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1.
J Anxiety Disord ; 73: 102239, 2020 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32502806

RESUMEN

According to cognitive-behavioral models, traits, triggering events, cognitions, and adverse behaviors play a pivotal role in the development and maintenance of health anxiety. During virus outbreaks, anxiety is widespread. However, the role of trait health anxiety, cyberchondria, and coping in the context of virus anxiety during the current COVID-19 pandemic has not yet been studied. An online survey was conducted in the German general population (N = 1615, 79.8 % female, Mage = 33.36 years, SD = 13.18) in mid-March 2020, which included questionnaires on anxiety associated with SARS-CoV-2, trait health anxiety, cyberchondriaPandemic (i.e. excessive online information search), and emotion regulation. The participants reported a significantly increasing virus anxiety in recent months (previous months recorded retrospectively), especially among individuals with heightened trait health anxiety. CyberchondriaPandemic showed positive correlations with current virus anxiety (r = .09-.48), and this relationship was additionally moderated by trait health anxiety. A negative correlation was found between the perception of being informed about the pandemic and the current virus anxiety (r=-.18), with adaptive emotion regulation being a significant moderator for this relationship. The findings suggest that trait health anxiety and cyberchondria serve as risk factors, whereas information about the pandemic and adaptive emotion regulation might represent buffering factors for anxiety during a virus pandemic.


Asunto(s)
Ansiedad/psicología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Ajuste Emocional , Hipocondriasis/psicología , Internet , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Adulto , Betacoronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus/psicología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/transmisión , Regulación Emocional , Femenino , Alemania/epidemiología , Encuestas Epidemiológicas , Humanos , Masculino , Neumonía Viral/psicología , Neumonía Viral/transmisión , Estudios Retrospectivos , Factores de Riesgo
2.
Cien Saude Colet ; 25(suppl 1): 2479-2486, 2020 Jun.
Artículo en Portugués, Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32520292

RESUMEN

This essay aimed to discuss the implications of social isolation due to the COVID-19 pandemic for the intensive use of the internet among children and adolescents and its possible consequences for the practice of self-inflicted violence. We briefly discussed the anxiogenic potential and the reproduction of a "global fear" that are consolidated with the massive and unmediated exposure of the content consumed, which can increase the vulnerabilities to stress and suicidal ideas. We centered our debate on "recreational" practices, called "challenges" with self-harm power, carried out by teenagers on the YouTube website. This practice has been shown to increase with the social isolation measures. Our reflection on these risks builds on the theoretical perspective of digital sociability, and its implications for the internet-mediated interactions of adolescents.


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/psicología , Internet/estadística & datos numéricos , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/psicología , Conducta Autodestructiva/psicología , Aislamiento Social/psicología , Adolescente , Ansiedad/psicología , Conducta Adictiva , Niño , Miedo , Humanos , Almacenamiento y Recuperación de la Información/estadística & datos numéricos , Autoimagen , Medios de Comunicación Sociales/estadística & datos numéricos , Estrés Psicológico/etiología , Factores de Tiempo
4.
Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 36(4): 376-382, 2020 Apr.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32519674

RESUMEN

During the pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), the Chinese Ministry of Education put forward the requirement of turning offline education into online teaching to universities. Our department positively responded and rapidly mobilized to establish an online teaching system of medical immunology based on the small private online course (SPOC) model, which has a main body of the SPOC model with "video course as the main part, supplemented by online Q&A". The system also has feedback improvement sections of online discussion and chapter tests and evaluates the quality and effect of teaching with students' group display, course examination, and questionnaires. At the same time, the COVID-19 hotspot is also organically combined with immunological knowledge throughout the online teaching. In this process, our department continuously summarizes experiences and discovers problems. Herein, we generalize and sort out the exploration and practice of constructing the online teaching system, to carry out offline teaching after the pandemic and to continue this teaching model in the future, for reference and guidance.


Asunto(s)
Alergia e Inmunología , Infecciones por Coronavirus , Coronavirus , Educación a Distancia , Modelos Educacionales , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral , Alergia e Inmunología/educación , Betacoronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Humanos , Internet , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología
5.
MEDICC Rev ; 22(2): 45-46, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32478708

RESUMEN

As the COVID-19 health crisis engulfs the planet, we are sub-merged in a parallel pandemic: the glut of misinformation and disinformation. The data associated with this phenomenon are creating a disaster within a disaster. In early April 2020, the Span-ish news agency EFE[1] reported that over one million internet ac-counts were dedicated to rumor-mongering, spreading unverifi ed information about the coronavirus. From January through April 13, fact-checkers at Maldita.es[2] had tracked over 400 lies and false alerts circulated about COVID-19 in Spain alone.


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus , Comunicación , Infecciones por Coronavirus , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral , Revelación de la Verdad , Cuba , Humanos , Internet
6.
EMBO Rep ; 21(6): e50817, 2020 06 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32496027

RESUMEN

Pre-print servers have helped to rapidly publish important information during the COVID-19 pandemic. The downside is the risk of spreading false information or fake news though.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral , Edición , Publicaciones Seriadas , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Decepción , Humanos , Internet , Revisión por Pares , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Edición/normas , Edición/estadística & datos numéricos , Publicaciones Seriadas/normas
8.
J Pak Med Assoc ; 70(Suppl 3)(5): S162-S165, 2020 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32515403

RESUMEN

The world has experienced pandemics worse than the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) which resulted in great loss of life and economy. However, the global effect of this pandemic has been devastating. Billions of people are in lockdown and isolation on six continents around the world. Most have easy access to information due to internet connectivity and electronic media, which has helped share information about the pandemic. However, information overload during the current COVID-19 pandemic has posed a set of challenges not encountered before. There is an "infodemic" in which false news, conspiracy theories, magical cures and racist news are being shared at an alarming rate, with the potential to increase anxiety and stress and even lead to loss of life. This review highlights some of these challenges and suggests general measures to avoid information overload and infodemic in the connected world of 21st century.


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus , Educación en Salud , Internet , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral , Salud Global , Humanos , Difusión de la Información , Salud Mental , Pakistán
9.
Epidemiol Serv Saude ; 29(3): e2020191, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés, Portugués | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32520122

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: to describe profiles of interest of web search queries related to the Covid-19 epidemic in Brazil. METHODS: this was a quantitative and exploratory study using Google Health Trends. We analyzed daily data of interest, defined as search probability (Pr), in 23 terms in searches performed by users connected in Brazil from January 1 to April 9, 2020. RESULTS: the peak in interest (Pr=0.0651) on the theme of coronavirus occurred on March 21. Interest in use of face masks (Pr=0.0041), social distancing (Pr=0.0043) and hand hygiene with alcohol gel (Pr=0.0037) was greater than interest in respiratory etiquette (Pr=0.0010) and hand hygiene with soap and water (Pr=0.0005). CONCLUSION: the difference in interest in issues related to combating Covid-19 was substantial and can guide new strategies for disseminating health information.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Conducta en la Búsqueda de Información , Internet/estadística & datos numéricos , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Brasil/epidemiología , Humanos , Pandemias , Motor de Búsqueda
10.
BMC Res Notes ; 13(1): 293, 2020 Jun 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32546245

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Establishing a social contact data sharing initiative and an interactive tool to assess mitigation strategies for COVID-19. RESULTS: We organized data sharing of published social contact surveys via online repositories and formatting guidelines. We analyzed this social contact data in terms of weighted social contact matrices, next generation matrices, relative incidence and R[Formula: see text]. We incorporated location-specific physical distancing measures (e.g. school closure or at work) and capture their effect on transmission dynamics. All methods have been implemented in an online application based on R Shiny and applied to COVID-19 with age-specific susceptibility and infectiousness. Using our online tool with the available social contact data, we illustrate that physical distancing could have a considerable impact on reducing transmission for COVID-19. The effect itself depends on assumptions made about disease-specific characteristics and the choice of intervention(s).


Asunto(s)
Trazado de Contacto/estadística & datos numéricos , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Difusión de la Información/métodos , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Distancia Social , Interfaz Usuario-Computador , África/epidemiología , Asia/epidemiología , Betacoronavirus/aislamiento & purificación , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidad , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Europa (Continente)/epidemiología , Humanos , Internet , Modelos Estadísticos , Pandemias/prevención & control , Perú/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
12.
Epidemiol Infect ; 148: e110, 2020 06 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32498731

RESUMEN

The current coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic offers a unique opportunity to conduct an infodemiological study examining patterns in online searching activity about a specific disease and how this relates to news media within a specific country. Google Trends quantifies volumes of online activity. The relative search volume was obtained for 'Coronavirus', 'handwashing', 'face mask' and symptom related keywords, for the United Kingdom, from the date of the first confirmed case until numbers peaked in April. The relationship between online search traffic and confirmed case numbers was examined. Search volumes varied over time; peaks appear related to events in the progression of the epidemic which were reported in the media. Search activity on 'Coronavirus' correlated well against confirmed case number as did 'face mask' and symptom-related keywords. User-generated online data sources such as Google Trends may aid disease surveillance, being more responsive to changes in disease occurrence than traditional disease reporting. The relationship between media coverage and online searching activity is rarely examined, but may be driving online behavioural patterns.


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Conducta en la Búsqueda de Información , Internet , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Motor de Búsqueda , Desinfección de las Manos , Humanos , Máscaras , Pandemias , Reino Unido/epidemiología
14.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 24(9): 5176-5177, 2020 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32432783

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: COVID-19 broke out in China at the end of 2019 and spread rapidly around the world. The World Health Organization designated COVID-19 as a global pandemic on March 11, 2020. China has adopted its own country-specific comprehensive prevention and control measures, and, as a result, the domestic COVID-19 epidemic became effectively controlled in China in mid-March 2020. During the COVID-19 epidemic, remarkable changes have taken place in China's domestic learning, living, and working methods, primarily in terms of the synergy between the Internet Plus (Internet+) strategy and the leadership of the Chinese government.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Internet , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Betacoronavirus , China , Comercio , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Educación a Distancia , Gobierno Federal , Humanos , Liderazgo , Pandemias/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control
15.
Acta Biomed ; 91(2): 83-88, 2020 May 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32420931

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Since the World Health Organization declared the new 2019 coronavirus disease (Covid-19) outbreak first a Public Health Emergency of International Concern and then a pandemic, Italy held more than 195.350 cases and 26.380 deaths. Working in the frontline with suspected Covid-19 infection patients, general practitioners (GPs) are daily under both physical and psychological pressure.  Methods: A web-based cross-sectional survey was carried out on italian GPs working in Genoa (Italy), to assess the impact of Covid-19 pandemic on mental health. The survey was anonymous and a free Google Forms® software was used. RESULTS: One hundred thirty-one GPs completed the survey. Compared to GPs with absent or mild depressive symptoms (PHQ-9 < 10), GPs reporting moderate to severe depressive symptoms (N=30, 22.9%; PHQ-9 ≥ 10) reported more helplessness (96.7% vs. 79.2%, p=.025), spent more than three hours searching for COVID-19 information (43.3% vs. 19.8%, p=.024), perceived less adequate personal protective equipment (PPE) (6.7% vs. 23.8%, p=.049) and visited more COVID-19 infected patients (16.63 ± 27.30 vs. 9.52 ± 11.75, p=.041). Moreover, PHQ-9 ≥ 10 GPs reported a significant higher severity for both anxiety and insomnia (13.43 ± 4.96 vs. 4.88 ± 3.53 and 11.60 ± 5.53 vs. 4.84 ± 3.81, respectively; p<.001), and a worse quality of life in both mental (34.60 ± 7.45 vs. 46.01 ± 7.83, p<.001) and physical (43.50 ± 9.37 vs. 52.94 ± 4.78, p<.001) component summary. CONCLUSIONS: Our results give early insight into the urgent need to provide continuity of care for patients at the community-level, adequate PPE to GPs and a clear guidance from public health institutions. A precarious healthcare system both at a national and regional level might have triggered negative mental health outcomes in Italian GPs.


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus , Salud Mental , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral , Adulto , Anciano , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Internet , Italia , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
16.
BMC Med Res Methodol ; 20(1): 116, 2020 05 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32404050

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has evolved into one of the most impactful health crises in modern history, compelling researchers to explore innovative ways to efficiently collect public health data in a timely manner. Social media platforms have been explored as a research recruitment tool in other settings; however, their feasibility for collecting representative survey data during infectious disease epidemics remain unexplored. OBJECTIVES: This study has two aims 1) describe the methodology used to recruit a nationwide sample of adults residing in the United States (U.S.) to participate in a survey on COVID-19 knowledge, beliefs, and practices, and 2) outline the preliminary findings related to recruitment, challenges using social media as a recruitment platform, and strategies used to address these challenges. METHODS: An original web-based survey informed by evidence from past literature and validated scales was developed. A Facebook advertisement campaign was used to disseminate the link to an online Qualtrics survey between March 20-30, 2020. Two supplementary male-only and racial minority- targeted advertisements were created on the sixth and tenth day of recruitment, respectively, to address issues of disproportionate female- and White-oriented gender- and ethnic-skewing observed in the advertisement's reach and response trends. RESULTS: In total, 6602 participant responses were recorded with representation from all U.S. 50 states, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico. The advertisements cumulatively reached 236,017 individuals and resulted in 9609 clicks (4.07% reach). Total cost of the advertisement was $906, resulting in costs of $0.09 per click and $0.18 per full response (completed surveys). Implementation of the male-only advertisement improved the cumulative percentage of male respondents from approximately 20 to 40%. CONCLUSIONS: The social media advertisement campaign was an effective and efficient strategy to collect large scale, nationwide data on COVID-19 within a short time period. Although the proportion of men who completed the survey was lower than those who didn't, interventions to increase male responses and enhance representativeness were successful. These findings can inform future research on the use of social media recruitment for the rapid collection of survey data related to rapidly evolving health crises, such as COVID-19.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Pandemias , Selección de Paciente , Neumonía Viral , Medios de Comunicación Sociales , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Betacoronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Femenino , Humanos , Internet , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pandemias/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Estados Unidos/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
17.
J Med Internet Res ; 22(5): e19367, 2020 05 27.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32412422

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The beginning of the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) epidemic dates back to December 31, 2019, when the first cases were reported in the People's Republic of China. In the Czech Republic, the first three cases of infection with the novel coronavirus were confirmed on March 1, 2020. The joint effort of state authorities and researchers gave rise to a unique team, which combines methodical knowledge of real-world processes with the know-how needed for effective processing, analysis, and online visualization of data. OBJECTIVE: Due to an urgent need for a tool that presents important reports based on valid data sources, a team of government experts and researchers focused on the design and development of a web app intended to provide a regularly updated overview of COVID-19 epidemiology in the Czech Republic to the general population. METHODS: The cross-industry standard process for data mining model was chosen for the complex solution of analytical processing and visualization of data that provides validated information on the COVID-19 epidemic across the Czech Republic. Great emphasis was put on the understanding and a correct implementation of all six steps (business understanding, data understanding, data preparation, modelling, evaluation, and deployment) needed in the process, including the infrastructure of a nationwide information system; the methodological setting of communication channels between all involved stakeholders; and data collection, processing, analysis, validation, and visualization. RESULTS: The web-based overview of the current spread of COVID-19 in the Czech Republic has been developed as an online platform providing a set of outputs in the form of tables, graphs, and maps intended for the general public. On March 12, 2020, the first version of the web portal, containing fourteen overviews divided into five topical sections, was released. The web portal's primary objective is to publish a well-arranged visualization and clear explanation of basic information consisting of the overall numbers of performed tests, confirmed cases of COVID-19, COVID-19-related deaths, the daily and cumulative overviews of people with a positive COVID-19 case, performed tests, location and country of infection of people with a positive COVID-19 case, hospitalizations of patients with COVID-19, and distribution of personal protective equipment. CONCLUSIONS: The online interactive overview of the current spread of COVID-19 in the Czech Republic was launched on March 11, 2020, and has immediately become the primary communication channel employed by the health care sector to present the current situation regarding the COVID-19 epidemic. This complex reporting of the COVID-19 epidemic in the Czech Republic also shows an effective way to interconnect knowledge held by various specialists, such as regional and national methodology experts (who report positive cases of the disease on a daily basis), with knowledge held by developers of central registries, analysts, developers of web apps, and leaders in the health care sector.


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , República Checa/epidemiología , Minería de Datos , Humanos , Internet , Pandemias , Programas Informáticos
18.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 6(2): e19501, 2020 05 26.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32427103

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The rapid global spread of the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has compelled national governments to issue guidance on the use of face masks for members of the general public. To date, no work has assessed how this guidance differs across governments. OBJECTIVE: This study seeks to contribute to a rational and consistent global response to infectious disease by determining how guidelines differ across nations and regions. METHODS: A content analysis of health agency mask guidelines on agency websites was performed in late March 2020 among 25 countries and regions with large numbers of COVID-19 cases. Countries and regions were assigned across the coding team by language proficiency, with Google Translate used as needed. When available, both the original and English language version of guidance were reviewed. RESULTS: All examined countries and regions had some form of guidance online, although detail and clarity differed. Although 9 countries and regions recommended surgical, medical, or unspecified masks in public and poorly ventilated places, 16 recommended against people wearing masks in public. There were 2 countries that explicitly recommended against fabric masks. In addition, 12 failed to outline the minimum basic World Health Organization guidance for masks. CONCLUSIONS: Online guidelines for face mask use to prevent COVID-19 in the general public are currently inconsistent across nations and regions, and have been changing often. Efforts to create greater standardization and clarity should be explored in light of the status of COVID-19 as a global pandemic.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Guías como Asunto , Internet , Máscaras , Pandemias/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Humanos , Estados Unidos/epidemiología , Organización Mundial de la Salud
19.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 6(2): e19369, 2020 05 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32437329

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: In the past, national emergencies in the United States have resulted in increased gun preparation (ie, purchasing new guns or removing guns from storage); in turn, these gun actions have effected increases in firearm injuries and deaths. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this paper was to assess the extent to which interest in gun preparation has increased amid the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic using data from Google searches related to purchasing and cleaning guns. METHODS: We fit an Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) model over Google search data from January 2004 up to the week that US President Donald Trump declared COVID-19 a national emergency. We used this model to forecast Google search volumes, creating a counterfactual of the number of gun preparation searches we would expect if the COVID-19 pandemic had not occurred, and reported observed deviations from this counterfactual. RESULTS: Google searches related to preparing guns have surged to unprecedented levels, approximately 40% higher than previously reported spikes following the Sandy Hook, CT and Parkland, FL shootings and 158% (95% CI 73-270) greater than would be expected if the COVID-19 pandemic had not occurred. In absolute terms, approximately 2.1 million searches related to gun preparation were performed over just 34 days. States severely affected by COVID-19 appear to have some of the greatest increases in the number of searches. CONCLUSIONS: Our results corroborate media reports that gun purchases are increasing amid the COVID-19 pandemic and provide more precise geographic and temporal trends. Policy makers should invest in disseminating evidence-based educational tools about gun risks and safety procedures to avert a collateral public health crisis.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Armas de Fuego/estadística & datos numéricos , Internet/estadística & datos numéricos , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Motor de Búsqueda/estadística & datos numéricos , Heridas por Arma de Fuego/epidemiología , Humanos , Estados Unidos/epidemiología , Heridas por Arma de Fuego/mortalidad
20.
J Med Internet Res ; 22(5): e19556, 2020 05 19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32369026

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: In the first few months of 2020, information and news reports about the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) were rapidly published and shared on social media and social networking sites. While the field of infodemiology has studied information patterns on the Web and in social media for at least 18 years, the COVID-19 pandemic has been referred to as the first social media infodemic. However, there is limited evidence about whether and how the social media infodemic has spread panic and affected the mental health of social media users. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to determine how social media affects self-reported mental health and the spread of panic about COVID-19 in the Kurdistan Region of Iraq. METHODS: To carry out this study, an online questionnaire was prepared and conducted in Iraqi Kurdistan, and a total of 516 social media users were sampled. This study deployed a content analysis method for data analysis. Correspondingly, data were analyzed using SPSS software. RESULTS: Participants reported that social media has a significant impact on spreading fear and panic related to the COVID-19 outbreak in Iraqi Kurdistan, with a potential negative influence on people's mental health and psychological well-being. Facebook was the most used social media network for spreading panic about the COVID-19 outbreak in Iraq. We found a significant positive statistical correlation between self-reported social media use and the spread of panic related to COVID-19 (R=.8701). Our results showed that the majority of youths aged 18-35 years are facing psychological anxiety. CONCLUSIONS: During lockdown, people are using social media platforms to gain information about COVID-19. The nature of the impact of social media panic among people varies depending on an individual's gender, age, and level of education. Social media has played a key role in spreading anxiety about the COVID-19 outbreak in Iraqi Kurdistan.


Asunto(s)
Trastornos de Ansiedad/psicología , Betacoronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus/psicología , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/psicología , Medios de Comunicación Sociales , Adolescente , Adulto , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Internet , Irak/epidemiología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Medios de Comunicación Sociales/estadística & datos numéricos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Adulto Joven
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