Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 22.954
Filtrar
1.
Cien Saude Colet ; 26(5): 1885-1898, 2021 May.
Artículo en Portugués, Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34076129

RESUMEN

This article explores the use of spatial artificial intelligence to estimate the resources needed to implement Brazil's COVID-19 immu nization campaign. Using secondary data, we conducted a cross-sectional ecological study adop ting a time-series design. The unit of analysis was Brazil's primary care centers (PCCs). A four-step analysis was performed to estimate the popula tion in PCC catchment areas using artificial in telligence algorithms and satellite imagery. We also assessed internet access in each PCC and con ducted a space-time cluster analysis of trends in cases of SARS linked to COVID-19 at municipal level. Around 18% of Brazil's elderly population live more than 4 kilometer from a vaccination point. A total of 4,790 municipalities showed an upward trend in SARS cases. The number of PCCs located more than 5 kilometer from cell towers was largest in the North and Northeast regions. Innovative stra tegies are needed to address the challenges posed by the implementation of the country's National COVID-19 Vaccination Plan. The use of spatial artificial intelligence-based methodologies can help improve the country's COVID-19 response.


Asunto(s)
Vacunas contra la COVID-19 , COVID-19 , Anciano , Inteligencia Artificial , Brasil , Ciudades , Estudios Transversales , Humanos , Inteligencia , SARS-CoV-2 , Vacunación
2.
Zhonghua Yi Shi Za Zhi ; 51(2): 97-102, 2021 Mar 28.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34098702

RESUMEN

Intelligent medicine is a discipline system developed and established in the background of a rapid development of science and technology. Information technology represented by artificial intelligence, VR(virtual reality) technology and the 1G (first-generation) communication laid a foundation for intelligent medicine. Internet technology, such as 3D printing, robot system and wearable medical devices have helped to improve the development of intelligent medicine. The application of intelligent medicine infiltrated medical imaging, auxiliary diagnosis, surgical operation, hospital management, pharmaceutical development, healthcare system and other aspects of the medical system. Currently, the cutting-edge technologies such as 5G medical, medical cloud platform/big data, advanced material synthesis, 4D printing, AR(Augmented Reality)/MR(Mixed Reality), super intelligence and other technologies have comprehensively driven human society into the era of intelligent medicine.


Asunto(s)
Medicina , Realidad Virtual , Inteligencia Artificial , Atención a la Salud , Humanos , Inteligencia
3.
Dev Psychopathol ; 33(2): 727-738, 2021 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33955342

RESUMEN

The work of Ed Zigler spans decades of research all singularly dedicated to using science to improve the lives of children facing different challenges. The focus of this article is on one of Zigler's numerous lines of work: advocating for the practice of mental age (MA) matching in empirical research, wherein groups of individuals are matched on the basis of developmental level, rather than chronological age. While MA matching practices represented a paradigm shift that provided the seeds from which the developmental approach to developmental disability sprouted, it is not without its own limits. Here, we examine and test the underlying assumption of linearity inherent in MA matching using three commonly used IQ measures. Results provide practical constraints of using MA matching, a solution which we hope refines future clinical and empirical practices, furthering Zigler's legacy of continued commitment to compassionate, meaningful, and rigorous science in the service of children.


Asunto(s)
Discapacidad Intelectual , Niño , Investigación Empírica , Humanos , Inteligencia
4.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 279: 18-25, 2021 May 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33965913

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Physicians spend a lot of time in routine tasks, i.e. repetitive and time consuming tasks that are essential for the diagnostic and treatment process. One of these tasks is to collect information on the patient's medical history. OBJECTIVES: We aim at developing a prototype for an intelligent interviewer that collects the medical history of a patient before the patient-doctor encounter. From this and our previous experiences in developing similar systems, we derive recommendations for developing intelligent interviewers for concrete medical domains and tasks. METHODS: The intelligent interviewer was implemented as chatbot using IBM Watson assistant in close cooperation with a family doctor. RESULTS: AnCha is a rule-based chatbot realized as decision tree with 75 nodes. It asks a maximum of 44 questions on the medical history, current complaints and collects additional information on the patient, social details, and prevention. CONCLUSION: When developing an intelligent digital interviewer it is essential to define its concrete purpose, specify information to be collected, design the user interface, consider data security and conduct a practice-oriented evaluation.


Asunto(s)
Inteligencia , Relaciones Médico-Paciente , Humanos
5.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 281: 989-993, 2021 May 27.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34042821

RESUMEN

The COVID-19 pandemic is the first to unfold in the highly digitalized society of the 21st century and is therefore the first pandemic to benefit from and be threatened by a thriving real-time digital information ecosystem. For this reason, the response to the infodemic required development of a public health social listening taxonomy, a structure that can simplify the chaotic information ecosystem to enable an adaptable monitoring infrastructure that detects signals of fertile ground for misinformation and guides trusted sources of verified information to fill in information voids in a timely manner. A weekly analysis of public online conversations since 23 March 2020 has enabled the quantification of running shifts of public interest in public health-related topics concerning the pandemic and has demonstrated the frequent resumption of information voids relevant for public health interventions and risk communication in an emergency response setting.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Medios de Comunicación Sociales , Comunicación , Ecosistema , Humanos , Inteligencia , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Organización Mundial de la Salud
6.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 21(1): 517, 2021 May 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34049542

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: A guiding principle of a successful integrated health and social care delivery network is to establish a governance approach based on learning, grounded in a data and knowledge infrastructure. The 'Krijtmolen Alliantie' is a network of health and social care providers with the ambition to realize such a performance intelligence driven governance model in line with the Triple Aim. This study seeks to identify what performance intelligence is available and how it can be improved. METHODS: This case study was conducted in the district of Amsterdam Noord, the Netherlands, and employed 23 semi-structured interviews with stakeholders in health and social care, a feasibility analysis of available administrative data, and a reflection meeting with board members of the 'Krijtmolen Alliantie'. Information needs for performance intelligence by the stakeholders were mapped and a data landscape of the district covered by the network was drafted. Finally, in the reflection meeting with board members of the 'Krijtmolen Alliantie' the information needs and data landscape were aligned with governing needs, resulting in priority domains around which to strengthen the data infrastructure for governance of the integrated health and social care delivery network. RESULTS: The 'Krijtmolen Alliantie' encompasses a network of providers with a diverse range of catchment areas. There are indicators on population health and welfare, however they have limited actionability for providers due to a misalignment with their respective catchment areas. There is a barrier in data exchange between health and social care providers. It is difficult to construct one indicator for per capita cost in the Dutch health data infrastructure as health and social care are subdivided in financing siloes. Priority domains for improvement of performance intelligence for the 'Krijtmolen Alliantie' are: 1) Per capita and per patient cost data integration that would allow combined accountability through aligning financial incentives to facilitate integrated care, and 2) combined patient experience and outcome measures to reflect network quality of care and patient experience performance. CONCLUSION: Available performance intelligence lacks actionability for the governance of integrated care networks. Our recommendation is to align performance intelligence with the regional governance responsibilities of stakeholders for health and social care delivery.


Asunto(s)
Atención a la Salud , Apoyo Social , Humanos , Inteligencia , Países Bajos , Bienestar Social
7.
Environ Res ; 198: 111278, 2021 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33989630

RESUMEN

Collective intelligence of viruses is witnessed in many research articles. Most of the researches focus on the qualitative properties or observations. In this research, we model the behaviours and collective intelligence of SARS-CoV-2 by minimal spanning trees (MSTs), which specify the underlying mechanisms of resource allocation in the viral colony. The vertices of the trees are 50 states, DC and NYC in the USA. The weights of the edges are assigned by the reciprocal of the sum of cases or deaths of COVID-19. The types of trees are decided by the chosen 18 factors. We sample 304 time-series data and compute their MST-based auto-correlations for stability analysis. Then we perform correlated analysis and comparative analysis on these stable factors. Our results show MST approach fits the collective intelligence modelling very well; the total cases and total deaths over areas are highly correlated in terms of MSTs; and these stable factors have little to do with the geographical distance. The results also indicate the colonisation of SARS-CoV-2 is pretty mature and organised. Based on the results, for environmental or health policies, we should also turn our attention to the transmission routes that are independent of or far away from human population or densities. The viruses' colonies might already exist in the wild in a large scale, not only in the populated or polluted cities. We shall build or conduct a monitoring system of their colonisation and survival techniques, in order to terminate, contain or live with their communities.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Ciudades , Geografía , Humanos , Inteligencia
8.
Nurse Educ Today ; 103: 104956, 2021 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34020288

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Cultural intelligence reflects the competence to adapt to new cultural settings. Universities offer students various opportunities to gain cultural learning and develop cultural intelligence. However, there has been little empirical research to compare the effects of cultural learning and other related psycho-social factors in this process. OBJECTIVE: This study explores the importance of cultural learning and identifies the unique contribution of cultural education in universities to health care students' cultural intelligence. DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey study. METHODS: 271 health care students completed a survey measuring social desirability, demographics, personality, prior cultural exposure, previous cultural learning and cultural intelligence. RESULTS: Hierarchical regressions showed that cultural learning could affect cultural intelligence and its three components (i.e., metacognition, cognition, motivation, and behaviour) under the control for related psycho-social factors. However, its effect on the behavioral component was not significant. Considering the different types of cultural learning, overseas study experiences were more related to cultural intelligence, compared to in-class cultural learning. CONCLUSION: Cultural learning, especially overseas study experiences, plays a significant role in the development of health care students' cultural intelligence.


Asunto(s)
Estudiantes , Universidades , Estudios Transversales , Competencia Cultural , Atención a la Salud , Humanos , Inteligencia , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
9.
Psych J ; 10(3): 323-339, 2021 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33870638

RESUMEN

This study assessed Robert Sternberg's theory of successful intelligence (TSI) training in teaching and learning situations to improve academic achievement, triarchic (analytical, creative, practical) thinking, and socioemotional outcomes. The analyses included all references from several databases (Web of Science, ProQuest, Elsevier, Google Scholar, and bibliographies of related articles) from 1998 to 2019 that implemented the successful intelligence training program in a variety of ways. Possible moderators, selection criteria, subject areas, and grade levels were investigated. A total of 24 studies (19 articles) were included in the meta-analysis. The results revealed that successful intelligence training has a positive effect on students' overall achievement, g = 0.63, SE = 0.11, 95% confidence interval (CI) [0.41, 0.85], k = 24, z = 5.98, p < .001, under a random-effect model. After adjusting for publication bias, the effect size (ES) g was 0.35, SE = 0.12, 95% CI [0.10, 0.60]. The ES was the largest for socioemotional outcomes, followed by triarchic outcomes and then achievement outcomes. High-IQ-based selected participants received higher ES than teacher-selected participants. Regarding subject areas, science and general triarchic training differed significantly. Among the grade levels, high-school level and primary level differed significantly. Moreover, intervention duration negatively moderated the ES significantly. Gender did not moderate the ES. All student participants benefited from the successful intelligence training program, and this benefit was greater for gifted and older students. This finding suggests that TSI training educators provide a more detailed, structured, and authentic problem situation to be more effective instead of academic problems.


Asunto(s)
Logro , Inteligencia , Humanos , Estudiantes
10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33802880

RESUMEN

In order to identify the strategic topics and the thematic evolution structure of data mining applied to healthcare, in this paper, a bibliometric performance and network analysis (BPNA) was conducted. For this purpose, 6138 articles were sourced from the Web of Science covering the period from 1995 to July 2020 and the SciMAT software was used. Our results present a strategic diagram composed of 19 themes, of which the 8 motor themes ('NEURAL-NETWORKS', 'CANCER', 'ELETRONIC-HEALTH-RECORDS', 'DIABETES-MELLITUS', 'ALZHEIMER'S-DISEASE', 'BREAST-CANCER', 'DEPRESSION', and 'RANDOM-FOREST') are depicted in a thematic network. An in-depth analysis was carried out in order to find hidden patterns and to provide a general perspective of the field. The thematic network structure is arranged thusly that its subjects are organized into two different areas, (i) practices and techniques related to data mining in healthcare, and (ii) health concepts and disease supported by data mining, embodying, respectively, the hotspots related to the data mining and medical scopes, hence demonstrating the field's evolution over time. Such results make it possible to form the basis for future research and facilitate decision-making by researchers and practitioners, institutions, and governments interested in data mining in healthcare.


Asunto(s)
Investigación Biomédica , Minería de Datos , Bibliometría , Atención a la Salud , Humanos , Inteligencia
11.
Codas ; 33(1): e20190206, 2021.
Artículo en Portugués, Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33886745

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: The study's purpose is to describe the cognitive profile of a sample of functionally illiterate individuals in reading, phonological awareness (PA) and rapid automatized naming (RAN), as well as to correlate the performance of these tasks. Moreover, it sought to understand how the performances in PA and RAN predict results in reading of words and pseudowords. METHODS: 23 functionally illiterate adults were assessed for intelligence, reading, PA and RAN tasks. RESULTS: Participants showed difficulties in PA, performing poorly in tasks involving phoneme analysis and manipulation. In RAN, they found it easier to name alphanumeric items. Regarding reading, they presented difficulties in phonological processing, with errors caused by phonological exchange. Correlation analyses indicated that reading presented higher correlations with RAN than PA. Finally, a regression analysis indicated that performance in RAN can account for more than half of participants' reading results. CONCLUSION: In general, the profile of functionally illiterate adults presents impairment in the abilities assessed that are more evident in PA at phoneme levels as well as in naming of non-alphanumerical items. Moreover, the results in RAN explain those in word and pseudowords reading better than the results in PA.


Asunto(s)
Alfabetización , Lectura , Adulto , Concienciación , Humanos , Inteligencia , Lingüística
12.
Nutrients ; 13(4)2021 Mar 31.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33807197

RESUMEN

Dietary habits have considerable impact on brain development and mental health. Despite long-standing interest in the association of dietary habits with mental health, few population-based studies of dietary habits have assessed depression and fluid intelligence. Our aim is to investigate the association of dietary habits with depression and fluid intelligence. In total, 814 independent loci were utilized to calculate the individual polygenic risk score (PRS) for 143 dietary habit-related traits. The individual genotype data were obtained from the UK Biobank cohort. Regression analyses were then conducted to evaluate the association of dietary habits with depression and fluid intelligence, respectively. PLINK 2.0 was utilized to detect the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) × dietary habit interaction effect on the risks of depression and fluid intelligence. We detected 22 common dietary habit-related traits shared by depression and fluid intelligence, such as red wine glasses per month, and overall alcohol intake. For interaction analysis, we detected that OLFM1 interacted with champagne/white wine in depression, while SYNPO2 interacted with coffee type in fluid intelligence. Our study results provide novel useful information for understanding how eating habits affect the fluid intelligence and depression.


Asunto(s)
Depresión/genética , Epigénesis Genética , Conducta Alimentaria/fisiología , Estudio de Asociación del Genoma Completo , Inteligencia/genética , Estudios de Cohortes , Bases de Datos Genéticas , Depresión/epidemiología , Femenino , Genotipo , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Polimorfismo de Nucleótido Simple , Reino Unido
13.
BMC Pediatr ; 21(1): 169, 2021 04 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33849468

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Preterm infants are at risk for functional impairments in motor, cognitive, and behavioral development that may persist into childhood. The aim of this study was to determine the co-occurrence of cognitive impairments in multiple cognitive domains at school age in very preterm born children compared to term-born children. METHODS: Comparative study including 60 very preterm-born children (gestational age ≤ 32 weeks) and 120 term-born controls. At school age, we assessed intelligence with the WISC-III, and visuomotor integration with the NEPSY-II, verbal memory with the AVLT, attention with the TEA-ch, and executive functioning with the BRIEF. We investigated co-occurrence of various abnormal (<5th percentile) and suspect-abnormal (<15th percentile, including both suspect and abnormal) cognitive functions. RESULTS: At mean age 8.8 years, 15% of preterm children had abnormal outcomes in multiple cognitive functions (≥2), versus 3% of the controls (odds ratio, OR 4.65, 95%-confidence interval, CI 1.33-16.35). For multiple suspect-abnormal cognitive outcomes, rates were 55% versus 25% (OR 3.02, 95%-CI 1.49-6.12). We found no pattern of co-occurrence of cognitive impairments among preterm children that deviated from term-born controls. However, low performance IQ was more frequently accompanied by additional cognitive impairments in preterms than in controls (OR 5.43, 95%-CI 1.75-16.81). CONCLUSIONS: A majority of preterm children showed co-occurrence of impairments in multiple cognitive domains, but with no specific pattern of impairments. The occurrence of multi-domain cognitive impairments is higher in preterms but this seems to reflect a general increase, not one with a pattern specific for preterm-born children.


Asunto(s)
Disfunción Cognitiva , Recien Nacido Extremadamente Prematuro , Niño , Disfunción Cognitiva/diagnóstico , Disfunción Cognitiva/epidemiología , Edad Gestacional , Humanos , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Inteligencia , Instituciones Académicas
14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33920334

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Since 2012, education standards in medical faculties in Poland have allowed medical universities to introduce content related to multiculturalism. On the one hand, this creates a necessity to introduce new strategies, forms, and techniques of education aimed at the development of knowledge, skills, and attitudes in terms of multiculturalism. On the other hand, there is a need to evaluate their effects. The main goal of this study was to evaluate the cultural competence and cultural intelligence of master's degree nursing students before the commencement of and two months after cultural education training in the form of the intercultural communication workshops included in the study program. METHODS: The following questionnaires were used in the study: the Cross-Cultural Competence Inventory (CCCI) and the Cultural Intelligence Scale (CQS). Two consecutive classes (2019 and 2020) of master's nursing students were tested twice (pre-test, post-test). The study was conducted at a leading medical university that educates nurses at a master's level in Poland. In total, 130 master's nursing students took part in this evaluative study: 64 individuals in 2019 (study 1) and 66 individuals in 2020 (study 2). RESULTS: In comparison to the pre-test, the post-test showed that the surveyed students in both study 1 and study 2 obtained significantly higher overall results in terms of cultural intelligence (p = 0.001; p = 0.004, respectively) as well as in the behavioral (p = 0.001; p = 0.002) and cognitive (p = 0.001; p = 0.008, respectively) subscales. The cultural competence results were also higher overall, but the difference was insignificant. CONCLUSIONS: The study shows the efficiency of training/workshops in the development of culturally specific knowledge and cultural intervention skills. At the same time, it postulates the need to plan and organize cultural education programs in a form that aims to improve the development of culturally sensitive attitudes.


Asunto(s)
Estudiantes de Enfermería , Competencia Cultural , Humanos , Inteligencia , Motivación , Polonia
15.
Soc Sci Med ; 277: 113874, 2021 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33901725

RESUMEN

This paper scrutinises how AI and robotic technologies are transforming the relationships between people and machines in new affective, embodied and relational ways. Through investigating what it means to exist as human 'in relation' to AI across health and care contexts, we aim to make three main contributions. (1) We start by highlighting the complexities of philosophical issues surrounding the concepts of "artificial intelligence" and "ethical machines." (2) We outline some potential challenges and opportunities that the creation of such technologies may bring in the health and care settings. We focus on AI applications that interface with health and care via examples where AI is explicitly designed as an 'augmenting' technology that can overcome human bodily and cognitive as well as socio-economic constraints. We focus on three dimensions of 'intelligence' - physical, interpretive, and emotional - using the examples of robotic surgery, digital pathology, and robot caregivers, respectively. Through investigating these areas, we interrogate the social context and implications of human-technology interaction in the interrelational sphere of care practice. (3) We argue, in conclusion, that there is a need for an interdisciplinary mode of theorising 'intelligence' as relational and affective in ways that can accommodate the fragmentation of both conceptual and material boundaries between human and AI, and human and machine. Our aim in investigating these sociological, philosophical and ethical questions is primarily to explore the relationship between affect, relationality and 'intelligence,' the intersection and integration of 'human' and 'artificial' intelligence, through an examination of how AI is used across different dimensions of intelligence. This allows us to scrutinise how 'intelligence' is ultimately conveyed, understood and (technologically or algorithmically) configured in practice through emerging relationships that go beyond the conceptual divisions between humans and machines, and humans vis-à-vis artificial intelligence-based technologies.


Asunto(s)
Procedimientos Quirúrgicos Robotizados , Robótica , Inteligencia Artificial , Humanos , Inteligencia , Tecnología
16.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(3): e212530, 2021 03 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33779740

RESUMEN

Importance: The prevalence and attributes of positive outcomes (or doing well) among children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in midchildhood are not well known. Objective: To estimate the prevalence of doing well according to metrics of proficiency and growth and to investigate the extent to which significant associations exist between child- and family-level variables and doing well. Design, Setting, and Participants: This longitudinal cohort study included children with ASD from regional clinics across Canada. Participants were sampled 3 times between ages 2 and 4.9 years (T1) and twice in follow-up into middle childhood (T2). Data were analyzed March 2018 through January 2020. Exposures: Language and IQ assessments at first sample; household income, parent coping, and family functioning. Main Outcomes and Measures: Key outcome domains of developmental health included measures of socialization, communication, independent living skills, and measures of internalizing and externalizing behaviors. Thresholds for doing well in these domains by either proficiency or growth were established. The extent to which language, IQ, household income, parent coping, and family functioning were associated with assessed outcomes was determined by logistic regression. The association between outcomes and concurrent Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) classification scores was also estimated. Results: In a total cohort of 272 children (234 [86.0%] boys; mean [SD] age, 10.76 [0.26] years), approximately 78.8% (95% CI, 73.2%-84.4%) of the sample were estimated to be doing well by either metric on at least 1 domain, and 23.6% (95% CI, 17.7%-29.4%) were doing well in 4 or 5 domains. It was possible to be doing well by either proficiency or growth and still meet ADOS criteria for ASD. For the growth metric, between 61.5% (95% CI, 40.7%-79.1%) and 79.6% (95% CI, 66.0%-88.9%) of participants had ADOS scores of 4 or greater; for the proficiency metric, between 63.8% (95% CI, 48.4%-76.9%) and 75.8% (95% CI, 63.0%-85.4%) had scores of 4 or greater. Doing well by either metric for all domains was associated with T1 scores on that outcome domain (eg, T1 daily living skills associated with doing well at T2 daily living by the proficiency metric as measured by the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales-Second Edition daily living skills scale [202 participants]: ß = 0.07; OR, 1.07; 95% CI, 1.03-1.11; P < .001). Doing well in socialization by the growth metric was also associated with better T1 language skills scores (202 participants) (ß = 0.04; OR, 1.04; 95% CI, 1.00-1.07, P = .04). Doing well in externalizing by the growth metric was also associated with higher household income at T1 (178 participants) (ß = 0.10; OR, 1.10; 95% CI, 1.06-1.15; P < .001). Better family functioning at T1 was associated with doing well on both socialization and externalizing by proficiency metric and on internalizing by growth metric (socialization by proficiency [202 participants]: ß = -1.01; OR, 0.36; 95% CI, 0.14-0.93; P = .04; externalizing by proficiency [178 participants]: ß = 1.00; OR, 0.37; 95% CI, 0.16-0.82; P = .02; internalizing by growth [178 participants]: ß = -1.03; OR, 0.36; 95% CI, 0.16-0.79; P = .01). Conclusions and Relevance: This cohort study found that a substantial proportion of children with ASD were doing well by middle childhood in at least 1 key domain of developmental health, and that doing well was possible even in the context of continuing to meet criteria for ASD. These results support a strengths-based approach to treatment planning that should include robust support for families to increase the potential likelihood of doing well later in life.


Asunto(s)
Adaptación Psicológica/fisiología , Trastorno del Espectro Autista/psicología , Familia , Inteligencia/fisiología , Trastorno del Espectro Autista/epidemiología , Canadá/epidemiología , Niño , Preescolar , Femenino , Humanos , Incidencia , Masculino , Prevalencia , Estudios Retrospectivos
17.
Psychiatr Prax ; 48(S 01): S26-S30, 2021 Mar.
Artículo en Alemán | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33652484

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: This paper provides an overview of a range of ethical aspects involved in the use of autonomous, virtual or embodied artificial intelligence (AI) in the care of people with mental health issues. METHODOLOGY: The overview is based on a thematic literature review. It is guided by the principles of biomedical ethics together with the concept of epistemic (in)justice. RESULTS: In addition to a risk-benefit analysis, (digital) health literacy, equity of access, issues of under- or misuse of care, and an adaptation of informed consent need to be considered. CONCLUSION: The ethical assessment of autonomous AI in psychotherapy remains open; too many clinical, ethical, legal, and practical questions remain to be addressed. Quality criteria for AI application as well as guidelines for its clinical use need to be developed before wider clinical implementation.


Asunto(s)
Inteligencia Artificial , Psicoterapia , Alemania , Humanos , Inteligencia , Principios Morales
18.
JMIR Mhealth Uhealth ; 9(3): e27232, 2021 03 26.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33724920

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Contact tracing apps are potentially useful tools for supporting national COVID-19 containment strategies. Various national apps with different technical design features have been commissioned and issued by governments worldwide. OBJECTIVE: Our goal was to develop and propose an item set that was suitable for describing and monitoring nationally issued COVID-19 contact tracing apps. This item set could provide a framework for describing the key technical features of such apps and monitoring their use based on widely available information. METHODS: We used an open-source intelligence approach (OSINT) to access a multitude of publicly available sources and collect data and information regarding the development and use of contact tracing apps in different countries over several months (from June 2020 to January 2021). The collected documents were then iteratively analyzed via content analysis methods. During this process, an initial set of subject areas were refined into categories for evaluation (ie, coherent topics), which were then examined for individual features. These features were paraphrased as items in the form of questions and applied to information materials from a sample of countries (ie, Brazil, China, Finland, France, Germany, Italy, Singapore, South Korea, Spain, and the United Kingdom [England and Wales]). This sample was purposefully selected; our intention was to include the apps of different countries from around the world and to propose a valid item set that can be relatively easily applied by using an OSINT approach. RESULTS: Our OSINT approach and subsequent analysis of the collected documents resulted in the definition of the following five main categories and associated subcategories: (1) background information (open-source code, public information, and collaborators); (2) purpose and workflow (secondary data use and warning process design); (3) technical information (protocol, tracing technology, exposure notification system, and interoperability); (4) privacy protection (the entity of trust and anonymity); and (5) availability and use (release date and the number of downloads). Based on this structure, a set of items that constituted the evaluation framework were specified. The application of these items to the 10 selected countries revealed differences, especially with regard to the centralization of the entity of trust and the overall transparency of the apps' technical makeup. CONCLUSIONS: We provide a set of criteria for monitoring and evaluating COVID-19 tracing apps that can be easily applied to publicly issued information. The application of these criteria might help governments to identify design features that promote the successful, widespread adoption of COVID-19 tracing apps among target populations and across national boundaries.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Trazado de Contacto , Aplicaciones Móviles , COVID-19/epidemiología , COVID-19/prevención & control , Trazado de Contacto/métodos , Salud Global , Humanos , Inteligencia
19.
Psychiatr Prax ; 48(S 01): S37-S41, 2021 Mar.
Artículo en Alemán | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33652486

RESUMEN

Smart assistive technologies are increasingly discussed as a solution for the care of people with dementia. The article considers central ethical challenges of the use of such systems. It focuses on issues of privacy and empowerment.


Asunto(s)
Demencia , Dispositivos de Autoayuda , Demencia/terapia , Alemania , Humanos , Inteligencia
20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33669247

RESUMEN

(1) Background: Modern medicine generates a great deal of information that stored in medical databases. Simultaneously, extracting useful knowledge and making scientific decisions for diagnosis and treatment of diseases becomes increasingly necessary. Headache disorders are the most prevalent of all the neurological conditions. Headaches have not only medical but also great socioeconomic significance. The aim of this research is to develop an intelligent system for diagnosing primary headache disorders. (2) Methods: This research applied various mathematical, statistical and artificial intelligence techniques, among which the most important are: Calinski-Harabasz index, Analytical Hierarchy Process, and Weighted Fuzzy C-means Clustering Algorithm. These methods, techniques and methodologies are used to create a hybrid intelligent system for diagnosing primary headache disorders. The proposed intelligent diagnostic system is tested with original real-world data set with different metrics. (3) Results: First at all, nine of 20 attributes - features from International Headache Society (IHS) criteria are selected, and then only five most important attributes from IHS criteria are selected. The calculation result based on the Calinski-Harabasz index value (178) for the optimal number of clusters is three, and they present three classes of headaches: (i) migraine, (ii) tension-type headaches (TTHs), and (iii) other primary headaches (OPHs). The proposed hybrid intelligent system shows the following quality metrics: Accuracy 75%; Precision 67% for migraine, 74% for TTHs, 86% for OPHs, and Average Precision 77%; Recall 86% for migraine, 73% for TTHs, 67% for OPHs, Average Recall 75%; F1 score 75% for migraine, 74% for TTHs, 75% for OPHs, and Average F1 score 75%. (4) Conclusions: The hybrid intelligent system presents qualitative and respectable experimental results. The implementation of existing diagnostics systems and the development of new diagnostics systems in medicine is necessary in order to help physicians make quality diagnosis and decide the best treatments for the patients.


Asunto(s)
Trastornos Migrañosos , Cefalea de Tipo Tensional , Inteligencia Artificial , Cefalea/diagnóstico , Humanos , Inteligencia
SELECCIÓN DE REFERENCIAS
DETALLE DE LA BÚSQUEDA
...