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1.
Mol Cell ; 81(6): 1120-1121, 2021 03 18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33740469

RESUMEN

We talk to co-first authors Man Yu and Zhengxin Peng about their paper "Interferon- gamma induces tumor resistance to anti-PD-1 immunotherapy by promoting YAP phase separation" (in this issue of Molecular Cell), the challenges of the project, and the collaborations and support systems that were important to overcome them.


Asunto(s)
Investigación Biomédica/historia , Neoplasias , Animales , Historia del Siglo XXI , Humanos , Retratos como Asunto
2.
Mol Cell ; 81(6): 1122-1125, 2021 03 18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33740470

RESUMEN

Here, we talk to first author Susanne Zellner about her paper, "Systematically defining selective autophagy receptor-specific cargo using autophagosome content profiling," and the challenges of finishing it during the pandemic. We also hear from collaborator Martina Schifferer and chat with corresponding author Christian Behrends about running his lab.


Asunto(s)
Investigación Biomédica/historia , Autofagosomas , Autofagia , Femenino , Historia del Siglo XXI , Humanos , Retratos como Asunto
3.
Hist Philos Life Sci ; 43(1): 13, 2021 Feb 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33528820

RESUMEN

From 1950 to 1952, statisticians W.G. Cochran, C.F. Mosteller, and J.W. Tukey reviewed A.C. Kinsey and colleagues' methodology. Neither the history-and-philosophy of science literature nor contemporary theories of interdisciplinarity seem to offer a conceptual model that fits this forced interaction, which was characterized by significant power asymmetries and disagreements on multiple levels. The statisticians initially attempted to exclude all non-technical matters from their evaluation, but their political and personal investments interfered with this agenda. In the face of McCarthy's witch hunts, negotiations with Kinsey and his funding institutions became integral to the review group's work. This paper analyzes the heavy burden of emotional and affective labor in this collaboration, the conflicts caused by competing visions of objectivity, and the uses of statistical knowledge to gain and sustain authority. Kinsey's refusal to adopt the recommended probability sample damaged his already precarious position even further and marked him as a biased researcher who put his personal agenda above methodological rigor. Kinsey's uncooperative demeanor can be explained by distrust resulting from numerous adverse reactions to his work and by fear of having his sexuality exposed. This case study illustrates that the very concept of valid numbers can become an arena for power struggles and that quantification alone does not guarantee productive exchanges across disciplines. It calls for a deeper conceptual analysis of the prerequisites for successful scientific collaborations.


Asunto(s)
Investigación Biomédica/historia , Bioestadística/historia , Psiquiatría/historia , Conducta Sexual , Bioestadística/métodos , Historia del Siglo XX , Humanos
6.
Semin Vasc Surg ; 33(3-4): 34-35, 2020 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33308593

RESUMEN

As a junior colleague of Dr. D. E. Strandness, Jr., for almost 30 years, I had the unique professional opportunity to witness the development of duplex ultrasonography at the University of Washington. "Gene" as he liked to be called, was a surgeon with a persistent curiosity about vascular disease. He led the multidisciplinary team that developed the technique of duplex ultrasound, measured its diagnostic accuracy, and performed research studies to reduce stroke due to carotid bifurcation atherosclerosis. My reflections on the legacy of Dr. Strandness are offered with gratitude for the curiosity "bug" he nurtured in me, which continues today.


Asunto(s)
Actitud del Personal de Salud , Investigación Biomédica/historia , Conducta Exploratoria , Cirujanos/historia , Ultrasonografía Doppler Dúplex/historia , Procedimientos Quirúrgicos Vasculares/historia , Educación Médica/historia , Historia del Siglo XX , Historia del Siglo XXI , Humanos , Cirujanos/psicología , Procedimientos Quirúrgicos Vasculares/educación
10.
J Anesth Hist ; 6(3): 143-150, 2020 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32921484

RESUMEN

After the first successful public demonstration of modern anesthesia in 1846, most female anesthetists were nurses by trade since none were yet allowed to attend medical school to become physicians. The turn of the twentieth century, however, brought about greater opportunity for female physician-anesthetists. We explore the life and career of Barbara E. Waud (1931-), a pioneering woman physician and researcher in the field of anesthesiology. Waud chose to pursue a career in medicine at a time when most women did not even attend college, and for most of her training and practice, she was the only woman in her department. Personal interviews with Waud, her daughter, and her colleagues highlight her rebellious and resilient nature that helped her overcome the obstacles put forth by male colleagues, and the judgment she received from female acquaintances for being a working mother. Waud's impressive career of dedicated clinical practice and ground-breaking research spanned four decades and inspired generations of physicians.


Asunto(s)
Anestesiólogos/historia , Docentes Médicos/historia , Médicos Mujeres/historia , Anestesiología/educación , Anestesiología/historia , Investigación Biomédica/historia , Canadá , Historia del Siglo XX , Historia del Siglo XXI , Massachusetts , Publicaciones Periódicas como Asunto/historia , Facultades de Medicina/historia , Sexismo/historia
15.
Can Bull Med Hist ; 37(2): 461-489, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32822548

RESUMEN

This paper uses the history of kidney transplantation in South Africa as a lens through which to write a racialized, micro history that illustrates the politics of medical discoveries and medical research at one of South Africa's most prestigious medical research universities, the University of the Witwatersrand (Wits) in Johannesburg. Between 1966 and the 1980s, the Wits team became the most advanced and prolific kidney transplant unit in the country. Yet the racist, oppressive Apartheid system fundamentally shaped these developments. Transplantation, as this paper shows, became an elite medical procedure, performed by a select group of white doctors on mostly white patients. For these doctors, transplantation showed their medical prowess and displayed the technical advancements they were able to make in research and clinical practice as they strove to position South Africa as a significant international player in medical research, despite academic boycotts and increasing sanctions. Transplantation became a symbol of white supremacy in a country where the black majority were excluded from anything but the most basic health care.


Asunto(s)
Centros Médicos Académicos/historia , Apartheid/historia , Ética Médica/historia , Trasplante de Riñón/historia , Racismo/historia , Grupo de Ascendencia Continental Africana , Investigación Biomédica/ética , Investigación Biomédica/historia , Grupo de Ascendencia Continental Europea , Trasplante de Corazón/ética , Trasplante de Corazón/historia , Historia del Siglo XX , Humanos , Inmunosupresión/historia , Trasplante de Riñón/ética , Sudáfrica
17.
Transplantation ; 104(8): 1537-1541, 2020 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32732829

RESUMEN

This historical retrospective explores the study of the freemartin condition and its impact on the discovery of immunologic tolerance and the field of transplant surgery-from the ancient Romans, to early modern anatomists Valsalva, Scarpa, and Hunter, to contemporary immunologists Owen, Medawar, and Billingham, and to legendary transplant surgeon Joseph Murray. The legacy of freemartin cattle in the understanding of acquired tolerance and transplant immunology represents generations of scientific inquiry guided by careful observation and occasional serendipity, and the present-day immunologists and surgeons exploring immune transplant tolerance owe much to the history of the freemartin, several millennia in the making.


Asunto(s)
Rechazo de Injerto/inmunología , Infertilidad Femenina/veterinaria , Trasplante de Órganos/historia , Trasplante de Tejidos/historia , Tolerancia al Trasplante , Animales , Investigación Biomédica/historia , Bovinos/inmunología , Femenino , Rechazo de Injerto/prevención & control , Historia del Siglo XVII , Historia del Siglo XVIII , Historia del Siglo XIX , Historia del Siglo XX , Historia del Siglo XXI , Historia Antigua , Humanos , Infertilidad Femenina/inmunología , Trasplante de Órganos/efectos adversos , Trasplante de Tejidos/efectos adversos
18.
Rev Soc Bras Med Trop ; 53 Suppl 1: e20200313, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32844903

RESUMEN

The present work analyses some particular aspects of Oswaldo Cruz's unique biography, valuing his work, which was built along a successful physician and scientist professional trajectory and also as a courageous and fortunate formulator of public health policies and of fight strategies against the epidemics that seasonally affected the city of Rio de Janeiro at the beginning of the 20th century. The authors also dwell on his legacy as Head scientist and manager of the Institute that bears his name and became the template for experimental research and medicine in Brazil and the bedrock of the Fundação Oswaldo Cruz, one of the most important Brazilian Institutions devoted to teaching, research, development and production in health. This heritage made possible to overcome the existing dissensions between doctors and scientists to build a sanitary movement committed to the major health problems in Brazil. Finally, the paper explores some features of the character and reports some of his moments during his passage, as a Full Academician, at the Brazilian Academia Nacional de Medicina.


Asunto(s)
Academias e Institutos/historia , Salud Pública/historia , Medicina Tropical/historia , Investigación Biomédica/historia , Brasil , Historia del Siglo XIX , Historia del Siglo XX
19.
Curr Opin Endocrinol Diabetes Obes ; 27(4): 231-239, 2020 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32618635

RESUMEN

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: New single-cell tec. hnologies developed over the past decade have considerably reshaped the biomedical research landscape, and more recently have found their way into studies probing the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes (T1D). In this context, the emergence of mass cytometry in 2009 revolutionized immunological research in two fundamental ways that also affect the T1D world: first, its ready embrace by the community and rapid dissemination across academic and private science centers alike established a new standard of analytical complexity for the high-dimensional proteomic stratification of single-cell populations; and second, the somewhat unexpected arrival of mass cytometry awoke the flow cytometry field from its seeming sleeping beauty stupor and precipitated substantial technological advances that by now approach a degree of analytical dimensionality comparable to mass cytometry. RECENT FINDINGS: Here, we summarize in detail how mass cytometry has thus far been harnessed for the pursuit of discovery studies in T1D science; we provide a succinct overview of other single-cell analysis platforms that already have been or soon will be integrated into various T1D investigations; and we briefly consider how effective adoption of these technologies requires an adjusted model for expense allocation, prioritization of experimental questions, division of labor, and recognition of scientific contributions. SUMMARY: The introduction of contemporary single-cell technologies in general, and of mass cytometry, in particular, provides important new opportunities for current and future T1D research; the necessary reconfiguration of research strategies to accommodate implementation of these technologies, however, may both broaden research endeavors by fostering genuine team science, and constrain their actual practice because of the need for considerable investments into infrastructure and technical expertise.


Asunto(s)
Investigación Biomédica/tendencias , Ciencia de los Datos/tendencias , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/etiología , Proteómica/métodos , Análisis de la Célula Individual/tendencias , Animales , Investigación Biomédica/historia , Investigación Biomédica/métodos , Ciencia de los Datos/historia , Ciencia de los Datos/métodos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/patología , Citometría de Flujo/historia , Citometría de Flujo/métodos , Citometría de Flujo/tendencias , Historia del Siglo XXI , Humanos , Espectrometría de Masas/historia , Espectrometría de Masas/métodos , Espectrometría de Masas/tendencias , Proteómica/historia , Proteómica/tendencias , Análisis de la Célula Individual/historia , Análisis de la Célula Individual/métodos
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