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1.
Rev. enferm. UERJ ; 29: e55404, jan.-dez. 2021.
Artículo en Inglés, Portugués | LILACS | ID: biblio-1177546

RESUMEN

Objetivo: planejar ações estratégicas para a melhoria da qualidade do cuidado e segurança do paciente em Unidade de Pronto Atendimento. Método: pesquisa descritiva, de abordagem qualitativa, desenvolvida em uma Unidade de Pronto Atendimento de um município do sul do Brasil, entre setembro de 2018 e fevereiro de 2019, tendo como participantes os enfermeiros dessa unidade. Utilizou-se como referencial metodológico a Pesquisa Convergente Assistencial, a logicidade do Planejamento Estratégico Situacional e a ferramenta 5W3H. Foram realizadas oficinas com os participantes, para escolha de problemas na segurança do paciente, proposição de melhorias, adequação e aprovação de planos de ação. Para análise dos dados utilizou-se o software R e grafos de similitude. Resultados: os problemas "comunicação" e "número insuficiente de profissionais" foram escolhidos por 24 enfermeiros, sugerindo cinco propostas, detalhadas em seis planos de ação. Conclusão: o planejamento estratégico situacional permitiu planejar ações estratégicas de melhoria na assistência que são de governabilidade dos enfermeiros.


Objective: to plan strategic actions to improve the quality of care and patient safety in the Emergency Care Unit. Method: this qualitative, descriptive, exploratory study was conducted in an Emergency Care Unit in a municipality in south Brazil, from September 2018 to February 2019, with the unit's nurses as participants. The methodological frame of reference was given by Convergent Care Research, the logic of Situational Strategic Planning, and the 5W3H tool. Workshops were held with the participants to choose problems in patient safety, propose improvements, and adaptation and approval of action plans. Data were analyzed using R software and similarity graphs. Results: nurses chose the problems "communication" and "too few staff" and made five proposals, detailed in six action plans. Conclusion: by situational strategic planning, strategic actions under nurses' governance were planned to improve care.


Objetivo: planificar acciones estratégicas para mejorar la calidad de la atención y la seguridad del paciente en la Unidad de Atención de Emergencias. Método: investigación descriptiva, con un enfoque cualitativo, desarrollada en una Unidad de Atención de Emergencias de una ciudad del sur de Brasil, entre septiembre de 2018 y febrero de 2019, cuyas participantes fueron las enfermeras de esta unidad. El marco metodológico utilizado fue la Investigación Convergente de Atención, la lógica de la Planificación Estratégica Situacional y la herramienta 5W3H. Se llevaron a cabo talleres con los participantes para elegir problemas en la seguridad del paciente, proponer mejoras, adecuación y aprobación de planes de acción. El software R y los gráficos similares se utilizaron para el análisis de datos. Resultados: los problemas de "comunicación" e "número insuficiente de profesionales" fueran elegidos por 24 enfermeras; se sugieren entonces cinco propuestas, detalladas en seis planes de acción. Conclusión: la planificación estratégica situacional permitió planificar acciones estratégicas para mejorar la atención que rigen las enfermeras.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Calidad de la Atención de Salud , Planificación Estratégica , Enfermería de Urgencia , Seguridad del Paciente , Atención Ambulatoria , Brasil , Centros de Salud , Epidemiología Descriptiva , Investigación Cualitativa , Enfermeras y Enfermeros
2.
Rev. enferm. UERJ ; 29: e52717, jan.-dez. 2021.
Artículo en Inglés, Portugués | LILACS | ID: biblio-1224536

RESUMEN

Objetivo: compreender a construção dos significados da morte pelos profissionais de saúde frente ao cuidado à pessoa com câncer. Método: estudo qualitativo realizado em ambiente online, com a participação de 34 profissionais de saúde. Foram realizadas entrevistas semiestruturadas, interpretadas segundo análise temática. Resultados: duas categorias analíticas emergiram dos dados, indicando que os significados atribuídos à morte pelos participantes foram: como um processo inerente ao ciclo da vida humana, passagem para a outra vida, e fim do sofrimento tanto do paciente quanto dos profissionais de saúde. As dificuldades que apontaram em lidar com a morte se referem à falta de suporte psicológico, escassez de conhecimento sobre morte, cuidados paliativos e comunicação de más notícias. Conclusão: os profissionais construíram diferentes significados à morte de seus pacientes, tais como um processo natural da vida, vontade de um ser superior, passagem para uma nova existência e término do sofrimento dessas pessoas.


Objective: to understand the construction of meanings of death by healthcare professionals caring for people with cancer. Method: this qualitative study was carried out in an online environment through semi-structured interviews of 34 health professionals, which were interpreted using thematic analysis. Results: two analytical categories emerged from the data, indicating that the meanings attributed to death by the participants were: a process inherent in the human life cycle, a transition to the next life, and an end to the suffering of both patient and health professionals. The difficulties they pointed to in dealing with death related to lack of psychological support, lack of knowledge about death, palliative care, and communicating bad news. Conclusion: the professionals constructed different meanings to their patients' deaths: a natural process of life, the will of a higher being, a transition to a new existence, and an end to these people's suffering.


Objetivo: comprender la construcción de los significados de la muerte desde el punto de vista de los profesionales de la salud ante el cuidado a la persona con cáncer. Metodología: estudio cualitativo realizado en un entorno online, con la participación de 34 profesionales de la salud. Se realizaron entrevistas semiestructuradas, interpretadas según análisis temático. Resultados: de los datos surgieron dos categorías analíticas que indicaron que los significados atribuidos a la muerte por los participantes fueron: como u proceso inherente al ciclo de vida humano, transición a otra vida y fin al sufrimiento tanto del paciente como de los profesionales de la salud. Las dificultades que señalaron para afrontar la muerte se refieren a la falta de apoyo psicológico, escasez de conocimiento sobre la muerte, cuidados paliativos y comunicación de malas noticias. Conclusión: los profesionales han construido diferentes significados para la muerte de sus pacientes: un proceso natural de la vida, la voluntad de un ser superior, un paso a una nueva existencia y el fin del sufrimiento de estas personas.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Adulto , Persona de Mediana Edad , Práctica Profesional , Actitud Frente a la Muerte , Personal de Salud , Muerte , Oncología Médica , Neoplasias , Cuidados Paliativos , Investigación Cualitativa , Hospitales
3.
Ethiop J Health Sci ; 31(3): 517-524, 2021 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34483608

RESUMEN

Background: Unknown and unpredictable situations cause emergency medical service (EMS) providers to experience various stressful factors. These factors are affected by sociocultural conditions and expectations of the casualty and affect EMS providers' performance and health at the incident scene. The present study was conducted to explore EMS providers' perception of stressful and health-threatening factors in emergency missions. Method: This qualitative conventional content analysis was conducted in 2020. The participants included 16 EMS providers working at the Emergency Medical Services Department in Hamadan Province, Iran. The participants were selected using purposive sampling and underwent semi-structured interviews until data saturation. Data were analyzed using the Graneheim and Lundman method. Results: Analysis of the interview data yielded six subcategories (i.e., incident scene hazards, violence-related injuries, physical injuries caused by patient care/handling, ambulance crash-related injuries, emotional impact of patients' suffering and ailments, and highly stressful missions), two main categories (i.e., physical injuries and psychological tensions), and a theme of occupational injuries. Conclusions: According to the results, in addition to having concerns about caring for patients and saving the injured, EMS providers also worry about potential threats to their own health. The present study identified and described some major stressors in emergency missions. Thus, for a better and more effective efficiency, the present study results can be used to reduce or modify stressors in EMS providers.


Asunto(s)
Servicios Médicos de Urgencia , Urgencias Médicas , Servicio de Urgencia en Hospital , Humanos , Percepción , Investigación Cualitativa
4.
Ethiop J Health Sci ; 31(3): 525-532, 2021 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34483609

RESUMEN

Background: People with concurrent chronic conditions face different situations that lead to frequent transferring between the hospital and home. Despite the use of different strategies for improving transitional care, these transferring is associated with different challenges. This article aims to explore family caregivers' experiences of transitional care in diabetes with concurrent chronic conditions. Methods: This descriptive explorative study was done at university hospitals in two big cities (Isfahan and Tehran) of Iran. The data collection was conducted from November 2018 to February 2020 using deep, semi-structured, and face-to-face interviews which are focused on family caregivers' experiences of transitional care. The researchers continued the sampling until the data saturation. Finally, 15 family caregivers were selected through purposive sampling. Data collection and data analysis were performed concurrently. Data were analyzed through the conventional content analysis method. Results: Two main themes were identified: unsafe transition (unplanned discharge, inappropriate communication, lack of patient center care, and unavailable healthcare team) and erosive effort (financial burden, psychological stress, physical exhaustion, and lack of supportive sources). Conclusion: The findings point to the importance of designing a discharge plan and preparing family caregivers before being discharged by healthcare providers. It appears to be essential for health managers and policymakers to pay attention to safe transitional care planning. The establishment of transitional care centers will help to ensure continuity of care. Future research focusing on the design and implementation of an appropriate transitional care model is recommended.


Asunto(s)
Cuidadores , Alta del Paciente , Familia , Hospitales , Humanos , Irán , Investigación Cualitativa
5.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 7(9): e27715, 2021 09 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34468331

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Health misinformation is a public health concern. Various stakeholders have called on health care professionals, such as nurses and physicians, to be more proactive in correcting health misinformation on social media. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to identify US physicians' and nurses' motivations for correcting health misinformation on social media, the barriers they face in doing so, and their recommendations for overcoming such barriers. METHODS: In-depth interviews were conducted with 30 participants, which comprised 15 (50%) registered nurses and 15 (50%) physicians. Qualitative data were analyzed by using thematic analysis. RESULTS: Participants were personally (eg, personal choice) and professionally (eg, to fulfill the responsibility of a health care professional) motivated to correct health misinformation on social media. However, they also faced intrapersonal (eg, a lack of positive outcomes and time), interpersonal (eg, harassment and bullying), and institutional (eg, a lack of institutional support and social media training) barriers to correcting health misinformation on social media. To overcome these barriers, participants recommended that health care professionals should receive misinformation and social media training, including building their social media presence. CONCLUSIONS: US physicians and nurses are willing to correct health misinformation on social media despite several barriers. Nonetheless, this study provides recommendations that can be used to overcome such barriers. Overall, the findings can be used by health authorities and organizations to guide policies and activities aimed at encouraging more health care professionals to be present on social media to counteract health misinformation.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19/epidemiología , Comunicación , Información de Salud al Consumidor/normas , Motivación , Enfermeras y Enfermeros/psicología , Médicos/psicología , Medios de Comunicación Sociales/normas , Adulto , Anciano , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Enfermeras y Enfermeros/estadística & datos numéricos , Médicos/estadística & datos numéricos , Investigación Cualitativa , Estados Unidos/epidemiología
6.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 21(1): 903, 2021 Sep 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34474676

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Ajzen's theory of planned behavior (TPB) postulates that individuals' behavioral intention is influenced by their attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control. Therefore, it can be used to broaden the understanding of particular behaviors, including healthcare workers' professional activities. METHODS: In this study, we used TPB as a theoretical framework to evaluate semi-structured interviews with pharmacists and physicians to build an understanding of the interprofessional collaboration between them. Sixteen semi-structured interviews were conducted with pharmacists and eleven with physicians. The sample of participants comprised a diverse group with varying work experience and workplaces. Data were analyzed independently by two researchers following the thematic analysis method using ATLAS.ti software. Data saturation was set in the absence of new issues arising during the interviews. RESULTS: The content analysis allowed for the determination of six main themes: the relationship between previous experiences and attitudes towards collaboration, pharmacist's role in collaboration, mutual reluctance toward collaboration, the role of decision- and policy-makers, knowledge and qualifications gaps regarding collaboration, and lack of organizational paths. CONCLUSIONS: Despite both physicians and pharmacists displaying positive attitudes towards collaboration may foster their intention to establish a professional partnership, subjective norms (e.g., the lack of appropriate legal regulations) and perceived behavioral control (physicians' lack of awareness about pharmacists' qualifications and the low level of interpersonal skills) might impede the process.


Asunto(s)
Farmacéuticos , Médicos , Personal Administrativo , Actitud del Personal de Salud , Conducta Cooperativa , Humanos , Relaciones Interprofesionales , Rol Profesional , Investigación Cualitativa
7.
BMC Musculoskelet Disord ; 22(1): 754, 2021 Sep 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34479525

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Patients' perceptions and beliefs of disease could be influenced by their lifestyle and culture. Although it is important to understand their perceptions and beliefs toward disease to prevent and manage osteoarthritis (OA) through conservative care, this topic has not been investigated in Japanese people with knee OA. Therefore, this qualitative study aims to clarify how Japanese patients with knee OA experience and perceive their symptoms and disabilities, and how they face them during conservative care. METHODS: Participants were recruited by purposive sampling. Face-to-face, semi-structured interviews were conducted with nine patients (2 men and 7 women; mean age, 74.3 ± 5.5 years) with knee OA until data saturation was reached. Interview data comprised participants' accounts of particular personal experiences of living with knee OA, including their perceptions and attitudes toward knee OA-related symptoms and disabilities. Two physiotherapists (one with extensive experience conducting qualitative studies) and four physiotherapy students conducted the interviews. Recorded interview data were transcribed verbatim in Japanese. Data analysis, including developing a coding scheme, was conducted based on a grounded theory approach. RESULTS: Two core categories were extracted from the data: 'Negative experiences' and 'Coping with difficulties'. 'Negative experiences' included three main categories: 'Self-analysis on the cause of knee OA', 'Difficulties in daily life due to knee symptoms', and 'Psychological barrier'. 'Coping with difficulties' included three main categories: 'How to deal with knee pain and difficulty in moving', 'Information considered useful to cope with knee OA' and 'Importance of connecting with others'. Japanese patients with knee OA desired evidence-based information and to connect with other people in the same situation to solve problems related to their condition. CONCLUSIONS: To address patients' concerns, medical professionals should conduct careful interviews and obtain information regarding patients' past experiences, and understand their experiences related to knee OA. Symptoms and difficulties experienced by patients with knee OA should be managed by evidence-based information integrating their perceptions and beliefs toward knee OA.


Asunto(s)
Osteoartritis de la Rodilla , Anciano , Femenino , Humanos , Japón/epidemiología , Masculino , Osteoartritis de la Rodilla/diagnóstico , Osteoartritis de la Rodilla/terapia , Percepción , Modalidades de Fisioterapia , Investigación Cualitativa
8.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 21(1): 915, 2021 Sep 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34479541

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Journey mapping involves the creation of visual narrative timelines depicting the multidimensional relationship between a consumer and a service. The use of journey maps in medical research is a novel and innovative approach to understanding patient healthcare encounters. OBJECTIVES: To determine possible applications of journey mapping in medical research and the clinical setting. Specialist palliative care services were selected as the model to evaluate this paradigm, as there are numerous evidence gaps and inconsistencies in the delivery of care that may be addressed using this tool. METHODS: A purposive convenience sample of specialist palliative care providers from the Supportive and Palliative Care unit of a major Australian tertiary health service were invited to evaluate journey maps illustrating the final year of life of inpatient palliative care patients. Sixteen maps were purposively selected from a sample of 104 consecutive patients. This study utilised a qualitative mixed-methods approach, incorporating a modified Delphi technique and thematic analysis in an online questionnaire. RESULTS: Our thematic and Delphi analyses were congruent, with consensus findings consistent with emerging themes. Journey maps provided a holistic patient-centred perspective of care that characterised healthcare interactions within a longitudinal trajectory. Through these journey maps, participants were able to identify barriers to effective palliative care and opportunities to improve care delivery by observing patterns of patient function and healthcare encounters over multiple settings. CONCLUSIONS: This unique qualitative study noted many promising applications of the journey mapping suitable for extrapolation outside of the palliative care setting as a review and audit tool, or a mechanism for providing proactive patient-centred care. This is particularly significant as machine learning and big data is increasingly applied to healthcare.


Asunto(s)
Enfermería de Cuidados Paliativos al Final de la Vida , Cuidados Paliativos , Australia , Atención a la Salud , Humanos , Investigación Cualitativa
9.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 21(1): 905, 2021 Sep 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34479545

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: In an effort to encourage Family Planning (FP) adoption, since 1952, the Government of India has been implementing various centrally sponsored schemes that offer financial incentives (FIs) to acceptors as well as service providers, for services related to certain FP methods. However, understanding of the role of FIs on uptake of FP services, and the quality of FP services provided, is limited and mixed. METHODS: A qualitative descriptive study was conducted in Chatra and Palamu districts of Jharkhand state. A total of 64 interviews involving multiple stakeholders were conducted. The stakeholders included recent FP acceptors or clients, FP service providers of public health facilities including Accredited Social Healthcare Activists (ASHAs), government health officials managing FP programs at the district and state level, and members of development partners supporting FP programs in Jharkhand. Data analysis included both inductive and deductive strategies. It was done using the software Atlas ti version 8. RESULTS: It has emerged that there is a strong felt need for FP among majority of the clients, and FIs may be a motivator for uptake of FP methods only among those belonging to the lower socio economic strata. For ASHAs, FI is the primary motivator for providing FP related services. There may be a tendency among them and the nurses to promote methods which have more financial incentives linked with them. There are mixed opinions on discontinuing FIs for clients or replacing them with non-financial incentives. Delays in payment of FIs to both clients and the ASHAs is a common issue and adversely effects the program. CONCLUSION: FIs for clients have limited influence on their decision to take up a FP method while different amounts of FIs for ASHAs and nurses, linked with different FP methods, may be influencing their service provision. More research is needed to determine the effect of discontinuing FI for FP services.


Asunto(s)
Servicios de Planificación Familiar , Motivación , Atención a la Salud , Gobierno , Humanos , India , Investigación Cualitativa
10.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 21(1): 904, 2021 Sep 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34479553

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Person-centred care (PCC) is promoted as an innovation that will improve patients' rights and increase their participation in healthcare. Experience shows that the implementation of PCC is challenging and often results in varying levels of adoption. How health care professionals (HCPs) perceive an innovation such as PCC is an important factor to consider in implementation. Yet, such studies are scarce. Thus, in a sample of healthcare units in a region in Sweden, involved in a transition to PCC, we aimed to investigate HCPs' perceptions of PCC. METHODS: An interview study was conducted in 2018 during the implementation of PCC with HCPs (n = 97) representing diverse vocational roles in six healthcare contexts. Data were collected via focus groups (n = 15), dyadic interviews (n = 5), and individual interviews (n = 22) and analysed using a deductive-inductive content analysis. The deductive approach was guided by the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR), followed by an inductive analysis to describe HCPs' in-depth perceptions of PCC in relation to each of the CFIR constructs. RESULTS: Eight constructs from two of the CFIR domains, Intervention characteristics and Inner setting, were used to code HCPs' perceptions of PCC. One construct, Observability, was added to the coding sheet to fully describe all the data. The constructs Relative advantage, Complexity, Compatibility, Observability, and Available resources were discussed in depth by HCPs and resulted in rich and detailed data in the inductive data analysis. This analysis showed large variations in perceptions of PCC among HCPs, based on factors such as the PCCs ethical underpinnings, its operationalisation into concrete working routines, and each HCPs' unique recognition of PCC and the value they placed on it. CONCLUSIONS: We identified nine CFIR constructs that seem pertinent to HCPs' perceptions of PCC. HCPs report an array of mixed perceptions of PCC, underlining its complex nature. The perceptions are shaped by a range of factors, such as their individual understandings of the concept and the operationalisation of PCC in their local context. Stakeholders in charge of implementing PCC might use the results as a guide, delineating factors that may be important to consider in a wide range of healthcare contexts.


Asunto(s)
Atención a la Salud , Personal de Salud , Grupos Focales , Humanos , Atención Dirigida al Paciente , Investigación Cualitativa
11.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 1623, 2021 09 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34488693

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Social stigma against persons infected with COVID-19 is not uncommon. This qualitative study aimed to explore the experience of social stigma among COVID-19 positive patients and their family members. METHOD: This cross-sectional study was conducted between April to June 2020 in Malaysia. Patients who have recovered from COVID-19 for at least 1 month and their family members who were tested with negative results, Malaysian and aged 18-65 years old were purposively sampled. Cold call method was employed to recruit patients while their family members were recruited by their recommendations. Telephone interviews were conducted with the participants after obtaining their verbal consent. RESULTS: A total of 18 participants took part in this study. Three themes emerged from the interviews: (Ι) experience of stigmatization, (ΙΙ) perspective on disease disclosure, and (ΙΙΙ) suggestion on coping and reducing stigma. The participants expressed their experiences of being isolated, labelled, and blamed by the people surrounding them including the health care providers, neighbours, and staff at the service counters. Some respondents expressed their willingness to share their experience with others by emphasizing the importance of taking preventive measure in order to stop the chain of virus transmission and some of them chose to disclose this medical history for official purpose because of fear and lack of understanding among the public. As suggested by the respondents, the approaches in addressing social stigma require the involvement of the government, the public, health care provider, and religious leader. CONCLUSION: Individuals recovered from COVID-19 and their families experienced social stigma. Fear and lack of public understanding of the COVID-19 disease were the key factors for non-disclosure. Some expressed their willingness to share their experience as they perceived it as method to increase public awareness and thereby reducing social stigma. Multifaceted approaches with the involvement of multiple parties including the government, non-governmental organization as well as the general public were recommended as important measures to address the issues of social stigma.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Estigma Social , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Estudios Transversales , Familia , Humanos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Investigación Cualitativa , SARS-CoV-2 , Adulto Joven
12.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 21(1): 969, 2021 Sep 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34521399

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The South African government is implementing National Health Insurance (NHI) as a monopsony health care financing mechanism to drive the country towards Universal Health Coverage (UHC). Strategic purchasing, with separation of funder, purchaser and provider, underpins this initiative. The NHI plans Contracting Units for Primary healthcare (PHC) Services (CUPS) to function as either independent sub-district purchasers or public providers and District Health Management Offices (DHMOs) to support and monitor these CUPS. This decentralised operational unit of PHC, the heartbeat of NHI, is critical to the success of NHI. The views of district-level managers, who are responsible for these units, are fundamental to this NHI implementation. This qualitative study aimed to explore district and sub-district managerial views on NHI and their role in its implementation. METHODS: Purposive sampling was used to identify key respondents from a major urban district in Gauteng, South Africa, for participation in in-depth interviews. This study used framework analysis methodology within MaxQDA software. RESULTS: Three main themes were identified: managerial engagement in NHI policy development (with two sub-themes), managerial views on NHI (with three sub-themes) and perceptions of current NHI implementation (with six sub-themes). The managers viewed NHI as a social and moral imperative but lacked clarity and insight into the NHI Bill as well as the associated implementation strategies. The majority of respondents had not had the opportunity to engage in NHI policy formulation. Managers cited several pitfalls in current organisational operations. The respondents felt that national and provincial governments continue to function in a detached and rigid top-down hierarchy. Managers highlighted the need for their inclusion in NHI policy formulation and training and development for them to oversee the implementation strategies. CONCLUSIONS: It appears that strategic purchasing is not being operationalised in PHC. NHI policy implementation appears to function in a rigid top-down hierarchy that excludes key stakeholders in the NHI implementation strategy. The findings of this study suggest an inadequate decentralisation of healthcare governance within the public sector necessary to attain UHC. District managers need to be engaged and capacitated to operationalise the planned decentralised purchasing-provision function of the DHS within the NHI Bill.


Asunto(s)
Programas Nacionales de Salud , Cobertura Universal del Seguro de Salud , Atención a la Salud , Humanos , Atención Primaria de Salud , Investigación Cualitativa , Sudáfrica
13.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 21(1): 970, 2021 Sep 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34521406

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: To bridge the physical distance between parents and children during a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) stay, webcams are used in few German NICUs. They allow parents to view their infant even when they cannot be present on the ward. The aim of the study was to explore the factors for and against webcam use that parents with or without webcam use encountered. METHODS: Guideline-based, semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted in the period from September 2019 to August 2020. Interview transcripts were analysed using a category-based content analysis. The categories were generated in a combined deductive-inductive procedure. RESULTS: We interviewed 33 mothers and seven fathers. Parents with webcam experience emphasised positive aspects concerning their webcam use. Factors that increased webcam acceptance included feeling certain about the child's well-being and an increased sense of proximity. Only a few critical voices emerged from parents who had webcam experience, e.g. regarding privacy concerns. Parents who had no experience with webcam use showed ambivalence. On the one hand, they expressed a positive attitude towards the webcam system and acknowledged that webcam use could result in feelings of control. On the other hand, reservations emerged concerning an increase of mental stress or a negative influence on parental visitation behaviour. CONCLUSION: In addition to the parents' positive experiences with webcam use, results show a need within parents who lacked webcam experience. Despite some criticism, it was evident that webcam use was primarily seen as an opportunity to counteract the negative consequences of separation in the postnatal phase. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The Neo-CamCare study is registered at the German Clinical Trials Register. DRKS-ID: DRKS00017755 . Date of Registration in DRKS: 25-09-2019.


Asunto(s)
Motivación , Padres , Niño , Padre , Femenino , Humanos , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Unidades de Cuidado Intensivo Neonatal , Masculino , Investigación Cualitativa
14.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 21(1): 962, 2021 Sep 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34521407

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The need for home care workers (HCWs) is rapidly growing in Norway due to the increasingly growing elderly population. HCWs are exposed to a number of occupational hazards and physically demanding work tasks. Musculoskeletal disorders, stress, exhaustion, high sick leave rates and a high probability of being granted a disability pension are common challenges. This qualitative study explored the views of HCWs on how working conditions affect their safety, health, and wellbeing. METHODS: A descriptive and explorative design was utilised using semi-structured individual interviews with eight HCWs from three home care units in a middle-sized Norwegian city. Interviews were conducted in the Norwegian language, audio-recorded, and transcribed verbatim. The data was analysed by systematic text condensation. Key data quotes were translated into English by the authors. RESULTS: HCWs reported that meaningful work-related interactions and relationships contributed to their improved wellbeing. Challenging interactions, such as verbal violence by consumers, were deemed stressful. The unpredictable work conditions HCWs encounter in users' homes contributed to their exposure to environmental hazards and unhealthy physical workloads. This was the case, although the employer promoted ergonomic work practices such as ergonomic body mechanics when mobilising and handling of clients, using safe patient handling equipment. HCWs perceived high level of individual responsibility for complying with company safety policies and practices, representing a health barrier for some. Organisational frameworks created unhealthy work conditions by shift work, time pressure and staffing challenges. Performing tasks in accordance with HCWs professional skills and identity was perceived as health-promoting. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that unpredictable working conditions at users' home can adversely affect the safety, health, and wellbeing of HCWs. The interaction between the unpredictable environment at users' homes, HCWs' perceived high level of individual responsibility for complying with company safety policies and practices, and staffing challenges due to sickness-related absences upon the workplace creates tense work conditions with a negative influence on HCWs health.


Asunto(s)
Servicios de Atención de Salud a Domicilio , Auxiliares de Salud a Domicilio , Salud Laboral , Anciano , Humanos , Investigación Cualitativa , Lugar de Trabajo
15.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 21(1): 965, 2021 Sep 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34521415

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Managing older people in the emergency department remains a challenge. We aimed to identify the factors influencing the care quality of older patients in the emergency department, to fine-tune future interventions for older people, considering the naturalistic context of the ED. METHODS: This is a qualitative study of some 450 h of observations performed in three emergency departments selected for their diverse contexts. We performed seventy observations of older patient trajectories admitted to the emergency department. Themes were extracted from the material using an inductive reasoning approach, to highlight factors positively or negatively influencing management of patient's trajectories, in particular those presenting with typically geriatric syndromes. RESULTS: Four themes were developed: no geriatric flow routine; risk of discontinuity of care; unmet basic needs and patient-centered care; complex older patients are unwelcome in EDs. CONCLUSIONS: The overall process of care was based on an organ- and flow-centered paradigm, which ignored older people's specific needs and exposed them to discontinuity of care. Their basic needs were neglected and, when their management slowed the emergency department flow, older people were perceived as unwelcome. Findings of our study can inform the development of interventions about the influence of context and organizational factors.


Asunto(s)
Servicio de Urgencia en Hospital , Hospitalización , Anciano , Humanos , Investigación Cualitativa , Calidad de la Atención de Salud
16.
Rev Bras Enferm ; 74(4): e20201020, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés, Portugués | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34524367

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To historically analyze psychiatric nursing teaching at the Universidade Federal de Alagoas from 1976 to 1981. METHODS: Qualitative study; social-historical approach employing Thematic Oral History based on the documentary sources and testimonials from nurses, students, professors, and professionals at the psychiatric hospital where these practices occurred. The study researched World, Brazil, and Alagoas history and the Curricular Guidelines for Nursing for the history comprehension and used Erving Goffman's concepts as a theoretical reference. RESULTS: They revealed the structural conditions of the university in 1976, the American contribution to the teaching staff, the students' psychological preparation in theoretical and practical classes, the precarious scenario of psychiatric care in Alagoas, and the care that minimizes stigmas through empathy and sensitive listening. CONCLUSION: With the emergence of that discipline, students and professors expanded their views on mental illness and emphasized their need for academic training based on reforming care principles.


Asunto(s)
Educación en Enfermería , Enfermería Psiquiátrica , Estudiantes de Enfermería , Brasil , Escolaridad , Humanos , Investigación Cualitativa , Universidades
17.
Ig Sanita Pubbl ; 78(4): 545-563, 2021.
Artículo en Italiano | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34525013

RESUMEN

Unfinished Nursing Care, which expresses the nursing care planned but not delivered or delivered late, is a phenomenon of growing interest in recent years resulting in several conceptual frameworks, each of which has defined what are the consequences of the phenomenon. However, outcomes established to date have not been re-assessed over time and from different perspectives, including also the nurse managers and directors. The aim of the study was to describe the consequences of Unfinished Nursing Care in daily practice as perceived by clinical nurses, nurse managers and directors. A descriptive qualitative study based on interviews was conducted in 2021; data has been analyzed through content analysis, and reported here in accordance with the Consolidated criteria for reporting qualitative research (COREQ) guidelines. The consequences of Unfinished Nursing Care have been set at three levels: outcomes for the nurse (increased frustration, anxiety, helplessness, work overtime), outcomes for the patient (increased risk of infections related to care practices, bed rest syndrome; loss of independence and quality of life, disorientation; increase episodes of in undefined care pathways, aggression towards staff, decrease in compliance and increased the length of in-hospital stay) and outcomes affecting the relationship with family caregivers (difficulties in the relationship, disappointment, increased risk of complaints).


Asunto(s)
Enfermeras Administradoras , Calidad de Vida , Humanos , Investigación Cualitativa
18.
BMC Med Educ ; 21(1): 494, 2021 Sep 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34525997

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Medical educators have promoted self-directed learning (SDL) as an important means of enabling students to take responsibility for their own learning throughout their training and practice. While SDL has been well-studied in classroom settings, it remains a story half told: barriers to and facilitators of SDL in the clinical setting are not yet well described. The goals of this study were to explicate student experiences of SDL in their clinical training and to identify the roles that local social and cultural contexts play in shaping their experiences of SDL. METHODS: To understand students' conceptualization and experiences of SDL in the clinical setting, we carried out a qualitative study with 15 medical students at Harvard Medical School. The semi-structured interviews were recorded and transcribed. Using an interpretivist approach, data were analyzed both deductively and inductively using the Framework method of content analysis. RESULTS: Participants described patient care activities as primary motivators for engagement in SDL in the clinical setting. Participants' descriptions of SDL aligned with Knowles' steps in SDL, with an additional step of consolidation of learning related to their patients' diagnosis and management. Participants described using a range of cognitive, social-emotional, and peer learning strategies to enhance their SDL. Participants who described a growth mindset appeared to engage in SDL more easily. Learning environments that fostered SDL were those in which faculty and residents demonstrated an educational orientation, promoted psychological safety, and invited student engagement. Teams with perceived excessive work demands were perceived to be less supportive of SDL. CONCLUSIONS: Our study enhances previous classroom-based models of SDL by providing specific, practical implications for both students and faculty in the clinical training setting. Participants described SDL in the clinical setting as patient-centered, and when effectively implemented, SDL appears to support a mastery rather than performance orientation. Our study paves the way for improving medical students' clinical SDL and helping them become lifelong learners in the field of medicine.


Asunto(s)
Educación de Pregrado en Medicina , Estudiantes de Medicina , Curriculum , Humanos , Aprendizaje , Investigación Cualitativa
19.
BMJ Open ; 11(9): e046111, 2021 09 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34475150

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Communication failures between clinicians lead to poor patient outcomes. Critically injured patients have multiple injured organ systems and require complex multidisciplinary care from a wide range of healthcare professionals and communication failures are abundantly common. This study sought to determine barriers and facilitators to interdisciplinary communication between the consulting trauma, intensive care unit (ICU) team and specialty consultants for critically injured patients at an urban, safety-net, level 1 trauma centre. DESIGN: An observational qualitative study of barriers and facilitators to interdisciplinary communication. SETTING: We conducted observations of daily rounds in two trauma surgical ICUs and recorded the most frequently consulted teams. PARTICIPANTS: Key informant interviews after presenting clinical vignettes as discussion prompts were conducted with a broad range of clinicians from the ICUs and physicians and nurse practitioners from the consultant teams who were identified during the observations. Interviews were recorded and transcribed verbatim. Data of these 10 interviews were combined with primary transcript data from prior study (25 interviews) and analysed together because of the same setting with same themes. Independent coding of the transcripts, with iterative reconciliation, was performed by two coders. OUTCOMES MEASURES: Facilitators and barriers of interdisciplinary communication were identified. RESULTS: A total of 35 interview transcripts were analysed. Cardiology and interventional radiology were the most frequently consulted teams. Consulting and consultant clinicians reported that perceived accessibility from the team seeking a consultation and the consultant team impacted interdisciplinary communication. Accessibility had a physical dimension as well as a psychological dimension. Accessibility was demonstrated by responsiveness between clinicians of different disciplines and in turn facilitated interdisciplinary communication. Social norms, cognitive biases, hierarchy and relationships were reported as both facilitators and barriers to accessibility, and therefore, interdisciplinary communication. CONCLUSION: Accessibility impacted interdisciplinary communication between the consulting and the consultant team. ARTICLE SUMMARY: Elucidates barriers and facilitators to interdisciplinary communication between consulting and consultant teams.


Asunto(s)
Comunicación Interdisciplinaria , Derivación y Consulta , Comunicación , Barreras de Comunicación , Personal de Salud , Humanos , Unidades de Cuidados Intensivos , Investigación Cualitativa
20.
BMJ Open ; 11(9): e046696, 2021 09 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34489272

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To gain insight into the process of postpartum care utilisation and in-home support among vulnerable women. DESIGN, METHOD, PARTICIPANTS AND SETTING: A qualitative interview study was conducted among 23 pregnant and postpartum vulnerable women in the Netherlands, following a grounded theory approach. Women were determined as vulnerable by their healthcare providers. Theoretical sampling of participants was applied and was alternated by data analysis to include information-rich cases until saturation was achieved. RESULTS: A conceptual framework of postpartum care utilisation was generated consisting of three phases: pregnancy, early postpartum period and late postpartum period. Within these phases, information provision, parenting self-efficacy and social network were identified as overarching themes. Perceived inadequate information on content of postpartum care posed a major barrier to forming realistic expectations during pregnancy and hindered its utilisation. Low self-efficacy facilitated postpartum care utilisation. All women experienced increased self-efficacy during and after postpartum care. Support from a social network influenced expectations regarding the added value of postpartum care during pregnancy, and lowered actual utilisation during the postpartum period. The costs of postpartum care and the role of the maternity care assistant acted as general barriers or facilitators influencing the three overarching themes and therefore postpartum care utilisation indirectly. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that postpartum care utilisation among vulnerable women may be improved by considering the particular phase and relevant themes applying to individual women, and adapt care accordingly. We recommend to provide comprehensive, understandable information and to emphasise the gains of postpartum care in improving self-efficacy for vulnerable women. Moreover, involving a woman's social network in postpartum care may add value to this care for this population.


Asunto(s)
Servicios de Salud Materna , Atención Posnatal , Femenino , Humanos , Países Bajos , Periodo Posparto , Embarazo , Investigación Cualitativa
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