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1.
Urol Clin North Am ; 48(2): 245-250, 2021 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33795058

RESUMEN

Clinical research is of great benefit to patients and rewarding to clinicians. Clinical research in the United States is highly regulated. There are significant penalties for violating protocols. Clinical research requires a good infrastructure in each practice.


Asunto(s)
Investigación Biomédica/normas , Protocolos Clínicos/normas , Urología/normas , Humanos , Estados Unidos
4.
Z Psychosom Med Psychother ; 67(1): 78-87, 2021.
Artículo en Alemán | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33565378

RESUMEN

Promoting research competence in psychosocial medicine - A new curriculum for medical students Objectives: The objective of this study is the introduction and evaluation of a new graduate-students curriculum to enhance research competence in psychosocial medicine. Method: N = 57 students have participated in the curriculum to date. All participants completed questionnaires regarding teaching quality and pre-post changes in subjective research competence. Results: All items on teaching quality were scored significantly higher (p < 0.05) compared to data of three other comparable psychosocial seminars. In addition, a substantial increase in subjective research competence was found (p < 0.05). Conclusions: The presented curriculum provides an opportunity to strengthen research competence and evidence-based critical thinking of prospective physicians at an early stage. As a consequence of these encouraging results, the curriculum has been implemented permanently at the medical faculty in Heidelberg.


Asunto(s)
Investigación Biomédica/educación , Investigación Biomédica/normas , Curriculum , Competencia Profesional , /normas , Estudiantes de Medicina/psicología , Competencia Clínica , Humanos , Estudios Prospectivos
7.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 1107, 2021 02 17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33597541

RESUMEN

One of the primary tools that researchers use to predict risk is the case-control study. We identify a flaw, temporal bias, that is specific to and uniquely associated with these studies that occurs when the study period is not representative of the data that clinicians have during the diagnostic process. Temporal bias acts to undermine the validity of predictions by over-emphasizing features close to the outcome of interest. We examine the impact of temporal bias across the medical literature, and highlight examples of exaggerated effect sizes, false-negative predictions, and replication failure. Given the ubiquity and practical advantages of case-control studies, we discuss strategies for estimating the influence of and preventing temporal bias where it exists.


Asunto(s)
Investigación Biomédica/normas , Ensayos Clínicos como Asunto/normas , Selección de Paciente , Proyectos de Investigación/normas , Sesgo , Investigación Biomédica/métodos , Investigación Biomédica/tendencias , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Ensayos Clínicos como Asunto/métodos , Predicción , Humanos , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados
8.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med ; 203(1): 14-23, 2021 01 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33385220

RESUMEN

Rationale: Decisions in medicine are made on the basis of knowledge and reasoning, often in shared conversations with patients and families in consideration of clinical practice guideline recommendations, individual preferences, and individual goals. Observational studies can provide valuable knowledge to inform guidelines, decisions, and policy.Objectives: The American Thoracic Society (ATS) created a multidisciplinary ad hoc committee to develop a research statement to clarify the role of observational studies-alongside randomized controlled trials (RCTs)-in informing clinical decisions in pulmonary, critical care, and sleep medicine.Methods: The committee examined the strengths of observational studies assessing causal effects, how they complement RCTs, factors that impact observational study quality, perceptions of observational research, and, finally, the practicalities of incorporating observational research into ATS clinical practice guidelines.Measurements and Main Results: There are strengths and weakness of observational studies as well as RCTs. Observational studies can provide evidence in representative and diverse patient populations. Quality observational studies should be sought in the development of ATS clinical practice guidelines, and medical decision-making in general, when 1) no RCTs are identified or RCTs are appraised as being of low- or very low-quality (replacement); 2) RCTs are of moderate quality because of indirectness, imprecision, or inconsistency, and observational studies mitigate the reason that RCT evidence was downgraded (complementary); or 3) RCTs do not provide evidence for outcomes that a guideline committee considers essential for decision-making (e.g., rare or long-term outcomes; "sequential").Conclusions: Observational studies should be considered in developing clinical practice guidelines and in making clinical decisions.


Asunto(s)
Investigación Biomédica/normas , Toma de Decisiones Clínicas , Cuidados Críticos/normas , Prestación de Atención de Salud/normas , Medicina Basada en la Evidencia/normas , Estudios Observacionales como Asunto/normas , Enfermedades Torácicas/terapia , Humanos , Guías de Práctica Clínica como Asunto , Sociedades Médicas , Estados Unidos
9.
Lancet Oncol ; 22(1): e29-e36, 2021 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33387502

RESUMEN

In 2011, the International Society of Geriatric Oncology (SIOG) published the SIOG 10 Priorities Initiative, which defined top priorities for the improvement of the care of older adults with cancer worldwide.1 Substantial scientific, clinical, and educational progress has been made in line with these priorities and international health policy developments have occurred, such as the shift of emphasis by WHO from communicable to non-communicable diseases and the adoption by the UN of its Sustainable Development Goals 2030. Therefore, SIOG has updated its priority list. The present document addresses four priority domains: education, clinical practice, research, and strengthening collaborations and partnerships. In this Policy Review, we reflect on how these priorities would apply in different economic settings, namely in high-income countries versus low-income and middle-income countries. SIOG hopes that it will offer guidance for international and national endeavours to provide adequate universal health coverage for older adults with cancer, who represent a major and rapidly growing group in global epidemiology.


Asunto(s)
Geriatría/normas , Accesibilidad a los Servicios de Salud/normas , Oncología Médica/normas , Neoplasias/terapia , Factores de Edad , Investigación Biomédica/normas , Consenso , Conducta Cooperativa , Educación Médica/normas , Geriatría/educación , Humanos , Comunicación Interdisciplinaria , Cooperación Internacional , Oncología Médica/educación , Neoplasias/diagnóstico , Neoplasias/epidemiología , Formulación de Políticas , Pronóstico , Participación de los Interesados
10.
Antimicrob Resist Infect Control ; 10(1): 10, 2021 01 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33436062

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Translating research into practice is a central priority within the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Roadmap. The underlying aim of the NIH Roadmap is to accelerate the movement of scientific findings into practical health care provisions through translational research. MAIN TEXT: Despite the advances in health sciences, emerging infectious diseases have become more frequent in recent decades. Furthermore, emerging and reemerging pathogens have led to several global public health challenges. A question, and to an extent a concern, arises from this: Why our health care system is experiencing several challenges in encountering the coronavirus outbreak, despite the ever-growing advances in sciences, and the exponential rise in the number of published articles in the first quartile journals and even the ones among the top 1%? CONCLUSION: Two responses could be potentially provided to the above question: First, there seems to be a significant gap between our theoretical knowledge and practice. And second that many scholars and scientists publish papers only to have a longer list of publications, and therefore publishing is viewed as a personal objective, rather than for improving communities' public health.


Asunto(s)
/virología , Publicaciones/estadística & datos numéricos , /fisiología , Investigación Biomédica/normas , Investigación Biomédica/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Políticas , Publicaciones/normas , Edición/normas , Edición/estadística & datos numéricos , /genética
12.
mBio ; 12(1)2021 01 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33436435

RESUMEN

Despite being nearly 10 months into the COVID-19 (coronavirus disease 2019) pandemic, the definitive animal host for SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2), the causal agent of COVID-19, remains unknown. Unfortunately, similar problems exist for other betacoronaviruses, and no vouchered specimens exist to corroborate host species identification for most of these pathogens. This most basic information is critical to the full understanding and mitigation of emerging zoonotic diseases. To overcome this hurdle, we recommend that host-pathogen researchers adopt vouchering practices and collaborate with natural history collections to permanently archive microbiological samples and host specimens. Vouchered specimens and associated samples provide both repeatability and extension to host-pathogen studies, and using them mobilizes a large workforce (i.e., biodiversity scientists) to assist in pandemic preparedness. We review several well-known examples that successfully integrate host-pathogen research with natural history collections (e.g., yellow fever, hantaviruses, helminths). However, vouchering remains an underutilized practice in such studies. Using an online survey, we assessed vouchering practices used by microbiologists (e.g., bacteriologists, parasitologists, virologists) in host-pathogen research. A much greater number of respondents permanently archive microbiological samples than archive host specimens, and less than half of respondents voucher host specimens from which microbiological samples were lethally collected. To foster collaborations between microbiologists and natural history collections, we provide recommendations for integrating vouchering techniques and archiving of microbiological samples into host-pathogen studies. This integrative approach exemplifies the premise underlying One Health initiatives, providing critical infrastructure for addressing related issues ranging from public health to global climate change and the biodiversity crisis.


Asunto(s)
Investigación Biomédica/normas , Enfermedades Transmisibles/patología , Historia Natural/normas , Zoonosis/patología , Animales , Biodiversidad , Investigación Biomédica/tendencias , /virología , Enfermedades Transmisibles/microbiología , Enfermedades Transmisibles/parasitología , Enfermedades Transmisibles/virología , Interacciones Huésped-Patógeno , Humanos , Museos/normas , /fisiología , Manejo de Especímenes , Zoonosis/microbiología , Zoonosis/parasitología , Zoonosis/virología
13.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(2): e23540, 2021 Jan 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33466120

RESUMEN

ABSTRACT: The independent plastic surgery pathway recruits candidates with 5 years of surgical training who are typically more advanced in research than their integrated counterparts. Research productivity helps to discriminate between applicants. However, no studies exist detailing the academic attributes of matched independent plastic surgery candidates.We performed a cohort study of 161 independent plastic surgery fellows from accredited residency programs from the 2015 to 2017 application cycles. We performed a bibliometric analysis utilizing Scopus, PubMed, and Google Scholar to identify research output measures at the time of application.The cohort was predominantly men (66%) with a median of 3 articles and a H-index of 1 at the time of application. Interestingly, 16% of successful candidates had no published articles at the time of application, and this did not change significantly over time (P = .0740). Although the H-index remained stable (R 0.13, P = .1095), the number of published journal articles per candidate significantly decreased over 3 consecutive application cycles (R -0.16, P = .0484). Analysis of article types demonstrated a significant increase in basic science articles (R 0.18, P = .0366) and a concurrent decrease in editorial-type publications (R = -0.18, P = .0374).Despite the decline in publication volume of matched independent plastic surgery fellows, the quality of their research portfolio has remained constant. Matched applicants appear to be shifting focus from faster-to-publish articles to longer but higher impact projects. In selecting a training route, applicants must weigh the highly competitive integrated path against the dwindling number of independent positions.


Asunto(s)
Investigación Biomédica/estadística & datos numéricos , Becas/estadística & datos numéricos , Internado y Residencia/estadística & datos numéricos , Publicaciones Periódicas como Asunto/estadística & datos numéricos , Cirugía Plástica/educación , Bibliometría , Investigación Biomédica/normas , Femenino , Médicos Graduados Extranjeros/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Factores de Tiempo
14.
Bull Cancer ; 108(1): 117-124, 2021 Jan.
Artículo en Francés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33358509

RESUMEN

The implementation of the third Cancer Plan, which began in January 2014, was completed in 2019. With nearly 90% of the actions carried out, this Plan was marked by the collective mobilisation of all stakeholders to reduce the burden of cancer in our country. Real successes have been recorded. But the progress made must not make us forget the pain and suffering endured by those affected by this disease, their families, loved ones and caregivers. Cancer continues to be a life-changing experience for those who face it. In this fight, progress in medicine, research, the quality and safety of care, progress in social support, support in returning to work and to a normal life are all hopes for all patients and their loved ones. They have only been possible thanks to the mobilisation of everyone and the dedication of the care teams. Many battles have been fought over the years and the results obtained are the best encouragement to continue the efforts. We must now amplify and improve our collective action. The ambitious objective of massively reducing the burden of cancer in the lives of the French must mobilise us all for the next decade.


Asunto(s)
Implementación de Plan de Salud , Neoplasias/prevención & control , Adolescente , Adulto , Investigación Biomédica/normas , Neoplasias de la Mama/genética , Neoplasias de la Mama/prevención & control , Niño , Femenino , Francia , Implementación de Plan de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Secuenciación de Nucleótidos de Alto Rendimiento , Humanos , Acontecimientos que Cambian la Vida , Neoplasias/diagnóstico , Neoplasias/genética , Medicina de Precisión , Calidad de la Atención de Salud , Calidad de Vida
17.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 41(12): 2160-2162, 2020 Dec 10.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33378832

RESUMEN

Learning clinical research methods, we must master the essentials. Essentials are the theories, principles and methods that make a discipline a unique discipline, without which the discipline will no more exist. Essentials are those things that are long-lasting and reliable, those that address the most important issues, those that are most frequently used in practice, and those that normally should not be compromised. The core underlying theories of epidemiological research are causation and errors control. The essentials often have profound theoretical underpinnings and difficult to grasp. We will truly believe the theories and observe the principles only when we have truly grasped them.


Asunto(s)
Investigación Biomédica , Investigación Biomédica/métodos , Investigación Biomédica/normas , Humanos
18.
Clin Sci (Lond) ; 134(24): 3233-3235, 2020 12 23.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33313696

RESUMEN

As this extraordinary year, blemished by COVID-19, comes to an end, I look back as Editor-in-Chief to the many great successes and new initiatives of Clinical Science. Despite the challenges we all faced during 2020, our journal has remained strong and vibrant. While we have all adapted to new working conditions, with life very different to what it was pre-COVID-19, the one thing that remains intact and secure is the communication of scientific discoveries through peer-reviewed journals. I am delighted to share with you some of the many achievements of our journal over the past year and to highlight some exciting new activities planned for 2021.


Asunto(s)
Investigación Biomédica/normas , Políticas Editoriales , Publicaciones Periódicas como Asunto/normas , Investigación Biomédica/estadística & datos numéricos , Investigación Biomédica/tendencias , /inmunología , /administración & dosificación , Predicción , Humanos , Pandemias/prevención & control , Publicaciones Periódicas como Asunto/estadística & datos numéricos , Publicaciones Periódicas como Asunto/tendencias , /fisiología
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