240,000 American students experienced a school shooting in the last two decades, little is known about the impacts of these events on the mental health of surviving youth. Using large-scale prescription data from 2006 to 2015, we examine the effects of 44 school shootings on youth antidepressant use. Our empirical strategy compares the number of antidepressant prescriptions written by providers practicing 0 to 5 miles from a school that experienced a shooting (treatment areas) to the number of prescriptions written by providers practicing 10 to 15 miles away (reference areas), both before and after the shooting. We include month-by-year and school-by-area fixed effects in all specifications, thereby controlling for overall trends in antidepressant use and all time-invariant differences across locations. We find that local exposure to fatal school shootings increases youth antidepressant use by 21.4% in the following 2 y. These effects are smaller in areas with a higher density of mental health providers who focus on behavioral, rather than pharmacological, interventions.


Asunto(s)
Antidepresivos/administración & dosificación , Depresión/tratamiento farmacológico , Exposición a la Violencia/psicología , Salud Mental/estadística & datos numéricos , Estudiantes/psicología , Adolescente , Salud del Adolescente/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto , Depresión/psicología , Exposición a la Violencia/estadística & datos numéricos , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Instituciones Académicas/estadística & datos numéricos , Estudiantes/estadística & datos numéricos , Estados Unidos , Adulto Joven
4.
Rev. Hosp. Ital. B. Aires (2004) ; 40(3): 127-131, sept. 2020. tab
Artículo en Español | LILACS | ID: biblio-1129089

RESUMEN

Introducción: Los aspirantes a las residencias en salud pertenecen a una generación que suele preferir instituciones flexibles y poco estructuradas para avanzar en su desarrollo profesional. Objetivo: Nos propusimos explorar cuáles son las motivaciones de los aspirantes en la elección de la institución en donde llevarán a cabo su residencia. Material y métodos: Se realizó un estudio de corte transversal a través de una encuesta anónima a todos los aspirantes a las residencias médicas. Se evaluaron edad, sexo, universidad de procedencia, especialidad elegida, preferencia de tipo de gestión y la descripción de las tres condiciones que consideran más importantes para elegir una institución en orden de importancia. Resultados: Se analizaron 1113 encuestas y el 59% correspondieron a mujeres. Las primeras tres condiciones elegidas fueron: 1.°) calidad académica (65,4%), prestigio institucional (16%) y caudal y complejidad de pacientes (5,9%); 2.°) clima de aprendizaje (21,6%), calidad académica (20%) y prestigio institucional (18,8%) y 3.°) clima de aprendizaje (16,1%), condiciones laborales (16,1%) y calidad académica (14,5%). No se encontró asociación entre las motivaciones para elegir una institución y sexo, universidad de origen, tipo de especialidad o preferencia de gestión. Conclusión: Los aspirantes a las residencias valoran en primer lugar los aspectos vinculados con su formación académica. Por otra parte, es relevante la importancia adjudicada al clima de aprendizaje y las condiciones laborales. (AU)


Introduction: Applicants to health care residences belong to a generation that often prefers flexible and unstructured institutions to develop their professional development. Objective: We set out to explore what the applicants' motivations are in choosing the institution where they will carry out their residence. Material and methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted through an anonymous survey of all applicants to medical residences. Age, sex, university of origin, chosen specialty, management type preference and the description of the three conditions that they consider most important to choose an institution in order of importance were evaluated. Results: 1,113 surveys were analyzed and 59% were women. The first three conditions chosen were: 1st) academic quality (65.4%), institutional prestige (16%) and wealth and complexity of patients (5.9%); 2nd) learning climate (21.6%), academic quality (20%) and institutional prestige (18.8%) and 3rd) learning climate (16.1%), conditions labor (16.1%) and academic quality (14.5%). No association was found between the motivations for choosing an institution and sex, home university, type of specialty or management preference. Conclusion: Applicants to residences value first the aspects related to their academic training. On the other hand, the importance attached to the climate of learning and working conditions. (AU)


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Estudiantes de Medicina/estadística & datos numéricos , Internado y Residencia/tendencias , Argentina , Médicos/tendencias , Instituciones Académicas/estadística & datos numéricos , Ambiente de Trabajo/estadística & datos numéricos , Condiciones de Trabajo , Estudios Transversales , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Capacitación Profesional , Agotamiento Psicológico , Ambiente de Instituciones de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Internado y Residencia/estadística & datos numéricos , Satisfacción en el Trabajo
5.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(37): 1310-1312, 2020 Sep 18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32941408

RESUMEN

The use of any tobacco product by youths is unsafe, including electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) (1). Most e-cigarettes contain nicotine, which is highly addictive, can harm the developing adolescent brain, and can increase risk for future addiction to other drugs (1). E-cigarette use has increased considerably among U.S. youths since 2011 (1,2). Multiple factors have contributed to this increase, including youth-appealing flavors and product innovations (1-3). Amid the widespread use of e-cigarettes and popularity of certain products among youths, on February 6, 2020, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) implemented a policy prioritizing enforcement against the manufacture, distribution, and sale of certain unauthorized flavored prefilled pod or cartridge-based e-cigarettes (excluding tobacco or menthol).


Asunto(s)
Estudiantes/psicología , Vapeo/epidemiología , Adolescente , Niño , Estudios Transversales , Humanos , Instituciones Académicas/estadística & datos numéricos , Estudiantes/estadística & datos numéricos , Estados Unidos/epidemiología
6.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239117, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32925975

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: To estimate the nationwide prevalence of visual impairment and associated refractive error in school children in Bhutan. METHODS: The sample of this prospective cross-sectional national survey comprised of randomly selected classes in levels IV-IX (age 10 to 15 years) from schools throughout Bhutan. The examination included measurement of visual acuity (VA), evaluation of ocular motility, refraction under cycloplegia, examination of the external eye, media and fundus. The principal cause of impairment was determined for eyes with uncorrected VA ≤6/12. The main outcome measures were distance VA and cycloplegic refractive error. RESULTS: With a sampling frame of 1967 class-based clusters from 190 schools, 160 classes in 103 schools were randomly selected; 4985 (98.5%) of 5060 enumerated children were examined. The prevalence of uncorrected, presenting, and best-corrected visual impairment (VA≤6/12) in the better eye was 14.5%, 12.8%, and 0.34%, respectively. Refractive error was the principal cause (94.2%) of impaired vision and 88% of children who could achieve VA ≥6/9 with best correction were without necessary spectacles. The prevalence of myopia (≤ -0.5 D) was 6.64% and was associated with female gender (P = 0.004), urban schooling (P = 0.002), and greater parental education (P<0.001). The prevalence of hyperopia (≥ +2.0 D) was 2.17% and was significantly associated with lower class-level (P = 0.033), and female gender (P = 0.025). The overall prevalence of astigmatism (≥ 0.75 D) was 9.75%. CONCLUSIONS: Reduced vision because of uncorrected refractive error is a public health problem among school-age children in Bhutan. Effective school eye health strategies are needed to eliminate this easily treatable cause of visual impairment.


Asunto(s)
Tamizaje Masivo/estadística & datos numéricos , Errores de Refracción/epidemiología , Instituciones Académicas/estadística & datos numéricos , Pruebas de Visión/estadística & datos numéricos , Baja Visión/epidemiología , Adolescente , Bután/epidemiología , Niño , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalencia , Estudios Prospectivos , Errores de Refracción/diagnóstico , Baja Visión/diagnóstico
7.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238779, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32915866

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate parent and teacher opinion of the provision of in-school eyecare and jargon-free written reporting of visual status for children in special educational settings. PARTICIPANTS AND METHODS: A nationally-agreed, in-school eyecare framework for children attending special schools which recommends a full eye examination, dispensing of spectacles and provision of a jargon-free written report of visual outcomes to parents and teachers, was provided to 200 children (mean age 10 years, 9 months; 70% male) attending a special school in the UK. The written 'Vision Report' detailed, in lay-language, results from the eye examination and provided practical advice to alleviate the impact of vision difficulties both at home and in the classroom. Following implementation of the framework, parents and teachers completed a feedback questionnaire to determine their opinion of the in-school eye examination and utility of the Vision Report. RESULTS: Parents of 123 participants returned a feedback questionnaire. Eighty-eight participants were represented by the 23 teachers who returned a questionnaire. The in-school eyecare was rated positively for children in special education by 82.4% of parents and 80.9% of teachers. Key benefits included the familiarity of the in-school setting (81.3% of parents and 100% of teachers agree), the convenience of the setting for parents (74.0% of parents and 100% of teachers agree), and the opportunity for teachers to speak directly to eyecare providers regarding a child's visual needs (82.6% of teachers agree). The information provided by the Vision Report was deemed useful day-to-day by 78.3% of parents and 100% of teachers. The majority (80%) of teachers implemented classroom modifications suggested in the report, whereas only 47.9% of parents reported implementation of modifications at home. CONCLUSIONS: Provision of in-school eyecare is valued by parents and teachers of children in special education settings. Jargon-free, written reports of visual status are valued and utilised by parents and teachers. Further support is required to aid parents in implementing vision modifications at home.


Asunto(s)
Educación Especial/estadística & datos numéricos , Padres , Instituciones Académicas/estadística & datos numéricos , Pruebas de Visión/estadística & datos numéricos , Niño , Documentación , Femenino , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Humanos , Masculino , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
9.
Pediatrics ; 146(4)2020 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32913134

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Opioid misuse and overdose remains a leading US public health concern, and many youth are first exposed to opioids via medical use. In this study, we examine school-level prevalence and correlates of medical use and misuse of prescription opioids among US 12th-grade students. METHODS: A sample of 228 507 US 12th-graders in 1079 public and private schools from 2002 to 2017 from the Monitoring the Future study was used to identify school-level prevalence and correlates associated with medical use and misuse of prescription opioids. RESULTS: The past-year prevalence of prescription opioid misuse was 7.6% and ranged from 0% to 73% across US high schools. Lifetime medical use of prescription opioids was 16.9% and ranged from 0% to 85% across US high schools. The odds of prescription opioid misuse were higher at schools with higher proportions of male students, more white students, higher rates of marijuana use, and more medical use of prescription opioids. Students attending schools with the highest rates of medical use of prescription opioids had 57% increased odds of past-year prescription opioid misuse compared with schools with no medical use (adjusted odds ratio = 1.57, 95% confidence interval = 1.35-1.83); this association was found to weaken in recent years. CONCLUSIONS: Differences exist in the prevalence of prescription opioid misuse among US high schools. The association between greater school-level medical use of prescription opioids and higher prevalence of prescription opioid misuse, although declining, indicates a key risk factor to target for prevention efforts.


Asunto(s)
Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapéutico , Trastornos Relacionados con Opioides/epidemiología , Mal Uso de Medicamentos de Venta con Receta/estadística & datos numéricos , Adolescente , Intervalos de Confianza , Grupo de Ascendencia Continental Europea/estadística & datos numéricos , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Abuso de Marihuana/epidemiología , Oportunidad Relativa , Prevalencia , Instituciones Académicas/estadística & datos numéricos , Factores Sexuales , Estudiantes/estadística & datos numéricos , Estados Unidos/epidemiología
10.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(39): e22409, 2020 Sep 25.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32991470

RESUMEN

Childhood bullying leads to life-long scars and hinders adult development. Schoolchildren involved in bullying are at risk of developing behavioural difficulties, physical health problems and suicidal ideation. This research aimed to evaluate the bullying experience of pupils in Nigerian primary schools.The study is a cross-sectional analytic survey conducted from June to November 2019. A total of 1080 pupils in participated in the study. A self-report questionnaire containing 3 questions was used for collecting data. Analysis of the collected data was done using percentage and Chi-Squared at 0.05 probability level.Results indicate that 51.4% of the male pupils and 50.8% of females reported being victims of bullying. 51.8% of the males and 49.5% of females were found to be perpetrators of bullying. 39.6% of the males and 42.9% of the females were bystanders of bullying. 35.1% of the males and 34.1% of females have experienced any 2 of the categories while 11.2% of the males and 12.4% of the females have experienced all the categories of bullying. Results show a non-significant difference between male and female pupils on bullying victimization (χ = .036, P = .849), bullying perpetration (χ = .589, P = .443), and bullying bystander problem (χ = 1.194, P = .275).In conclusion, school bullying is an increasing problem among Nigerian schoolchildren. Initiatives must, therefore, be taken by the Nigerian government to further prevent and counter bullying problem in Nigerian primary schools. Interventions aimed at helping schools to develop effective policies to reduce bullying behaviour among pupils should be initiated.


Asunto(s)
Acoso Escolar/estadística & datos numéricos , Instituciones Académicas/estadística & datos numéricos , Adolescente , Acoso Escolar/psicología , Niño , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Nigeria/epidemiología , Factores Sexuales
11.
Recurso de Internet en Portugués | LIS - Localizador de Información en Salud | ID: lis-47789

RESUMEN

Enquanto as escolas em todo o mundo lutam para reabrir, os dados mais recentes do Programa de Monitoramento Conjunto (JMP, na sigla em inglês) da OMS e do UNICEF revelam que 43% das escolas em todo o mundo não tinham acesso à lavagem básica das mãos com água e sabão em 2019 – uma condição fundamental para as escolas serem capazes de operar com segurança em meio à pandemia de COVID-19.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus , Higiene de las Manos , Instituciones Académicas/estadística & datos numéricos
12.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0238001, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32841276

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The Foot health of a child plays a pivotal role in their participation in play, locomotive activities, healthy lifestyle, somatic development, and weight management. The burden of flatfoot among children in Ethiopia is not known. The objective of this study was to analyze the structure of the medial foot arch using Staheli plantar arch index and investigate its associated factors among larger sample school children, aged 11-15 years in Ethiopia. METHODS: A school-based cross-sectional study was conducted among children aged 11-15 years from eleven randomly selected primary schools. The sample size was determined proportionally across school strength and governmental and private schools to ensure variety within the sample. Data collection consisted of physical measurements, footprint-based measures whilst full weight-bearing, and a structured questionnaire on foot pain, footwear type, and physical activity. Data were analyzed descriptively and through uni- and multivariate logistic regression model. RESULTS: A total of 823 children participated. The overall prevalence of flatfoot was 17.6% with a significant difference between age, gender, type of school, BMI, and type of footwear. Being younger (OR 3.3, 95% CI 1.6-6.7), male (OR 1.6, 95% CI 1.0-2.4), experiencing foot pain (OR 1.9, 95% CI 1.0-3.5), wearing closed shoe (OR 4.4, 95% CI 1.6-11.9), overweight (OR 3.8, 95% CI 1.2-8.7), obese (OR 4.2, 95% CI 2.5-10.9), and low level of physical activity (OR 2.1, 95% CI 1.0-4.6) were significantly associated with flatfoot. Children who were overweight, obese, and also experiencing foot pain have a 2.8 (95% CI 1.62-5.94) and 4.1 (95% CI 2.85-8.31) times greater chance of having flatfoot respectively. The prevalence of flatfoot among 560 normal weight children was 17.5%. CONCLUSIONS: The findings of this study demonstrated that the overall prevalence and the prevalence of flatfoot among normal-weight children are almost the same. There is a definite need to develop a screening algorithm for diagnosis and treatment indication for this children's lower extremity disorder.


Asunto(s)
Pie Plano/epidemiología , Instituciones Académicas/estadística & datos numéricos , Adolescente , Niño , Etiopía/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalencia , Análisis de Regresión , Factores de Riesgo
13.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237406, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32813689

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Bullying is an emerging risk factor for poor mental health outcomes adversely affecting children and adolescents. However, it has rarely caught the attention of the health and education sector due to lack of evidence in many countries including Nepal. This study aimed to assess the prevalence and factors associated with bullying behavior among adolescent students in Nepal. METHODS: We used nationally representative data from the Nepal Global School-Based Student Health Survey that involved two-stage cluster sampling design with the use of a standard set of self-administered questionnaires. Complex sample analysis was done to determine the prevalence and correlates of bullying among 6529 students of 68 schools studying in grade 7 to 11 using descriptive analysis and multivariable logistic regression. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of bullying among Nepalese school adolescents was 51% (55.67% in male and 46.17% in female). Bullied adolescents more commonly reported mental health problems with higher risk of loneliness (aOR 1.36, 95% CI: 1.12, 1.64), anxiety (aOR 2.04, 95% CI: 1.65, 2.52), suicide attempt (aOR 2.08, 95% CI: 1.54, 2.81), school absenteeism due to fear (aOR 1.72, 95% CI: 1.34, 2.21) and school truancy (aOR 1.48, 95% CI: 1.17, 1.87). A significant association was seen between bullying victimization and negative health behaviors like involvement in physical fights (aOR 3.64, 95% CI: 2.94, 4.51) and tobacco use (aOR 2.05, 95% CI: 1.15, 3.65). CONCLUSION: School bullying is significantly associated with mental health factors like loneliness, anxiety, suicide attempt, school absenteeism and risky behavioral factors like smokeless tobacco use and involvement in physical fight. The insights provided by these findings have important implications for planning anti-bullying strategies in school settings in the Nepalese context.


Asunto(s)
Acoso Escolar/psicología , Víctimas de Crimen/estadística & datos numéricos , Encuestas Epidemiológicas , Instituciones Académicas/estadística & datos numéricos , Adolescente , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Salud Mental , Nepal , Asunción de Riesgos
14.
Arq. ciências saúde UNIPAR ; 24(2): 105-111, maio-ago. 2020.
Artículo en Portugués | LILACS | ID: biblio-1116373

RESUMEN

Este estudo analisou a bibliografia relacionada à hanseníase no Brasil, representada pela publicação de artigos científicos indexados na base de dados científica Web of Science, de 2000 a 2019. Por meio de análise bibliométrica, procurou-se delinear um panorama das produções científicas acerca do tema, identificando os autores, a evolução histórica do número de produções, as áreas de pesquisa que mais publicam, os tipos de artigos publicados e quais as agências financiadoras envolvidas nas publicações relacionadas ao tema. O corpus documental contou com 376 artigos completos, que demonstraram uma intensificação na produção de estudos sobre a hanseníase nos últimos anos, especialmente na área de Medicina Tropical, com predomínio de financiamento por agências brasileiras, e cuja maior fonte de publicações é uma revista científica internacional, dedicada ao estudo de doenças tropicais negligenciadas. Conclui-se que o interesse no estudo do tema se eleva com o passar dos anos, mas dentre as temáticas evidenciadas pela análise empreendida, as políticas públicas para controle e eliminação da doença, foram incipientes. Revela ainda a necessidade de maior aporte científico sobre a temática estimuladas por órgãos governamentais e que amplie as produções científicas por instituições de ensino e pesquisa, que possam alavancar reflexões direcionadas à implementação de diretrizes políticas efetivas para o controle e eliminação da doença.


This study analyzed the literature related to leprosy in Brazil, represented by the publication of scientific papers indexed in the Web of Science scientific database from 2000 to 2019. Through bibliometric analysis, the authors sought to delineate an overview of scientific productions on the topic, identifying the authors, the historical evolution of the number of productions, the areas of research that had most publications, the types of articles published and which funding agencies are involved in publications related to the topic. The documentary corpus consisted of 376 complete articles, which demonstrated an intensification in the production of studies on leprosy in recent years, especially in the area of Tropical Medicine, with a predominance of funding from Brazilian agencies, and whose largest source of publications is an international scientific journal dedicated to the study of neglected tropical diseases. It can be concluded that the interest in the study of the topic has increased over the years, but among the topics evidenced by the analysis undertaken, public policies for the control and elimination of the disease were incipient. It also reveals the need for greater scientific input on the topic stimulated by both government agencies and educational and research institutions, which can leverage reflections aimed at the implementation of effective political guidelines for the control and elimination of the disease.


Asunto(s)
Bibliometría/historia , Política de Salud/economía , Lepra/mortalidad , Política Pública/legislación & jurisprudencia , Instituciones Académicas/estadística & datos numéricos , Enfermedades Desatendidas/epidemiología
15.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(28): e20884, 2020 Jul 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32664080

RESUMEN

The objective of this work is to verify the relationship between the self-perception of health and the self-concept of physical appearance in adolescents, in order to check their influence on the physical activity they perform with the aim of preventing chronic illnesses. To this end, an observational, cross-sectional descriptive study with analytical components was carried out. Opportunistic activity, in which young people, between the ages of 16 and 22, were recruited from 5 secondary schools of the municipality of San Cristóbal de La Laguna, on the island of Tenerife (Spain). Data were collected through the General Health Questionnaire, the Rosemberg Self-esteem Scale, and the physical exercise habits test physical activity questionnaire for adolescents-A, revealing the first 2 that most percentage of responses were grouped on the positive side. The physical exercise habits test physical activity questionnaire for adolescents-A described that the most commonly performed physical activity was walking (75%).


Asunto(s)
Enfermedad Crónica/prevención & control , Ejercicio Físico/psicología , Apariencia Física/fisiología , Adolescente , Actitud Frente a la Salud , Enfermedad Crónica/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Instituciones Académicas/estadística & datos numéricos , Autoimagen , España/epidemiología , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Caminata/fisiología , Caminata/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto Joven
16.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235211, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32645010

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The current international physical activity guidelines for health recommend children to engage in at least 60 minutes of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) daily. Yet, accurate prevalence estimates of physical activity levels of children are unavailable in many African countries due to the dearth of accelerometer-measured physical activity data. The aim of this study was to describe the prevalence and examine the socio-demographic correlates of accelerometer-measured physical activity among school-going children in Kampala city, Uganda. METHODS: A cross-sectional study design was used to recruit a sample of 10-12 years old school-going children (n = 256) from 7 primary schools (3 public schools and 4 private schools) in Kampala city, Uganda. Sedentary time, light-intensity physical activity (LPA), moderate-intensity physical activity (MPA) and vigorous-intensity physical activity (VPA) were measured by accelerometers (ActiGraph GT3X+ [Pensacola, Florida, USA]) over a seven-day period. Socio-demographic factors were assessed by a parent/guardian questionnaire. Weight status was generated from objectively measured height and weight and computed as body mass index (BMI). Multi-level logistic regressions identified socio-demographic factors that were associated with meeting physical activity guidelines. RESULTS: Children's sedentary time was 9.8±2.1 hours/day and MVPA was 56±25.7 minutes/day. Only 36.3% of the children (38.9% boys, 34.3% girls) met the physical activity guidelines. Boys, thin/normal weight and public school children had significantly higher mean daily MVPA levels. Socio-demographic factors associated with odds of meeting physical activity guidelines were younger age (OR = 0.68; 95% CI = 0.55-0.84), thin/normal weight status (OR = 4.08; 95% CI = 1.42-11.76), and socioeconomic status (SES) indicators such as lower maternal level of education (OR = 2.43; 95% CI = 1.84-3.21) and no family car (OR = 0.31; 95% CI = 0.17-0.55). CONCLUSION: Children spent a substantial amount of time sedentary and in LPA and less time in MVPA. Few children met the physical activity guidelines. Lower weight status, lower maternal education level and no family car were associated with meeting physical activity guidelines. Effective interventions and policies to increase physical activity among school-going children in Kampala, are urgently needed.


Asunto(s)
Acelerometría/estadística & datos numéricos , Ejercicio Físico , Instituciones Académicas/estadística & datos numéricos , Conducta Sedentaria , Factores Socioeconómicos , Adulto , Anciano , Índice de Masa Corporal , Peso Corporal , Niño , Ciudades/estadística & datos numéricos , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Guías como Asunto , Humanos , Masculino , Estado Civil/estadística & datos numéricos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Instituciones Académicas/normas , Factores de Tiempo , Uganda , Adulto Joven
17.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235252, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32716944

RESUMEN

Subjective happiness is often regarded as a major life goal. Although Japan is an economically powerful country, the level of subjective well-being reported among Japanese adolescents is lower than in other countries. We aimed to investigate the lifestyle factors related to unhappiness in Japanese adolescents. We collected data through the 2017-2018 Lifestyle Survey of Adolescents, a nationally representative cross-sectional study enrolled in randomly selected junior and senior high schools throughout Japan. We assessed the prevalence of subjective unhappiness in junior and senior high school students according to school life factors and daily lifestyle habits. A multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to examine the associations between these factors and unhappiness. A total of 64,329 students were included in the sample (mean age 15.7 years, 53.9% boys). The average prevalence of unhappiness was 10.2%. The logistic regression analyses indicated that unhappiness was strongly associated with being male and with engaging in unhealthy lifestyle behaviors such as not having breakfast, poor sleep quality, and some problematic Internet usage. Although the prevalence of unhappiness was significantly higher among current smokers and alcohol drinkers, these behaviors were not associated with unhappiness in the multivariable logistic regression analysis. Unhappiness among Japanese adolescents appears to be strongly related to how they spend their daily life. We therefore consider it desirable for school officials to educate students on the importance of happiness and lifestyle factors conducive to happiness.


Asunto(s)
Conducta del Adolescente/psicología , Felicidad , Estilo de Vida , Tristeza/psicología , Estudiantes/psicología , Adolescente , Conducta del Adolescente/fisiología , Desayuno/fisiología , Desayuno/psicología , Bienestar del Niño/psicología , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Internet , Japón , Masculino , Tristeza/fisiología , Instituciones Académicas/organización & administración , Instituciones Académicas/estadística & datos numéricos , Sueño/fisiología , Estudiantes/estadística & datos numéricos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios/estadística & datos numéricos
18.
BMC Med ; 18(1): 230, 2020 07 24.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32709232

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The province of Ontario, Canada, has instituted indefinite school closures (SC) as well as other social distancing measures to mitigate the impact of the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. We sought to evaluate the effect of SC on reducing attack rate and the need for critical care during COVID-19 outbreaks, while considering scenarios with concurrent implementation of self-isolation (SI) of symptomatic cases. METHODS: We developed an age-structured agent-based simulation model and parameterized it with the demographics of Ontario stratified by age and the latest estimates of COVID-19 epidemiologic characteristics. Disease transmission was simulated within and between different age groups by considering inter- and intra-group contact patterns. The effect of SC of varying durations on the overall attack rate, magnitude and peak time of the outbreak, and requirement for intensive care unit (ICU) admission in the population was estimated. Secondly, the effect of concurrent community-based voluntary SI of symptomatic COVID-19 cases was assessed. RESULTS: SC reduced attack rates in the range of 7.2-12.7% when the duration of SC increased from 3 to 16 weeks, when contacts among school children were restricted by 60-80%, and in the absence of SI by mildly symptomatic persons. Depending on the scenario, the overall reduction in ICU admissions attributed to SC throughout the outbreak ranged from 3.3 to 6.7%. When SI of mildly symptomatic persons was included and practiced by 20%, the reduction of attack rate and ICU admissions exceeded 6.3% and 9.1% (on average), respectively, in the corresponding scenarios. CONCLUSION: Our results indicate that SC may have limited impact on reducing the burden of COVID-19 without measures to interrupt the chain of transmission during both pre-symptomatic and symptomatic stages. While highlighting the importance of SI, our findings indicate the need for better understanding of the epidemiologic characteristics of emerging diseases on the effectiveness of social distancing measures.


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus/patogenicidad , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Coronavirus/patogenicidad , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Instituciones Académicas/estadística & datos numéricos , Niño , Infecciones por Coronavirus/transmisión , Humanos , Ontario/epidemiología , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/transmisión
19.
Environ Health Prev Med ; 25(1): 28, 2020 Jul 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32652952

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Sick building syndrome (SBS) refers to the combination of symptoms experienced by occupants of specific building characteristics. This study investigated the associations of children's lifestyle behaviors, allergies, home, and school environment with SBS symptoms. METHODS: A total of 4408 elementary school children living in Sapporo City, Japan participated in this study. SBS was determined on parental answers to MM080 standardized school questionnaires on symptoms that were weekly experienced by these children, and if the symptom is attributed to their home or school environment. The Japanese version of the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood questionnaire was used to assess wheeze, rhino-conjunctivitis, and eczema. A logistic regression analysis was conducted to evaluate the associations between SBS symptoms and variables by controlling the potential confounders (gender, grade, school, and parental history of allergies). A stepwise backward elimination was conducted to assess independent variables related to SBS. RESULTS: Participants revealed mucosal (6.9%), skin (2.0%), and general (0.8%) symptoms. The presence of one or more allergy was associated with increased mucosal and skin symptoms. Children who skipped breakfast, displayed faddiness (like/dislike of food), had constipation, have insufficient sleep, did not feel refreshed after sleep, and lacked deep sleep showed significantly high odds ratios with SBS symptoms. The stepwise analysis showed faddiness for mucosal symptoms and not feeling refreshed after sleep for mucosal and skin symptoms, whereas constipation and lacking deep sleep for general symptoms were independent variables in increasing the symptoms. We found no significant relationship between SBS in children and schools. Considering children's home, old building, no ventilation, wall-to-wall carpet, and heavy nearby traffic were associated with elevated mucosal symptom, while living in a multifamily home increased general symptoms. Home dampness was an independent variable in increasing all SBS symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: Allergies and lifestyle behaviors were associated with increased SBS in children, including skipping breakfast, displaying faddiness, constipation, insufficient sleep, not feeling refreshed after sleep, and the lack of deep sleep. Further, dampness at home was associated with increase in all SBS symptoms. Lifestyle (e.g., eating and sleeping habits) and home (i.e., dampness) improvements might alleviate SBS symptoms in children.


Asunto(s)
Ambiente , Hipersensibilidad/epidemiología , Estilo de Vida , Síndrome del Edificio Enfermo/epidemiología , Estudiantes/estadística & datos numéricos , Niño , Estudios Transversales , Vivienda/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Hipersensibilidad/etiología , Japón , Prevalencia , Instituciones Académicas/estadística & datos numéricos , Síndrome del Edificio Enfermo/etiología
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