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2.
Emergencias (Sant Vicenç dels Horts) ; 32(1): 19-25, feb. 2020. graf, tab
Artículo en Español | IBECS | ID: ibc-185849

RESUMEN

Objetivo. La correcta identificación en el primer contacto médico de los pacientes con un síndrome coronario agudo (SCA) es esencial. No existe ninguna escala predictiva para el diagnóstico de SCA en los centros de coordinación de emergencias (CCE) que facilite la toma de decisiones al equipo médico. El objetivo primario es construir y validar una escala de estas características. Método. Estudio prospectivo, observacional, unicéntrico, realizado durante 1 año (2016). Se incluyeron los pacientes que consultaron telefónicamente por dolor torácico no traumático en un CCE. Los pacientes incluidos se repartieron en las muestras de derivación y validación de forma aleatoria. La escala predictiva –escala SCARE– se construyó mediante regresión logística, la discriminación y calibración del modelo se realizó con el cálculo del área bajo la curva (ABC) de la característica operativa del receptor y el test de Hosmer-Lemeshow. Resultado. La muestra de derivación incluyó 902 pacientes y 7 de las variables recogidas se relacionaron con un diagnóstico final de SCA: sexo masculino, edad, tabaquismo, dolor torácico de características típicas, primer episodio de dolor torácico, diaforesis y la intuición del médico que realizó la entrevista telefónica. La utilización de la escala desarrollada en los 465 pacientes de la muestra de validación obtuvo un ABC de 0,81 (intervalo de confianza al 95% 0,76-0,87) y el test de Hosmer-Lemeshow fue de 5,18 (p = 0,74). Conclusión. La escala SCARE mostró una correcta discriminación y calibración. Es necesaria una validación externa multicéntrica antes de implementar su uso en los CCE


Background and objective. Correctly identifying patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) on first contact is essential, yet emergency dispatchers currently lack a risk scale that can help predict an ACS diagnosis. Our main aim was to develop and validate such a risk scale. Methods. Prospective, observational single-center study in 2016 (January 1 to December 31). We included patients who called our emergency dispatch center to report nontraumatic chest pain. Included patients were randomly assigned to a development or a validation sample. The predictive SCARE scale was built with logistic regression analysis. Discrimination and calibration were analyzed by calculating the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve; calibration was assessed with the Hosmer-Lemeshow test. Results. The development sample included 902 patients. The regression model identified 7 variables associated with a final diagnosis of ACS: male sex, age, smoking, typical pain characteristics, first episode of chest pain, diaphoresis, and physician intuition (the teledispatcher’s suspicion). When we applied the scale in the validation sample of 465 patients the area under the curve was 0.81 (95% CI, 0.76-0.87). The Hosmer-Lemeshow statistic was 5.18 (P=.74). Conclusions. The SCARE scale had good discrimination and calibration properties. The scale should be further validated in an external sample from a multicenter study before it is implemented by emergency dispatch centers


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Adulto , Persona de Mediana Edad , Síndrome Coronario Agudo/diagnóstico , Servicios Médicos de Urgencia/métodos , Técnicas de Apoyo para la Decisión , Dolor en el Pecho/diagnóstico , Estudios Prospectivos , Valor Predictivo de las Pruebas , Teléfono/estadística & datos numéricos , Modelos Logísticos , Intuición , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
3.
J Clin Nurs ; 29(1-2): 75-84, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31512306

RESUMEN

AIM: To develop a substantive theoretical explanation that makes sense of the decision-making process that clinical instructors use to place students on a learning contract. BACKGROUND: Clinical instructors are challenged with the task of objectively evaluating students using subjective tools such as anecdotal notes, diaries, unstructured observations and verbal feedback from other nurses. Clinical instructors' assessment decisions have a considerable impact on a variety of key stakeholders, not least of all students. DESIGN: Grounded theory method and its heuristic tools including the logic of constant comparison, continuous memoing and theoretical sampling to serve conceptualisation were used in the process of data collection and analysis. METHODS: Seventeen individual semi-structured interviews with clinical instructors in one university in Western Canada were conducted between May 2016-May 2017. Data were analysed using open, axial and selective coding consistent with grounded theory methodology. The study was checked for the Standards for Reporting Qualitative Research (SRQR) criteria (See Appendix S1). FINDINGS: Three subcategories, "brewing trouble," "unpacking thinking" and "benchmarking" led to the study's substantive theoretical explanation. "Gut feeling" demonstrates how clinical instructors reason in their decision-making process to place a student on a learning contract. CONCLUSION: Placing a student on a learning contract is impacted by personal, professional and institutional variables that together shift the process of evaluation towards subjectivity, thus influencing students' competency. A system-level approach, focusing on positive change through implementing innovative assessment strategies, such as using a smart phone application, is needed to provide some degree of consistency and objectivity. RELEVANCE TO CLINICAL PRACTICE: Making visible the objective assessments currently being done by clinical instructors has the potential to change organisational standards, which in turn impact patient and clinical outcomes.


Asunto(s)
Bachillerato en Enfermería/métodos , Docentes de Enfermería/psicología , Estudiantes de Enfermería/psicología , Canadá , Contratos , Evaluación Educacional/métodos , Teoría Fundamentada , Humanos , Intuición , Solución de Problemas , Investigación Cualitativa
4.
Behav Brain Sci ; 42: e272, 2019 12 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31826791

RESUMEN

I offer some clarification concerning the kind of contradiction that Hoerl & McCormack's account could help explain and the scope of the metaphysical intuitions that could be explained by such a theory. I conclude that we need to know more about the sense in which the temporal reasoning system would represent time as a dimension.


Asunto(s)
Cognición , Intuición
5.
Res Q Exerc Sport ; 90(4): 651-665, 2019 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31478798

RESUMEN

Purpose: The concepts of creativity and intuition have been well studied in isolation, but less is known about their distinctive contributions to option generation in decision making. Method: We examined the relation between creative and intuitive decision making in two studies-one involving coaches and one involving soccer players-using video footage of real soccer matches. Additionally, we analyzed whether this relation is culture generic or culture specific by conducting matched cross-cultural studies in a European and a South American country. Results: In Study 1, results indicate a conceptual overlap of creativity and intuition for Brazilian and German soccer coaches. Furthermore, coaches did not differ in their evaluation of creative and intuitive actions of players of both cultures. In Study 2, we found that for both subsamples the total number of generated options was positively correlated with the quality of the first and the final option and that the quality of players' first (intuitive) option was higher than that of options generated later. Moreover, results indicate a positive correlation between a player's creativity score and the quality of the first generated option for the whole sample. Conclusion: Overall, our findings provide meaningful information regarding athletes' and coaches' option-generation processes in decision making in complex team sports.


Asunto(s)
Creatividad , Comparación Transcultural , Toma de Decisiones , Intuición , Tutoría , Fútbol/psicología , Adolescente , Adulto , Brasil , Alemania , Frecuencia Cardíaca/fisiología , Humanos , Masculino , Fútbol/fisiología , Análisis y Desempeño de Tareas , Adulto Joven
6.
Behav Brain Sci ; 42: e130, 2019 08 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31407988

RESUMEN

De Dreu and Gross's description of the proximate mechanisms conditioning success in intergroup conflict omits humans' deontological morality. Drawing on research on sacralization and moral objectivism, I show how "moral rigidity" may have evolved through partner selection mechanisms to foster coalitions' cohesion and combativeness in intergroup conflict [corrected]. De Dreu and Gross's argument that attack and defense are distinct strategies underpinned by different neuropsychological circuitries is an original refinement of the theory of conflict. However, their description of the proximate mechanisms facilitating success in intergroup competition (sect. 4, target article) omits humans' deontological moral intuitions. In interaction with overconfidence biases, hostile attributions, and the enforcement of "cultural rituals and sanctioning systems" (sect. 4, para. 1), what may crucially help groups of individuals cohere and prevail in conflict are high levels of "moral rigidity" in their tribal members, that is, of inflexible loyalty to their interpersonal commitments within the group.


Asunto(s)
Relaciones Interpersonales , Principios Morales , Disentimientos y Disputas , Humanos , Intuición
7.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 15(7): e1007210, 2019 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31329579

RESUMEN

Humans can easily describe, imagine, and, crucially, predict a wide variety of behaviors of liquids-splashing, squirting, gushing, sloshing, soaking, dripping, draining, trickling, pooling, and pouring-despite tremendous variability in their material and dynamical properties. Here we propose and test a computational model of how people perceive and predict these liquid dynamics, based on coarse approximate simulations of fluids as collections of interacting particles. Our model is analogous to a "game engine in the head", drawing on techniques for interactive simulations (as in video games) that optimize for efficiency and natural appearance rather than physical accuracy. In two behavioral experiments, we found that the model accurately captured people's predictions about how liquids flow among complex solid obstacles, and was significantly better than several alternatives based on simple heuristics and deep neural networks. Our model was also able to explain how people's predictions varied as a function of the liquids' properties (e.g., viscosity and stickiness). Together, the model and empirical results extend the recent proposal that human physical scene understanding for the dynamics of rigid, solid objects can be supported by approximate probabilistic simulation, to the more complex and unexplored domain of fluid dynamics.


Asunto(s)
Hidrodinámica , Intuición , Biología Computacional , Simulación por Computador , Heurística , Humanos , Juicio , Modelos Psicológicos , Modelos Estadísticos , Fenómenos Físicos
8.
Psychol Assess ; 31(10): 1234-1246, 2019 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31259572

RESUMEN

In four studies, we document the development and validation of the Emotional Style Questionnaire (ESQ)-a 24-item self-report measure that captures how people vary across 6 dimensions that make up a healthy emotional life. These 6 dimensions (Outlook, Resilience, Social Intuition, Self-Awareness, Sensitivity to Context, and Attention) are based on a theoretical framework drawn from neuroscientific studies of emotion. Study 1 reports the development of the ESQ and provides initial support for the proposed factorial structure of the scale. Study 2 confirms the adequacy of the factorial structure in a second sample and establishes the construct validity of each of the 6 subscales. In Study 3, we test the relationship between the ESQ as a measure of healthy emotionality and various indicators of psychological and physical well-being. Finally, Study 4 investigates the test-retest reliability of the scale and reveals very good reliability across an interval of 4 weeks. We conclude that the ESQ is a psychometrically solid and easily implementable instrument that can be used to gauge healthy emotionality and its components in both clinical and research settings. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Asunto(s)
Atención , Emociones , Resiliencia Psicológica , Percepción Social , Adulto , Femenino , Humanos , Intuición , Masculino , Salud Mental , Persona de Mediana Edad , Psicometría/estadística & datos numéricos , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Autoimagen , Autoinforme , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
9.
Acta Psychol (Amst) ; 198: 102867, 2019 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31234036

RESUMEN

Prior research has reported that political conservatives rely on a deontological approach to resolving moral dilemmas by favoring moral rules and moral edicts rather than expressing a willingness to sacrifice one life in order to save multiple others. In the current research, we sought to firstly demonstrate the underlying process and secondly to clarify the exact nature of the link between political ideology and deontological ethics. In Study 1, political conservatism predicted deontological judgments because of greater intuition. That is, conservatives think rather intuitively, and intuitive thinking is one antecedent to deontological judgments when resolving moral dilemmas. Following, in Study 2, we demonstrate that only social-not fiscal-conservatism predicts intuition and thus deontological ethics. Accordingly, we tease apart the typical left-right measure of political ideology into its two key aspects and argue that only the social but not fiscal dimensions predicts intuition and deontological ethics. We are not the first authors to suggest the existence of a link between political conservatism and moral processing, but we are the first to suggest an explanation and the first to clarify which aspect of conservatism is associated with deontological ethics.


Asunto(s)
Teoría Ética , Política Fiscal , Política , Política Pública , Adulto , Femenino , Humanos , Intuición , Juicio , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Principios Morales , Política Pública/tendencias
10.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 110(1): 10-15, 2019 07 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31161219

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Although the data on eating behavior after bariatric surgery are substantial, data on "intuitive eating" are lacking. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the link between intuitive eating and weight loss after bariatric surgery. METHODS: This cross-sectional study used a self-administered questionnaire freely available on social networks and targeted women who had undergone bariatric surgery. Intuitive eating was evaluated with the Intuitive Eating Scale-2 (IES-2). The 3 questionnaire subscores (Eating for Physical Rather than Emotional Reasons, Reliance on Hunger and Satiety Cues, and Unconditional Permission to Eat) were also analyzed. The relation between IES-2 scores and the relative variation in body mass index [BMI (in kg/m2)] was assessed with linear regression models. Adjusted ß (ßAdj) and standardized ß $( {{\rm{\beta }}_{{\rm{Adj}}}^{{\rm{STD}}}} )$ were reported. RESULTS: We analyzed the responses of 401 women with a mean age of 39 ± 11 y, a mean preoperative BMI of 45.5 ± 7.9, and a mean current BMI of 30.5 ± 7. The mean relative BMI loss was 32.7 ± 12.9%, and the mean IES-2 score was 3.3 ± 0.6. The total IES-2 score was associated with the relative BMI loss, with ∼2.6% BMI loss for each 1-point increase in the IES-2 score [PAdj = 0.007; ßAdj = -2.57 (95% CI: -4.44, -0.70); ${\rm{\beta }}_{{\rm{Adj}}}^{{\rm{STD}}}$= -0.12] after adjusting for elapsed time since surgery and type of surgery. Eating for Physical Rather than Emotional Reasons was the subscore most strongly associated with BMI change after adjustment [PAdj = 0.002; ßAdj = -2.08 (95% CI: -3.37, 0.79); ${\rm{\beta }}_{{\rm{Adj}}}^{{\rm{STD}}}$ = -0.14]. CONCLUSIONS: This study highlights a significant association between intuitive eating and BMI decrease after bariatric surgery. Furthermore, eating behaviors changed with increasing time since surgery. An intuitive nutritional approach may be complementary with bariatric surgery in the postoperative phase, which should prompt complementary prospective studies to evaluate the effectiveness of therapeutic education programs centered on intuitive eating in the postoperative period.


Asunto(s)
Cirugía Bariátrica , Conducta Alimentaria/fisiología , Intuición/fisiología , Obesidad/cirugía , Pérdida de Peso , Adulto , Anciano , Estudios Transversales , Ingestión de Alimentos/psicología , Emociones , Conducta Alimentaria/psicología , Femenino , Humanos , Hambre , Persona de Mediana Edad , Saciedad , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
11.
PLoS One ; 14(5): e0217513, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31120990

RESUMEN

People spend much of their time in imaginary worlds, and have beliefs about the events that are likely in those worlds, and the laws that govern them. Such beliefs are likely affected by people's intuitive theories of the real world. In three studies, people judged the effort required to cast spells that cause physical violations. People ranked the actions of spells congruently with intuitive physics. For example, people judge that it requires more effort to conjure up a frog than to levitate it one foot off the ground. A second study manipulated the target and extent of the spells, and demonstrated with a continuous measure that people are sensitive to this manipulation even between participants. A pre-registered third study replicated the results of Study 2. These results suggest that people's intuitive theories partly account for how they think about imaginary worlds.


Asunto(s)
Imaginación , Juicio , Magia , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Femenino , Humanos , Intuición , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Adulto Joven
12.
PLoS One ; 14(5): e0216329, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31075105

RESUMEN

According to the social heuristics hypothesis, people intuitively cooperate or defect depending on which behavior is beneficial in their interactions. If cooperation is beneficial, people intuitively cooperate, but if defection is beneficial, they intuitively defect. However, deliberation promotes defection. Here, we tested two novel predictions regarding the role of trust in the social heuristics hypothesis. First, whether trust promotes intuitive cooperation. Second, whether preferring to think intuitively or deliberatively moderates the effect of trust on cooperation. In addition, we examined whether deciding intuitively promotes cooperation, compared to deciding deliberatively. To evaluate these predictions, we conducted a lab study in Colombia and an online study in the United Kingdom (N = 1,066; one study was pre-registered). Unexpectedly, higher trust failed to promote intuitive cooperation, though higher trust promoted cooperation. In addition, preferring to think intuitively or deliberatively failed to moderate the effect of trust on cooperation, although preferring to think intuitively increased cooperation. Moreover, deciding intuitively failed to promote cooperation, and equivalence testing confirmed that this null result was explained by the absence of an effect, rather than a lack of statistical power (equivalence bounds: d = -0.26 and 0.26). An intuitive cooperation effect emerged when non-compliant participants were excluded, but this effect could be due to selection biases. Taken together, most results failed to support the social heuristics hypothesis. We conclude by discussing implications, future directions, and limitations. The materials, data, and code are available on the Open Science Framework (https://osf.io/939jv/).


Asunto(s)
Heurística , Confianza , Colombia , Conducta Cooperativa , Humanos , Intuición , Reino Unido
13.
Soc Cogn Affect Neurosci ; 14(5): 539-548, 2019 05 31.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31034055

RESUMEN

Human beings often curb self-interest to develop and enforce social norms, such as fairness, as exemplified in the ultimatum game (UG). Inspired by the dual-system account for the responder's choice during the UG, we investigated whether the neural basis of psychological process induced by fairness is under genetic control using a twin fMRI study (62 monozygotic, 48 dizygotic; mean age: 19.32 ± 1.38 years). We found a moderate genetic contribution to the rejection rate of unfair proposals (24%-35%), independent of stake size or proposer type, during the UG. Using a voxel-level analysis, we found that genetic factors moderately contributed to unfairness-evoked activation in the bilateral anterior insula (AI), regions representing the intuition of fairness norm violations (mean heritability: left 37%, right 40%). No genetic contributions were found in regions related to deliberate, controlled processes in the UG. This study provides the first evidence that evoked brain activity by unfairness in the bilateral AI is influenced by genes and sheds light on the genetic basis of brain processes underlying costly punishment.


Asunto(s)
Intuición/fisiología , Normas Sociales , Adolescente , Mapeo Encefálico , Femenino , Juegos Experimentales , Humanos , Imagen por Resonancia Magnética , Masculino , Modelos Genéticos , Adulto Joven
14.
J Exp Psychol Gen ; 148(12): 2129-2153, 2019 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31021149

RESUMEN

The cognitive reflection test (CRT) has increasingly dominated theorizing about individual differences in intuitive/reflective thinking propensities, and it is associated with many real-world beliefs and judgments, such as religiosity, paranormal beliefs, and moral judgments. The CRT triggers common incorrect responses that come to mind easily, and it is frequently assumed that recognizing this error is tantamount to solving the problems. As a result, incorrect answers on the CRT purportedly indicate an intuitive thought process, whereas correct answers purportedly indicate a reflective thought process. It has also been argued that the CRT problems are fundamentally different from insight problems because insight problems often cause people to sit lost in thought, unable to identify a solution until they correctly reframe it. The present research tested these assumptions and found that a substantial proportion of people have difficulty solving the CRT problems even when the "intuitive" response is unavailable to them, the correct answer is among four multiple-choice options, and they take time to reflect. Associations between the CRT and beliefs (religiosity, paranormal beliefs, moral judgments, etc.) remained even under conditions in which CRT errors appeared to result from more reflective thought than correct responses. Furthermore, multidimensional item response theory models indicated that the CRT loaded onto numeracy and insight problem solving ability factors rather than its own unique factor. Regression analyses also indicated that numeracy and insight may account for many associations between the CRT and real-world beliefs. Broader implications for dual-process theories of reasoning and judgment are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Asunto(s)
Individualidad , Intuición , Pruebas Neuropsicológicas/normas , Solución de Problemas/fisiología , Pensamiento/fisiología , Adulto , Femenino , Humanos , Juicio/fisiología , Masculino , Conceptos Matemáticos , Adulto Joven
15.
Gac. sanit. (Barc., Ed. impr.) ; 33(2): 191-196, mar.-abr. 2019. tab, graf
Artículo en Español | IBECS | ID: ibc-183683

RESUMEN

Introducción: El conocimiento tácito puede definirse como aquel que se utiliza de forma intuitiva e inconsciente, y que se adquiere mediante la propia experiencia, caracterizándose por ser personal y contextual. Términos como «intuición», «saber cómo» y «conocimiento implícito» se han utilizado para describirlo. Diferentes disciplinas en el ámbito de la gestión y la salud han estudiado el conocimiento tácito y lo han identificado como una potente herramienta para la creación de conocimiento y la toma de decisiones clínica. El objetivo de esta revisión fue analizar la definición y las características que componen el conocimiento tácito, así como determinar el rol que desempeña en la disciplina enfermera. Método: Se realizó una revisión integrativa de la literatura publicada hasta noviembre de 2016 en las bases de datos CUIDEN, SciELO, PubMed, Cochrane y CINAHL. La síntesis y la interpretación de los datos fue realizada por dos investigadores mediante análisis del contenido. Resultados: De los 819 artículos localizados, se seleccionaron 35 sobre el conocimiento tácito y la disciplina enfermera. No existe consenso en la denominación y la interpretación de los resultados en conocimiento tácito. Las principales características del conocimiento tácito son su carácter personal y social, siendo utilizado a partir de una estructura mental organizada (mindline). Esta estructura está relacionada con el uso del conocimiento tácito en la toma de decisiones clínicas. Conclusiones: Los estudios realizados sobre conocimiento tácito y la disciplina enfermera aportan diversas perspectivas sin profundizar en la materia. Se plantea la elaboración de un marco de relaciones que clarifique los conceptos implicados y su papel en la gestión del conocimiento enfermero


Introduction: Tacit knowledge can be defined as knowledge which is used intuitively and unconsciously, which is acquired through one's experience, characterized by being personal and contextual. Some terms such as 'intuition', 'know how' and 'implicit knowledge' have been used to describe tacit knowledge. Different disciplines in the fields of management or health have studied tacit knowledge, identifying it as a powerful tool to create knowledge and clinical decision-making. The aim of this review is to analyse the definition and characteristics that make up tacit knowledge and determine the role it plays in the nursing discipline. Methods: An integrative review was undertaken of the literature published up to November 2016 in the databases CUIDEN, SciELO, PubMed, Cochrane and CINAHL. The synthesis and interpretation of the data was performed by two researchers through content analysis. Results: From a total of 819 articles located, 35 articles on tacit knowledge and nursing were chosen. There is no consensus on the name and description of results in tacit knowledge. The main characteristics of tacit knowledge have a personal and social character, which is used from an organised mental structure, called mindline. This structure relates to the use of tacit knowledge on clinical decision-making. Conclusions: Previous studies on tacit knowledge and nursing provide the nursing community with perspectives without going into depth. The production of a framework is suggested, as it would clarify implied concepts and its role on the management of nursing knowledge


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Competencia Profesional , Atención de Enfermería/métodos , Gestión del Conocimiento , Intuición , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud
16.
Diagnosis (Berl) ; 6(3): 259-268, 2019 08 27.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30877781

RESUMEN

Background Diagnostic intuition is a rapid, non-analytic, unconscious mode of reasoning. A small body of evidence points to the ubiquity of intuition, and its usefulness in generating diagnostic hypotheses and ascertaining severity of illness. Little is known about how experienced physicians understand this phenomenon, and how they work with it in clinical practice. Methods Descriptions of how experienced physicians perceive their use of diagnostic intuition in clinical practice were elicited through interviews conducted with 30 physicians in emergency, internal and family medicine. Each participant was asked to share stories of diagnostic intuition, including times when intuition was both correct and incorrect. Multiple coders conducted descriptive analysis to analyze the salient aspects of these stories. Results Physicians provided descriptions of what diagnostic intuition is, when it occurs and what type of activity it prompts. From stories of correct intuition, a typology of four different types of intuition was identified: Sick/Not Sick, Something Not Right, Frame-shifting and Abduction. Most physician accounts of diagnostic intuition linked this phenomenon to non-analytic reasoning and emphasized the importance of experience in developing a trustworthy sense of intuition that can be used to effectively engage analytic reasoning to evaluate clinical evidence. Conclusions The participants recounted myriad stories of diagnostic intuition that alerted them to unusual diagnoses, previous diagnostic error or deleterious trajectories. While this qualitative study can offer no conclusions about the representativeness of these stories, it suggests that physicians perceive clinical intuition as beneficial for correcting and advancing diagnoses of both common and rare conditions.


Asunto(s)
Toma de Decisiones Clínicas , Diagnóstico , Intuición , Médicos , Solución de Problemas , Medicina de Emergencia , Medicina Familiar y Comunitaria , Femenino , Humanos , Medicina Interna , Entrevistas como Asunto , Masculino , Investigación Cualitativa
18.
PLoS One ; 14(3): e0212636, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30840647

RESUMEN

The determination of the weights of decision makers (DMs) is an important problem in multi-attribute group decision making. Many approaches have been presented to determine DMs' weights. However, the computed weight vectors of DMs are usually assumed to be constant in existing studies, and this may cause irrationalities in the decision results. Therefore, this article proposes a novel method to determine DMs' weights based on variable weights theory in which the evaluation information is described as intuitionistic fuzzy sets (IFSs). First, DMs provide their assessment with IFSs, and the intuitionistic fuzzy weighted averaging (IFWA) operator is applied to obtain weighted decision matrix based on the prior given DMs' and attributes' weights. Second, the DMs' weights are obtained based on variable weights theory, and an alternative decision can be computed. Finally, the converted value of the achieved IFS of each alternative is calculated, and the best appropriate alternative is acquired. Two illustrative examples and the comparisons with exsiting approaches are also used to reflect the effectiveness of the proposed approach.


Asunto(s)
Algoritmos , Toma de Decisiones , Intuición , Modelos Biológicos , Humanos
19.
PLoS One ; 14(2): e0211770, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30785898

RESUMEN

Field studies indicate that people may form impressions about potential partners' HIV risk, yet lack insight into what underlies such intuitions. The present study examined which cues may give rise to the perception of riskiness. Towards this end, portrait pictures of persons that are representative of the kinds of images found on social media were evaluated by independent raters on two sets of data: First, sixty visible cues deemed relevant to person perception, and second, perceived HIV risk and trustworthiness, health, and attractiveness. Here, we report correlations between cues and perceived HIV risk, exposing cue-criterion associations that may be used to infer intuitively HIV risk. Second, we trained a multiple cue-based model to forecast perceived HIV risk through cross-validated predictive modelling. Trained models accurately predicted how 'risky' a person was perceived (r = 0.75) in a novel sample of portraits. Findings are discussed with respect to HIV risk stereotypes and implications regarding how to foster effective protective behaviors.


Asunto(s)
Intuición , Conducta Sexual , Parejas Sexuales , Percepción Visual , Adolescente , Adulto , Femenino , Infecciones por VIH , Humanos , Masculino
20.
Acta Psychol (Amst) ; 194: 51-62, 2019 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30743090

RESUMEN

In Experiment 1, we explored participants' perceptual knowledge of vertical fall by presenting them with virtually simulated polystyrene or wooden spheres falling to the ground from about two meters high. Participants rated the perceived naturalness of the motion. Besides the implied mass of the sphere, we manipulated the motion pattern (i.e., uniform acceleration vs. uniform velocity), and the magnitude of acceleration or velocity. Results show that relatively low values of acceleration or velocity were judged as natural for the polystyrene sphere, whereas relatively high values of acceleration or velocity were judged as natural for the wooden sphere. In Experiment 2, the same stimuli of Experiment 1 were used, but the sphere disappeared behind an invisible occluder at some point of its trajectory. Participants were asked to predict the time-to-contact (TTC) of the sphere with the ground by pressing a key at the exact time of impact of the lower edge of the sphere with the floor of the room. Results show that the estimated TTC for the simulated wooden sphere was slightly but consistently smaller than the estimated TTC for the simulated polystyrene sphere. The influence of the implied mass on participants' responses might be the manifestation of two processes, namely an explicit 'heavy-fast, light-slow' heuristic, and/or an implicit, automatic association between mass and falling speed.


Asunto(s)
Intuición/fisiología , Juicio/fisiología , Percepción de Movimiento/fisiología , Estimulación Luminosa/métodos , Fenómenos Físicos , Aceleración , Adulto , Femenino , Predicción , Humanos , Masculino , Física , Adulto Joven
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