Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 29.723
Filtrar
1.
BMC Psychol ; 9(1): 138, 2021 Sep 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34511136

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Patients with Substance use disorder have distinct personality traits, they were high score in novelty seeking (NS) and sensation seeking and lower in Self-directedness and higher in Self-transcendence, so we aim to investigate the relationships of temperament and characteristics with related some variables such as substance of choice. DESIGN AND SETTING: A case-control study enrolling 70 Substance use disorder patients and 70 controls was conducted at Mashhad University of medical sciences. METHODS: Using a case-control design, a group of 70 Substance use disorder patients and 70 controls was conducted at Mashhad university of medical sciences. All participation completed the 240 questions of Temperament and Character Inventory-Revised (TCI-R). Multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) was employed to compare the relationship between temperament and character traits and patterns of substance use. RESULTS: The scores of reward dependence, persistence, self-directedness, cooperativeness, and self-transcendence were significantly lower in the case group compared to healthy individuals (P < 0.05). In contrast, the score of novel seeking was significantly higher in the case group (P < 0.05). On the other hand, harm avoidance was not significantly different between the two studied groups (P = 0.637). CONCLUSIONS: Higher NS in patients with substance use disorder is common and different traits, and temperaments would choose different substance combinations.


Asunto(s)
Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias , Temperamento , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Humanos , Irán , Inventario de Personalidad , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/epidemiología
2.
Psychol Aging ; 36(6): 730-743, 2021 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34516175

RESUMEN

Health conditions such as higher disease burden, pain, or lower functional health are associated with poorer self-rated health (SRH) in older age. Poorer SRH, in turn, is a predictor of morbidity and mortality. Personality traits are associated with SRH as well, but little is known about the interaction of personality and health conditions. In the present preregistered analyses, we used five annual waves of the Health, Aging and Retirement Transitions in Sweden (HEARTS) study (N = 5,823, M age = 63.09, SD = 2.01) to investigate the associations of personality (neuroticism and conscientiousness) and physical health indices (disease burden, pain, and functional limitations) with levels and change in SRH. In addition, we tested Personality × Health interaction effects. We found that higher neuroticism and lower conscientiousness were related to lower levels of SRH, but not to change in SRH after controlling for the health indices. Personality did not moderate the effect of health indices on levels and change in SRH. Exploratory analyses showed that high scores of neuroticism may augment the association of increased pain and functional limitations with declines in SRH. Additional studies with other samples are needed to test if this result can be replicated. Taken together, our findings provide only weak evidence for interaction effects of personality and physical health factors on SRH. More research is needed to understand the interplay of physical and psychological factors in shaping individual SRH. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Asunto(s)
Envejecimiento/psicología , Estado de Salud , Neuroticismo , Virtudes , Anciano , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Inventario de Personalidad , Suecia/epidemiología
3.
An. psicol ; 37(2): 334-340, mayo-sept. 2021. tab, graf
Artículo en Español | IBECS | ID: ibc-202556

RESUMEN

El objetivo del presente estudio es analizar si la curiosidad es una variable moderadora entre la Impulsividad y la Orientación Emprendedora. Se utiliza una muestra multiocupacional de 883 empleados españoles (49 % hombres, 51 % mujeres), obtenidos mediante un muestreo no probabilístico. Se ha utilizado el programa SPSS 23.0. Se encontraron correlaciones estadísticamente significativas entre todas las variables de la investigación a excepcion de la impulsividad Funcional. Finalmente, la evidencia empírica indica que la Curiosidad-D tiene un papel moderador entre la impulsividad Disfuncional y la Orientación Emprendedora mostrada, en el sentido de que la Curiosidad-D (entendida como una variable cuantitativa) afecta la intensidad de la relación entre la Impulsividad Disfuncional (variable predictora) y la Orientación Emprendedora (variable de criterio)


The objective of the present study is to analyze whether the variable Curiosity is a moderating variable between Impulsivity and Entrepreneurial Orientation. The multi-occupational sample of 883 Spanish and Colombian employees (49% men, 51% women) was obtained through non-probabilistic sampling. The data collected were processed with the SPSS 23.0 program. Statistically significant correlations were found among all the research variables except for Functional Impulsivity. Finally, empirical evidence indicates that Curiosity-D plays a moderating role between Dysfunctional Impulsivity and Entrepreneurial Orientation in the sense that Curiosity-D (understood as a quantitative variable) affects the intensity of the relationship between Dysfunctional Impulsivity (predictor variable) and Entrepreneurial Orientation (criterion variable)


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Adulto , Persona de Mediana Edad , Conducta Exploratoria , Impulso (Psicología) , Emprendimiento , Conducta Impulsiva , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Inventario de Personalidad , Análisis de Regresión , Valores de Referencia , España , Colombia
4.
An. psicol ; 37(2): 361-370, mayo-sept. 2021. tab, graf
Artículo en Español | IBECS | ID: ibc-202559

RESUMEN

El enfoque psicológico en torno a la actividad emprendedora contribuye a explicar por qué las personas deciden o no emprender. El objetivo del presente estudio es analizar diferentes perfiles de personalidad emprendedora, así como identificar las variables de personalidad que puedan explicar el convertirse en trabajador por cuenta propia. Empleando una muestra de 586 participantes (Medad= 39,31; DTedad = 14,66), se analizaron diferentes perfiles de personalidad emprendedora mediante técnicas de análisis de perfiles latentes. Además, se analizó si había diferencias en otras variables psicológicas en función del perfil de personalidad emprendedora. Finalmente, se estudió, mediante un modelo de ecuaciones estructurales, si la responsabilidad, el autocontrol, el grit y la personalidad emprendedora ayudan a explicar que las personas se conviertan en trabajadores por cuenta propia. Los resultados apoyan la existencia de tres perfiles latentes de personalidad emprendedora (baja, media y alta), siendo el perfil alta personalidad emprendedora el que muestra mayores puntuaciones en otras variables psicológicas, así como mayor proporción de trabajadores por cuenta propia. El modelo de ecuaciones estructurales planteado explica un 2,6% de la varianza de la variable ser trabajador autónomo, por lo que las variables de personalidad ayudan a explicar una pequeña parte de la actividad emprendedora


The psychological approach to entrepreneurial activity helps to explain why people decide or not to undertake. The objective of this study is to analyze different entrepreneurial personality profiles, as well as to identify the personality variables that can explain becoming a self-employed. Using a sample of 586 participants (Mage = 39.31; SDage = 14.66), different entrepreneurial personality profiles were analyzed using la-tent profile analysis techniques. In addition, it was analyzed whether there were differences in other psychological variables based on the entrepreneurial personality profile. Finally, it was studied, using a structural equation model, if conscientiousness, self-control, grit and entrepreneurial personality help to explain why people become self-employed. The results support the existence of three latent profiles of entrepreneurial personality (low, medium and high), being high entrepreneurial personality the one profile that shows higher scores in other psychological variables, as well as a higher proportion of self-employed. The proposed structural equation model explains 2.6% of the variance of the variable being self-employed, so the personality variables help to explain a small part of entrepreneurial activity


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Adolescente , Adulto Joven , Adulto , Persona de Mediana Edad , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Emprendimiento , Concienciación , Autocontrol/psicología , Motivación , Empleo/psicología , Inventario de Personalidad , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Valores de Referencia
5.
An. psicol ; 37(2): 371-377, mayo-sept. 2021. tab
Artículo en Inglés | IBECS | ID: ibc-202560

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: According to spirituality well-being, ambiguity intolerance, and happiness conceptualizations, this study was purposed to investigate the influences of spiritual well-being and uncertainty tolerance on happiness with regards to the moderating roles of sex in the elderly. Meth-od: Participants included 120 elders from Shiraz City, Fars province, Iran. A demographic questionnaire, the Spiritual Well-Being Inventory (SWBI), the Multiple Stimulus Types Ambiguity Tolerance Scale-II (MSTAT-II), and the Oxford Happiness Questionnaire (OHI) were used for data collection. RESULTS: Findings showed that spirituality well-being and uncertainty intolerance explain 60% of happiness variation in the elderly. But results rejected the role of sex on the prediction of happiness in the present study. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates the predictive roles of spiritual well-being and ambiguity tolerance on happiness in the field of gerontology


ANTECEDENTES: De acuerdo con las conceptualizaciones del bienestar espiritual, la intolerancia a la ambigüedad y la felicidad, este estudio se propuso investigar las influencias del bienestar espiritual y la tolerancia a la incertidumbre sobre la felicidad con respecto a los roles moderadores del sexo en los ancianos. MÉTODO: Participaron 120 ancianos de la ciudad de Shiraz, provincia de Fars, Irán. Para la recopilación de datos se utilizaron un cuestionario demográfico, el Inventario de Bienestar Espiritual (SWBI), la Escala II de Tolerancia a la Ambigüedad de Tipos de Estímulos Múltiples (MSTAT-II) y el Cuestionario de Felicidad de Oxford (OHI). RESULTADOS: Los resultados mostraron que la espiritualidad, el bienestar y la intolerancia a la incertidumbre explican el 60% de la variación de la felicidad en los ancianos. Pero los resultados rechazaron el papel del sexo en la predicción de la felicidad en el presente estudio. CONCLUSIÓN: Este estudio demuestra los roles predictivos del bienestar espiritual y la tolerancia a la ambigüedad sobre la felicidad en el campo de la gerontología


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Espiritualidad , Tolerancia , Felicidad , Incertidumbre , Salud del Anciano , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Inventario de Personalidad , Satisfacción Personal , Envejecimiento/psicología
6.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444339

RESUMEN

Cardiac rehabilitation (CR) remains underutilised, despite its established clinical benefit. A personality traits assessment may help promote CR implementation, as they are determinants of health-related behaviour. This study aimed to examine the association between the Big Five personality traits and outpatient CR participation in patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD) after discharge. This retrospective cohort study included 163 patients aged <80 years, who underwent inpatient CR when hospitalised for CVD. The Big Five personality traits (conscientiousness, neuroticism, openness, extraversion, and agreeableness) of each patient were evaluated at discharge, using the Japanese version of the Ten-Item Personality Inventory. We examined the relationship of each personality trait with non-participation in outpatient CR and dropout within three months, using logistic regression analysis. Out of 61 patients who initiated the outpatient CR, 29 patients dropped out, leaving us with 32 subjects. The logistic regression analysis results showed that high conscientiousness was associated with non-participation in CR. The primary reason for this was a lack of motivation. Conversely, low conscientiousness and high openness were predictors of dropout. This study suggests that the assessment of the Big Five personality traits, especially conscientiousness and openness, can help improve health communication with patients to promote outpatient CR participation after discharge.


Asunto(s)
Rehabilitación Cardiaca , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/epidemiología , Humanos , Japón , Personalidad , Inventario de Personalidad , Estudios Retrospectivos
7.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444149

RESUMEN

Aversive personality traits have been linked to risk-taking across various domains. Herein, we investigated whether the common core of aversive traits, the Dark Factor of Personality (D), is related to risk-taking. Whereas the conceptualizations of D (common core of aversive traits) and risk-taking (not inherently socially and/or ethically aversive) do not necessarily imply an association, several theoretical considerations do suggest a positive relation between the constructs. In three studies (overall n = 689), we linked D to various self-report measures of risk-taking (Studies 1 and 2), as well as to a behavioral risk-taking task (Study 3). Overall, D was positively (although not always statistically significantly) related to self-reported risk-taking in terms of financial, health-related, and recreational risk-taking, fearlessness, novelty sensation seeking, intensity sensation seeking, and drug use. However, we did not find an association between D and behavioral risk-taking. Our findings provide insights into the relation between aversive personality and risk-taking, but also point to inconsistencies depending on the specific nature of risk-taking studied.


Asunto(s)
Personalidad , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias , Humanos , Trastornos de la Personalidad , Inventario de Personalidad , Asunción de Riesgos
8.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444001

RESUMEN

The current diagnostic systems for mental health disorders are categorical, which, it has been argued, poorly reflect the reality of mental health problems. This is especially relevant in emotional disorders (EDs), especially due to the existing comorbidity between supposedly different disorders. To address this, Brown and Barlow developed a hybrid dimensional-categorical approach to EDs that can be evaluated with the Multidimensional Emotional Disorder Inventory (MEDI), a transdiagnostic self-report questionnaire. This study aims to adapt and explore the sources of validity evidence of the MEDI in a non-clinical sample of Spanish university students (n = 455). Two confirmatory analyses were performed: one with a four-dimensional structure obtained with an exploratory analysis and another with the original nine-dimensional structure of the MEDI. The latter obtained a better fit. The descriptive data, including percentiles, T-scores, and sex differences in total scores are also provided, together with sources of validity evidence. These revealed significant moderate interrelations between factors and with related measures (e.g., personality, depression, and anxiety). This study adapted the MEDI for use in Spanish, provides further support about its factor structure, and offers novel data about its validity sources. The MEDI makes the evaluation of dimensional and transdiagnostic models easier, which might be fundamental in present and future research and clinical practice.


Asunto(s)
Trastornos de Ansiedad , Universidades , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Trastornos del Humor , Trastornos de la Personalidad , Inventario de Personalidad , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Estudiantes , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
9.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444412

RESUMEN

In addition to social and environmental factors, individual personality traits have intricately linked with maladaptive behaviour. Thus, the purpose of this article was to review the link between individual personality traits and criminality. A systematic review was conducted to obtain information regarding the link between individual personality traits with criminal behaviour in the Sage, Web of Science, APA PsycNet, Wiley Online Library, and PubMed databases. The results indicate that individual personality traits that contribute towards criminality are (i) psychopathy; (ii) low self-control; and (iii) difficult temperament. As an overall impact, the review is expected to provide in-depth understanding of the link between individual personality traits and criminality; hence, greater consideration will be given to the dimension of personality as a notable risk factor of criminal behaviour.


Asunto(s)
Trastorno de Personalidad Antisocial , Trastornos de la Personalidad , Trastorno de Personalidad Antisocial/epidemiología , Conducta Criminal , Humanos , Personalidad , Inventario de Personalidad
10.
PLoS One ; 16(8): e0255750, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34352033

RESUMEN

This study's main goal was to evaluate the association between anxious temperament and the fear of COVID-19-related self-infection and infection in loved ones (family members, friends, relatives) and cyberchondria. The sample consisted of 499 men and women aged between 18 and 72 who were gathered from the general population via an online recruitment platform. A numerical rating scale comprising 11 degrees of fear was used to assess participants' COVID-19-related fear, and affective temperaments were evaluated using Akiskal's Temperament Evaluation of the Memphis, Pisa, Paris and San Diego Autoquestionnaire (TEMPS-A) scales. Cyberchondria was assessed using McElroy and Shevlin's Cyberchondria Severity Scale (CSS). Small to medium positive correlations were found between depressive, cyclothymic, irritable and anxious temperaments and cyberchondria and between depressive and anxious temperaments and COVID-19 fears. However, no correlation was observed between the hyperthymic temperament and cyberchondria. Cyberchondria positively correlated with both COVID-19 fears scales, though the correlation coefficients were medium. Based on the results of linear regression analysis, only anxious temperament and COVID-19 fear of self-infection were significant predictors of cyberchondria. The analysis also revealed a significant indirect effect of anxious temperament on cyberchondria through fear of COVID-19 self-infection as a mediator between anxious temperament and cyberchondria.


Asunto(s)
Ansiedad/psicología , COVID-19/psicología , Hipocondriasis/psicología , Adulto , Afecto , Anciano , Estudios Transversales , Miedo/psicología , Femenino , Humanos , Internet , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Inventario de Personalidad/estadística & datos numéricos , Psicometría/estadística & datos numéricos , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , SARS-CoV-2/patogenicidad , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Temperamento
11.
Psychol Assess ; 33(9): 880-889, 2021 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34424018

RESUMEN

The present study addresses the need for short and accessible maladaptive trait measures that cover all relevant aspects of developmental trait pathology, in order to comprehensively assess potential antecedents of personality pathology. From this perspective, we present a 98-item version of the well-established Dimensional Personality Symptom Item Pool (DIPSI) measure (DIPSI-B), that is fully age-neutral across the developmental stages of childhood and adolescence, and further includes those items from the original measure with the most optimal coverage of the latent traits. Relying on a large community-based sample of Flemish children and adolescents (N = 1873) randomly split and balanced in terms of age and gender, a precise selection of items was performed followed by an inspection of psychometric properties. The final item-set appears to be reliable, structurally stable, and invariant across both gender and age. We hope that its feasibility stimulates the integration of the DIPSI-B in ongoing prospective designs examining developmental antecedents of personality disorders. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Asunto(s)
Trastornos de la Personalidad , Inventario de Personalidad , Adolescente , Niño , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Trastornos de la Personalidad/diagnóstico , Trastornos de la Personalidad/psicología , Psicometría , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados
12.
Personal Disord ; 12(4): 300-311, 2021 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34323587

RESUMEN

Despite the advances in our understanding of the structure of personality and psychopathology (see Kotov et al., 2017), less attention has been paid to empirically examining their underlying facet structure. To gain a more nuanced understanding of the structure of personality, it is important to identify empirically derived lower order structures of these trait domains; thus, the present study sought to examine the structure of antagonism as represented by items from commonly used measures of pathological personality traits. Participants were recruited from a large, southeastern university (N = 532) and completed 234 antagonism items selected from seven measures of pathological personality traits. Criterion variables measuring interpersonal adjectives, aggression, substance use, depression, and anxiety were also collected. A series of factor analyses were conducted to examine the structure of antagonism at a range of specificities. A seven-factor solution emerged as being both comprehensive and reasonably parsimonious with factors labeled Callousness, Grandiosity, Domineering, Manipulation, Suspiciousness, Aggression, and Risk Taking. The present findings demonstrate how trait Antagonism unfolds at varying levels of specificity as well as how the emergent factors differentially relate to outcomes. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Asunto(s)
Trastornos de la Personalidad , Personalidad , Agresión , Hostilidad , Humanos , Inventario de Personalidad
13.
J Sports Sci Med ; 20(3): 525-534, 2021 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34267593

RESUMEN

The purpose of the present study was to adapt and validate the Physical Appearance State and Trait Anxiety Scale (PASTAS) for Mexican adolescents, verifying the factor invariance by sports and non-sports practitioners. A sample of 930 Mexican adolescents (46.0% females), aged 11-15 years old, voluntarily participated in the study. A total of 415 participants regularly played sports in a club and/or regularly participated in sports competitions and 515 were non-sports practitioners. The adolescents filled out the trait version of the PASTAS questionnaire, which was previously translated and adapted for Mexican-speaking adolescents following the International Test Commission guidelines. The results of the confirmatory factor analyses showed an adequate measurement model for the original two-factor structure (e.g., GFI = 0.913; RMSEA = 0.078; CFI = 0.943). The internal consistency of the two dimensions was excellent (α and Ω = 0.92-0.93). Additionally, the results of the factorial invariance analyses showed an appropriate fit of the two-structure model (e.g., GFI = 0.96; CFI = 0.98; RMSEA = 0.04) among both sports and non-sports practitioners. The proposed trait version of the PASTAS questionnaire adapted to a Mexican-speaking population shows adequate psychometric properties among Mexican adolescents. The Mexican version of the PASTAS questionnaire supports the original two-factor structure (i.e., factor related to the body weight and factor not related to body weight) among adolescents. Additionally, the factorial invariance analyses support the equivalence of the two-factor structure among both sports and non-sports practitioners.


Asunto(s)
Ansiedad , Apariencia Física , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Deportes Juveniles/psicología , Adolescente , Niño , Análisis Factorial , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , México , Inventario de Personalidad , Psicometría , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados
14.
Psychol Assess ; 33(10): 952-961, 2021 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34292000

RESUMEN

The Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire (MPQ) is a normal range inventory for assessing a variety of empirically derived primary traits. These trait scores can be differentially weighted to estimate higher-order broad dimensions such as Positive Emotionality (PEM), Negative Emotionality (NEM), and Constraint (CON). However, broad trait scores are estimated using proprietary regression equations and necessitate near complete administration of the inventory. We aimed to increase measurement efficiency by creating abbreviated item-based approximations of these weighted scores. To parsimoniously delineate and differentiate the broad traits, classical test theory and item response theory approaches were used to identify five items from each primary trait scale approximating the weighted estimates while also maintaining the breadth of MPQ content coverage. Initial scale development relied on the MPQ-276 (standard form) normative sample (n = 1,237), which was followed by cross-validation using two samples of twins and cotwins from the Minnesota Twin Family Study (n = 1,304, n = 1,305). Additional validation was conducted using a third sample of undergraduate students (n = 201).The resulting item-based scales (PEM-20, NEM-15, CON-15) demonstrated strong convergence with the established proprietary broad trait estimates. Furthermore, these abbreviated scales exhibited similar associations with the external measures of personality and psychopathology. Abbreviated item-based scales may have utility for efficient estimation of the same broadband personality dimensions assessed by longer forms of the MPQ. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Asunto(s)
Trastornos de la Personalidad , Inventario de Personalidad , Humanos , Trastornos de la Personalidad/diagnóstico , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Estudios en Gemelos como Asunto
15.
Scand J Psychol ; 62(4): 596-607, 2021 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34251699

RESUMEN

The five-factor structure is a well-established model for personality. The five traits covary with job-performance and work-relevant outcomes. The practical administration of existing big-five measurement scales is, however, somewhat limited, in a Norwegian setting, as existing scales are impractically large or have unknown psychometric properties. Because of this, a new brief Norwegian personality assessment tool has been developed by the Norwegian Armed Forces. This study aims to uncover the psychometric properties of the 50-item Norwegian military personality inventory (NMPI-50) and establish norm data for practical use. The inventory was administered to the 2002 cohort of Norwegian 17-year olds (N = 54,355), and analyzed with factor analysis, graded response models and tests of gender invariance. The five scales of the NMPI-50 showed satisfactory internal consistency, yielded high information across a broad range of the five traits, and conformed to a bi-factor structure with one general factor and five specific factors. The general factor was positively associated with motivation for military service, indicating some measurement bias. The openness scale is less clearly psychometrically defined, compared to the other scales, and both extroversion and openness show some evidence of multidimensionality. The scales also showed scalar invariance between genders except for the openness scale. Overall, the results support the use of NMPI-50 in personnel assessment and research.


Asunto(s)
Personal Militar/psicología , Inventario de Personalidad , Adolescente , Análisis Factorial , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Personal Militar/estadística & datos numéricos , Noruega , Psicometría , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados
16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34300156

RESUMEN

Studying abroad can be stressful due to culture shock and various other difficulties. However, with the current prevalence of information communication technology, we can surmise that study abroad difficulties should be minimal. Since it has been shown that an individual's personality is highly associated with their internet use behaviors, it would be interesting to determine the effects of personality traits on the relationship between internet use motives and perceived study abroad difficulties. Data were collected from 1870 volunteer study abroad students in Taiwan. Hierarchical regression analysis revealed that when controlling for the effects of age, gender, duration of stay, student status (short-term exchange or degree-seeking), and internet use motives (online benefits, habits, and facilitation), the personality trait neuroticism consistently showed significant relationships with the various study abroad difficulties. Moreover, moderation analyses revealed that all the personality traits except conscientiousness showed significant interactions with internet use, while simple slope comparisons showed significant differences between the high personality traits and their lower counterparts. In sum, an examination of the moderating role of personality traits in the relationship between internet use and study abroad difficulties may be useful for preemptively identifying at-risk students.


Asunto(s)
Uso de Internet , Personalidad , Humanos , Internet , Trastornos de la Personalidad , Inventario de Personalidad , Taiwán/epidemiología
17.
Curr Psychiatry Rep ; 23(9): 60, 2021 07 19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34279729

RESUMEN

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Childhood trauma is an important risk factor for the development of personality disorders (PDs), yet most research has been devoted to categorical models of personality pathology. Considering the introduction of a dimensional PD model with ICD-11, we review current findings related to various forms of childhood trauma, and PDs, operationalized in the form of personality functioning and maladaptive traits. We focus on the magnitude of associations and examine specific relationships between emotional and physical trauma with areas of personality functioning and single traits. RECENT FINDINGS: Two studies showed a strong association between childhood trauma and personality dysfunction. Seven studies, including clinical and forensic samples, demonstrated heterogeneous associations between various forms of childhood trauma and maladaptive traits. Overall, four studies indicated a slightly stronger association between personality dysfunction, maladaptive trait expression, and higher levels of emotional trauma than for physical or sexual trauma. Regarding specific trait domains and childhood trauma, most studies yielded the strongest associations for either psychoticism or detachment. Research on childhood trauma and dimensional PD models (i.e., personality functioning and traits) has the potential to contribute to a better understanding of their complex relationship. However, high intercorrelations among different types of childhood trauma, areas of personality functioning, and trait domains increase the difficulty of disentangling single effects. More research is needed including clinical and non-Western samples, especially considering the upcoming ICD-11 classification.


Asunto(s)
Clasificación Internacional de Enfermedades , Trastornos de la Personalidad , Manual Diagnóstico y Estadístico de los Trastornos Mentales , Humanos , Personalidad , Trastornos de la Personalidad/diagnóstico , Inventario de Personalidad
18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34200739

RESUMEN

The aim of the study is to describe personality profiles and determinants of success in sports in relation to the Big Five Personality Model. In order to achieve this aim, personality profiles of players from various sports disciplines was set against the personality profile of champions-players who are considerably successful in sports competitions. Subsequently, an attempt was made to determine which personality traits significantly determine belonging to the group of champions-and therefore determine success in sport. The participants were men aged between 20 and 29 from the Polish population of sportsmen. A total of 1260 athletes were tested, out of whom 118 were qualified to the champions sample-those athletes had significant sports achievements. The research used the NEO-FFI Personality Questionnaire. Basic descriptive statistics, a series of Student's t-tests for independent samples using the bootstrapping method, as well as a logistic regression model were performed. In relation to other athletes, champions were characterized by a lower level of neuroticism and a higher level of extraversion, openness to experience, agreeableness, and conscientiousness. An important personality determinant was neuroticism: the lower the level of neuroticism, the greater the probability of an athlete being classified as a champion. There are differences between champions and other athletes in all personality dimensions in terms of the Big Five. Based on the result of the research, it can be stated that personality differences should be seen as a consequence of athletes' success, rather than as a reason for athletes' success, based on their age between 20 and 29.


Asunto(s)
Extraversión Psicológica , Hombres , Adulto , Humanos , Masculino , Personalidad , Trastornos de la Personalidad , Inventario de Personalidad , Adulto Joven
19.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 57(6)2021 Jun 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34208658

RESUMEN

Background and Objectives: Emotional dysfunction is considered a key component in personality disorders; however, only few studies have examined the relationship between the two. In this study, emotional dysfunction was operationalized through the Affect Integration Inventory, and the aim was to examine the relationships between the level of affect integration and the levels of symptom distress, interpersonal problems, and personality functioning in patients diagnosed with personality disorder according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fifth edition. Materials and Methods: Within a hospital-based psychiatric outpatient setting, 87 patients with personality disorder referred for treatment were identified for assessment with the Affect Integration Inventory and other measures (e.g., the Symptom Checklist-90, Revised, the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems 64 circumplex version, and the Severity Indices of Personality Problems). Results: The analyses revealed that problems with affect integration were strongly and statistically significantly correlated with high levels of symptom distress, interpersonal problems, and maladaptive personality functioning. Additionally, low scores on the Affect Integration Inventory regarding discrete affects were associated with distinct and differentiated patterns of interpersonal problems. Conclusion: Taken together, emotional dysfunction, as measured by the Affect Integration Inventory, appeared to be a central component of the pathological self-organization associated with personality disorder. These findings have several implications for the understanding and psychotherapeutic treatment of personality pathology. Furthermore, they highlight the importance of considering the integration of discrete affects and their specific contributions in the conceptualization and treatment of emotional dysfunction in patients with personality disorders.


Asunto(s)
Trastornos de la Personalidad , Personalidad , Estudios Transversales , Manual Diagnóstico y Estadístico de los Trastornos Mentales , Humanos , Inventario de Personalidad
20.
J Affect Disord ; 293: 399-405, 2021 10 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34246948

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Hypersexuality is a complex behavioral dysfunction concerning the excess of sexual activities. In this study, we aim to investigate the role of attachment styles, post-traumatic and depression symptoms in hypersexual behavior. METHODS: We recruited through an online platform a snowball convenience sample of 1025 subjects (females: n=731; 71.3%; males: 294; 28.7%; age: 29.62±10.90) and we administered them a sociodemographic questionnaire, with a psychometric protocol composed by the Hypersexual Behavior Inventory (HBI) to assess hypersexuality, the Relationship Questionnaire (RQ) for the attachment styles, the International Trauma Questionnaire (ITQ) to evaluate the trauma and Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ) for depression. RESULTS: We found a significant and predictive impact of preoccupied and fearful attachment styles on hypersexual behavior (ß=.116; p<.0001 and ß=.121p<.0001, respectively). The categorical analysis of RQ confirmed also statistically significant differences between secure attachment style with fearful and preoccupied ones in terms of HBI levels (secure=30.01±10.79; preoccupied=35.50±14.46; fearful=36.57±13.50). Moreover, we found that depression symptoms and the total score of ITQ also resulted predictive for hypersexuality (ß=.323; p<.0001 and ß=.063; p<.04). However, in our model, depression and post-traumatic symptoms played a mediation role between insecure attachment and hypersexual behavior. CONCLUSION: This study found a fundamental role of insecure attachment styles, post-traumatic and depression symptoms in the development of problematic sexuality. Hypersexual behavior is related in a causal manner with an insecure attachment style, fearful and preoccupied attachment, particularly. Nevertheless, the traumatic core of personality together with depression symptoms could play a mediation role towards the hypersexual behavior.


Asunto(s)
Depresión , Trastornos por Estrés Postraumático , Adolescente , Adulto , Conducta Compulsiva , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Apego a Objetos , Inventario de Personalidad , Psicometría , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Adulto Joven
SELECCIÓN DE REFERENCIAS
DETALLE DE LA BÚSQUEDA
...