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1.
Curr Opin Pulm Med ; 27(3): 155-162, 2021 05 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33654014

RESUMEN

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: COVID-19 has put the in-vitro-diagnostic community under an unprecedented spotlight, with a global requirement for accurate SARS-CoV-2 tests. This review will outline technological responses to this need and the analytical considerations required for their translation to routine use. RECENT FINDINGS: SARS-CoV-2 diagnostic solutions directly detect the virus or measure host-derived surrogate markers of infection. With pressure upon supply chains for the 'traditional' molecular approaches, a wide variety of analytical tools spanning the molecular, serology, imaging and chemistry space are being developed, including high throughput solutions and simplified near-patient formats. SUMMARY: The unique genetic nature of SARS-CoV-2 means high analytical specificity is achievable by most diagnostic formats. However, clinical sensitivity assessment is complicated by wide discrepancies in analytical range and challenges associated with standardising these differences. When coupled with the acute nature of SARS-CoV-2 infection, reported precise metrics of test performance must be questioned. The response to SARS-CoV-2 has delivered considerable diagnostic innovation, but for a technology to be maximised, it must be demonstrably reproducible and fit for purpose. If novel diagnostic solutions for SARS-CoV-2 are to succeed, equally innovative mechanisms are needed to ensure widespread clinical and surveillance application, enabling agreed standards and metrics to ensure comparability.


Asunto(s)
/métodos , Invenciones , /virología , Humanos , /aislamiento & purificación , Sensibilidad y Especificidad , Investigación en Medicina Traslacional
2.
Nat Med ; 27(3): 401-410, 2021 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33723456

RESUMEN

The twenty-first century has already recorded more than ten major epidemic or pandemic virus emergence events, including the ongoing and devastating coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. As viral disease emergence is expected to accelerate, these data dictate a need for proactive approaches to develop broadly active family-specific and cross-family therapeutics for use in future disease outbreaks. Emphasis should focus not only on the development of broad-spectrum small-molecule and antibody direct-acting antivirals, but also on host-factor therapeutics, including repurposing previously approved or in-pipeline drugs. Another new class of therapeutics with great antiviral therapeutic potential is RNA-based therapeutics. Rather than only focusing on known risks, dedicated efforts must be made toward pre-emptive research focused on outbreak-prone virus families, ultimately offering a strategy to shorten the gap between outbreak and response. Emphasis should also focus on orally available drugs for outpatient use, if possible, and on identifying combination therapies that combat viral and immune-mediated pathologies, extend the effectiveness of therapeutic windows and reduce drug resistance. While such an undertaking will require new vision, dedicated funding and private, federal and academic partnerships, this approach offers hope that global populations need never experience future pandemics such as COVID-19.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades Transmisibles Emergentes/terapia , Terapias en Investigación , Virosis/terapia , Antivirales/uso terapéutico , /epidemiología , Desarrollo de Medicamentos/métodos , Desarrollo de Medicamentos/tendencias , Reposicionamiento de Medicamentos , Historia del Siglo XXI , Humanos , Invenciones/tendencias , Pandemias , Terapias en Investigación/métodos , Terapias en Investigación/tendencias
3.
A A Pract ; 15(3): e01419, 2021 Mar 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33684080

RESUMEN

The risk of aerosol transmission has been a key factor for the rapid dissemination of the coronavirus pandemic. Transportation of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)-infected patients with active air leaks could expose unprotected health care personnel and other patients to aerosolized viral particles. We devised a way to avoid aerosolization while the chest tube drain is on water seal. It involves placing an Ultipor100 viral filter on the suction port of the drain system as well as sealing off the safety valve. This mechanism allows positive pressure from an air leak to escape while on water seal while trapping viral particles.


Asunto(s)
/terapia , Portador Sano/prevención & control , Tubos Torácicos/efectos adversos , Manejo de la Enfermedad , Invenciones/tendencias , Cuidados Posoperatorios/tendencias , /epidemiología , Portador Sano/epidemiología , Humanos , Cuidados Posoperatorios/métodos
4.
A A Pract ; 15(3): e01417, 2021 Mar 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33687348

RESUMEN

Health care workers performing aerosolizing procedures on patients with transmissible infections such as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) are at high-risk for disease acquisition. Current guidelines designed to protect health care workers during aerosolizing procedures prioritize personal protective equipment and enhanced infection control techniques, in particular during procedures such as intubation. To date, little emphasis has been placed on risk mitigation in the setting of bronchoscopy, a procedure that has significant aerosolization potential. Herein, we present an innovative closed bronchoscopy system designed to reduce aerosolization during bronchoscopy.


Asunto(s)
Broncoscopía/métodos , Control de Infecciones/métodos , Transmisión de Enfermedad Infecciosa de Paciente a Profesional/prevención & control , Invenciones , Maniquíes , Broncoscopía/instrumentación , Personal de Salud , Humanos , Equipo de Protección Personal
6.
Syst Rev ; 10(1): 43, 2021 02 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33526095

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Cancer patients are particularly vulnerable to COVID-19, partially owing to their compromised immune systems and curbed or cut cancer healthcare services caused by the pandemic. As a result, cancer caregivers may have to shoulder triple crises: the COVID-19 pandemic, pronounced healthcare needs from the patient, and elevated need for care from within. While technology-based health interventions have the potential to address unique challenges cancer caregivers face amid COVID-19, limited insights are available. Thus, to bridge this gap, we aim to identify technology-based interventions designed for cancer caregivers and report the characteristics and effects of these interventions concerning cancer caregivers' distinctive challenges amid COVID-19. METHODS: A systematic search of the literature will be conducted in PubMed, PsycINFO, CINAHL, and Scopus from the database inception to the end of March 2021. Articles that center on technology-based interventions for cancer caregivers will be included in the review. The search strategy will be developed in consultation with an academic librarian who is experienced in systematic review studies. Titles, abstracts, and full-text articles will be screened against eligibility criteria developed a priori. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses procedures will be followed for the reporting process. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 has upended cancer care as we know it. Findings of this study can shed light on evidence-based and practical solutions cancer caregivers can utilize to mitigate the unique challenges they face amid COVID-19. Furthermore, results of this study will also offer valuable insights for researchers who aim to develop interventions for cancer caregivers in the context of COVID-19. In addition, we also expect to be able to identify areas for improvement that need to be addressed in order for health experts to more adequately help cancer caregivers weather the storm of global health crises like COVID-19 and beyond. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: PROSPERO CRD42020196301.


Asunto(s)
Cuidadores/psicología , Invenciones , Neoplasias/enfermería , Prestación de Atención de Salud , Humanos
7.
J Environ Manage ; 285: 112095, 2021 May 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33561729

RESUMEN

Focusing on green technology innovation, the paper researches its motivation and implementation results from the perspective of internal corporate management. The impact of top manager team faultlines on green technology innovation and the moderating role of environmental information disclosure in the relationship between green technology innovation and financial performance are discussed. Using listed manufacturing corporate data obtained from China Stock Market & Accounting Research database, the hypotheses are tested. It is found that there is an inverted U-shaped relationship between task-related faultline and green technology innovation, while bio-demographic faultline has no significant influence on green technology innovation. In addition, both green technology innovation and environmental information disclosure have positive effects on financial performance, while the moderating effect of environmental information disclosure on innovation-performance doesn't exist. Combined with the research results, the practical implications for policy makers and managers and future research avenue are proposed.


Asunto(s)
Comercio , Invenciones , China , Revelación
8.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 28(15): 19424-19438, 2021 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33392988

RESUMEN

The study examines the moderating role of institutional quality and technological innovation on the empirical relationship between FDI inflows and four indicator variables of CO2emissions in 40 Asian countries for the period 1996-2016, by using generalized method of moment (GMM) estimation. First, from non-interactive regression, FDI inflows have positive impacts on CO2emissions; over all, from our empirical results, we conclude that the moderating role of institutional quality and technological innovation is crucial in the nexus between FDI and carbon CO2emissions and the interaction between institutional quality indicators and FDI inflows significantly reduce the level of CO2 emissions. Furthermore, the significant moderating effect of technological innovation is observed on the association between FDI and CO2 emissions. The results are important for policy makers in setting up long- and short-term policy to protect environmental quality.


Asunto(s)
Dióxido de Carbono , Desarrollo Económico , Asia , Dióxido de Carbono/análisis , Invenciones , Inversiones en Salud
10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33401479

RESUMEN

In the digital era, technology innovation and adoption trigger economic growth and enhance CO2 emissions through productivity, which places it in the mainstream policy debate. For BRICS economies, this paper uses the first method proposed in the literature to quantify their information and communication technology (ICT) and innovatively links each country to their information technology adoption rate, as a surrogate indicator for measuring information and communication technology. Environmental Kuznets curve evidence is also examined, using technology innovation, technology adoption, and trade openness as the control variables for sustainable development. The results show that two out of three technology innovation instruments, fixed telephone, and broadband subscriptions increase CO2 emissions. Simultaneously, mobile cellular subscriptions have a lowering effect on CO2 emission in BRICS. The technology adoption indicators, high-technology exports, and electric power consumption also cause an upsurge in CO2 emission. Moreover, trade openness also enriches the level of CO2 emission in the BRICS regions. There is a need to devise technology innovation and adoption policies to better use technology and to ensure a green environment.


Asunto(s)
Dióxido de Carbono , Invenciones , Desarrollo Sostenible , Tecnología , Brasil , China , Desarrollo Económico , Humanos , India , Políticas , Federación de Rusia , Sudáfrica , Tecnología/organización & administración
11.
Res Dev Disabil ; 109: 103852, 2021 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33465590

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Screening and diagnostic assessments tools for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are important to administer during childhood to facilitate timely entry into intervention services that can promote developmental outcomes across the lifespan. However, assessment services are not always readily available to families, as they require significant time and resources. Currently, in-person screening and diagnostic assessments for ASD are limited due to the COVID-19 pandemic and will continue to be a concern for situations that limit in-person contact. Thus, it is important to expand the modalities in which child assessments are provided, including the use of technology. AIMS: This systematic review aims to identify technologies that screen or assess for ASD in 0-12 year-old children, summarizing the current state of the field and suggesting future directions. METHODS: An electronic database search was conducted to gather relevant articles to synthesize for this review. OUTCOMES AND RESULTS: 16 studies reported use of novel technology to assess children suspected of ASD. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: Results strongly supported live-video evaluations, video observations, and online or phone methods, but there is a need for research targeting the feasibility of these methods as it applies to the stay-at-home orders required by the pandemic, and other situations that limit clients from seeing providers in-person.


Asunto(s)
Trastorno del Espectro Autista/diagnóstico , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles/métodos , Tamizaje Masivo , Telemedicina/métodos , /epidemiología , Niño , Humanos , Invenciones , Tamizaje Masivo/métodos , Tamizaje Masivo/tendencias
12.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 28(13): 16880-16894, 2021 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33392990

RESUMEN

Increasing carbon productivity is an important measure taken by China to deal with global climate change, and technological innovation is the fundamental way to promote industrial carbon productivity. To explore the low-carbon effects of technological innovation, based on the panel data of 30 provinces in China from 2009 to 2017, this paper established a spatial panel measurement model and a panel threshold regression model to explore the spatial spillover effects and threshold characteristics of technological innovation on industrial carbon productivity. The research shows the following: on the one hand, technological innovation and industrial carbon productivity each has obvious spatial correlation, and technological innovation has a significant spatial spillover effect on the improvement of industrial carbon productivity, and the indirect spillover between regions is greater than the direct spillover effect within the area. On the other hand, the impact of technological innovation on industrial carbon productivity has a double threshold effect. With the continuous improvement of technological innovation capabilities, the promotion of industrial carbon productivity has become increasingly more influential. Through the division of threshold values, the technological innovation capabilities of various regions in China are significantly heterogeneous, and the overall level is low. Although technological innovation capabilities have improved in recent years, there is still much room for improvement. Finally, this article puts forward relevant suggestions from the construction of regional technological innovation system, economical green circular development, and the establishment of a green technological innovation system.


Asunto(s)
Carbono , Invenciones , China , Desarrollo Económico , Eficiencia , Industrias
13.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 28(14): 17119-17131, 2021 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33398725

RESUMEN

This study employs super-efficiency DEA model with desirable inputs and an undesirable output in calculating environmental efficiency values in different regions in Asia-Pacific from 1990 to 2018. The study compares environmental efficiency index in South East Asia, South Asia and East Asia. The study also evaluates the determinants of environmental efficiency using truncated regression. The mean environmental efficiency score demonstrates that East Asia region is highly efficient whereas South East Asia is the least efficient. Results from the truncated regression established an inverted U-shape relationship between environmental efficiency and Technological Innovation (TI) in the main panel, and the three regions. Also, economic growth shows an inverted "U" shape link with environmental efficiency in the panels except in South East Asia. Human capital promotes environmental efficiency in the main panel and the rest of the regions. Moreover, while FDI promotes environmental efficiency in the main panel and East Asia, it reduces environmental efficiency in both South East and South Asia regions within the Asia-Pacific. In addition, an interaction effect between technological innovation and renewable energy use, advances environmental efficiency within the entire study countries. Based on the findings the study proposes several policy recommendations.


Asunto(s)
Desarrollo Económico , Invenciones , Asia , Asia Sudoriental , Lejano Oriente , Humanos
14.
J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg ; 74(3): 632-633, 2021 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33402317

RESUMEN

Cranioplasty, defined as the reconstruction of cranial defects, not only offers protective effects with an aesthetically pleasing outcome, but also reverses the altered physiology post craniotomy and craniectomy. The journey of cranioplasty from its roots to the neoteric armamentarium depicts how enormously the innovation of surgical techniques have changed the face of plastic surgery.


Asunto(s)
Procedimientos Quirúrgicos Reconstructivos , Cráneo/cirugía , Cirugía Plástica/tendencias , Craneotomía/métodos , Historia , Humanos , Invenciones , Procedimientos Quirúrgicos Reconstructivos/efectos adversos , Procedimientos Quirúrgicos Reconstructivos/instrumentación , Procedimientos Quirúrgicos Reconstructivos/métodos , Procedimientos Quirúrgicos Reconstructivos/tendencias
16.
Clin Anat ; 34(1): 108-114, 2021 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32681805

RESUMEN

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has had enormous effects on anatomy education. During the pandemic, students have had no access to cadavers, which has been the principal way to learn anatomy since the 17th century. As it is difficult to predict future access to cadavers for students or in-person classes, anatomy educators are encouraged to revisit all possible teaching methods in order to develop innovations. Here, we review anatomy education methods to apply to current and future education.


Asunto(s)
Anatomía/educación , Cadáver , Disección , Educación a Distancia , Invenciones , Impresión Tridimensional , Realidad Virtual , Educación Médica/métodos , Humanos , Plastinación , Aprendizaje Basado en Problemas , Medios de Comunicación Sociales , Enseñanza , Materiales de Enseñanza , Grabación en Video
17.
J Environ Manage ; 280: 111818, 2021 Feb 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33360390

RESUMEN

To verify how does the development of technological innovation effectively mitigate carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions in Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries, this study first investigates the direct impacts and moderating effects of technological innovation, measured by the development of patents on CO2 emissions by employing a balanced panel dataset for 35 OECD countries covering 1996-2015. Also, to examine the potential heterogeneity and asymmetry, the panel quantile regression approach is utilized. The empirical results indicate that technological innovation directly reduces CO2 emissions; however, this impact is significantly heterogeneous and asymmetric across quantiles. Furthermore, through analyzing the influencing mechanism, the technological innovation affects the impacts of economic growth and renewable energy through its moderating effects. Moreover, the moderating effects of technological innovation is also heterogenous. Accordingly, the main contribution of this study is that the potential heterogeneity and asymmetry of both the direct impact and moderating effect of technological innovation on CO2 emissions in OECD countries are systematically analyzed by employing the panel quantile regression approach.


Asunto(s)
Dióxido de Carbono , Organización para la Cooperación y el Desarrollo Económico , Desarrollo Económico , Invenciones , Energía Renovable
18.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0244083, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33370326

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: The answer to this article lies in: Does the financial activities of physical enterprises have an adverse impact on their main business? Is it conducive to the sustainable development of the national economy? However, when most scholars study the impact of environmental regulations on companies performance, they have not classified companies performance. This article will study the relationship between environmental regulations and performance levels based on the classification of companies performance, and then divide the nature of industry pollution, companies location and nature of property for in-depth research. METHODS: First, this article uses a random effect variable-intercept model to measure companies financial performance and non-financial performance. Then, the variables are divided into two variable groups: light pollution and heavy pollution according to the nature of industry pollution. Next, the companies are divided into three variable groups: the eastern region, the central region, and the western region. Finally, the company is divided into two variable groups: state-owned and non-state-owned according to the nature of property. CONCLUSIONS: The study found that: (1) Environmental regulations have inhibited companies financial activities. And the inhibitory effect of environmental regulations on the financial performance of enterprises is more obvious in the heavily polluting industries and enterprises in central and eastern regions. (2) Environmental regulations and companies non-financial performance are also negatively related, environmental regulations have also inhibited the non-financial performance of companies, this effect is more pronounced in heavily polluting industries and enterprises in western regions. (3) Income crowding effect brought by China's environmental regulations is greater than the income compensation effect brought by stimulating technological innovation.


Asunto(s)
Comercio/legislación & jurisprudencia , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales/legislación & jurisprudencia , Contaminación Ambiental/prevención & control , Invenciones/legislación & jurisprudencia , Desarrollo Sostenible/legislación & jurisprudencia , China , Comercio/economía , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales/economía , Humanos , Invenciones/economía , Desarrollo Sostenible/economía
19.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0242981, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33347480

RESUMEN

Industrial-technological innovation (ITI) has become an important requirement for the sustainable development of China. ITI development requires a comprehensive understanding of the dynamic complexity associated with ITI systems. Previous research into ITI systems is based primarily on static methods that isolate system components, and ignore feedback on adjustments made. Based on systems thinking, this paper develop six archetypes ("Limit to Growth," "Success to the Successful," "Tragedy of the Commons," "Fixes that Fail," "Accidental Adversaries," and "Shifting the Burden") and an ITI system integration model. The model visualizes the ITI system as a whole and identifies bottlenecks that may affect ITI development. This conceptual model provides a more effective method of judgment, which can better explain the operational mechanism of the ITI system and improve the system's operational characteristics. Finally, we evaluate the ITI system and propose that self-organization is a key lever of a systemic intervention framework for ITI.


Asunto(s)
Industrias , Invenciones , Desarrollo Sostenible
20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33317027

RESUMEN

High-polluting industries are regarded as the main sources of air pollutant emissions and the major factors that significantly destroy the ecological environment. Corporate innovation in high-polluting industries improves the energy consumption efficiency and reduces the emission of air pollutant, which mitigates the conflict between environment and economy. Using the sample of China's listed firms from 2010 to 2017, this study examines the impact of corporate social responsibility (CSR) and financialization on corporate innovation in high-polluting industries. The results show that there is a positive association between CSR and corporate innovation, while there is a negative association between financialization and corporate innovation. Furthermore, the financialization of high-polluting firms can alleviate the promotion role of CSR in the innovation process. The financialization of state-owned enterprises in high-polluting industries may not have a crowding-out effect on research and development (R&D), but it can limit the R&D promotion effect of CSR engagements. In contrast, the financialization of non-state-owned enterprises will hinder corporate innovation, but it will not affect the association between CSR and technology innovation. We also find that the financialization of high-polluting firms with low financial constraints can alleviate the promotion role of CSR engagements in innovation. Meanwhile, the CSR engagements of high-polluting firms with high financial constraints play a stronger role in corporate innovation. During the implementation of environmental policies, the negative association between financialization and corporate innovation has been strengthened. Our findings can encourage high-polluting firms to make more efforts in environmental protection and social stability.


Asunto(s)
Contaminación Ambiental , Corporaciones Profesionales , Responsabilidad Social , China , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales/estadística & datos numéricos , Contaminación Ambiental/estadística & datos numéricos , Industrias/ética , Industrias/estadística & datos numéricos , Invenciones , Corporaciones Profesionales/ética , Corporaciones Profesionales/estadística & datos numéricos
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