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2.
Health Inf Manag ; 50(1-2): 9-12, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32680440

RESUMEN

Context: Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has precipitated an unprecedented volume of medical research. Articles reporting two studies were recently retracted from prestigious journals for reasons including the (thus far) unverifiable provenance of data. This commentary adopts a health information management lens to focus on aspects of data in one of the studies (investigating the use of hydroxychloroquine or chloroquine with or without a macrolide for treatment of COVID-19). The issues: Referencing the Australian context, the current article considers some of the study's reported hospital administrative and coded data categories within the context of Australian hospitals' health information management practices. It highlights potential risks associated with the collection and interpretation of 'big' health data. Implications: This article identifies pitfalls that confront researchers undertaking multi-country studies and the need to consider country-specific: (i) collected administrative data items; (ii) health information-related ethical, legal and management policy constraints on the use of confidential hospital records and derived data; and (iii) differences in health classification systems and versions used in the coding of diagnoses and related procedures, interventions and health behaviours. Conclusions: The article concludes that the inclusion of a qualified, senior Health Information Manager in research teams and on institutional Human Research Ethics Committees would help to prevent potential problems.


Asunto(s)
Macrodatos , Gestión de la Información en Salud/ética , Acceso a la Información , Personal Administrativo , Australia , Bioética , Seguridad Computacional , Interpretación Estadística de Datos , Registros Electrónicos de Salud , Gestión de la Información en Salud/legislación & jurisprudencia , Humanos , Hidroxicloroquina/uso terapéutico , Privacidad , Investigación
3.
Lancet ; 396(10267): 1941, 2021 12 19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33341126
5.
Clin Anat ; 34(1): 82-89, 2021 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32648289

RESUMEN

COVID-19 has generated a global need for technologies that enable communication, collaboration, education and scientific discourse whilst maintaining physical distance. University closures due to COVID-19 and physical distancing measures disrupt academic activities that previously occurred face-to-face. Restrictions placed on universities due to COVID-19 have precluded most conventional forms of education, assessment, research and scientific discourse. Anatomists now require valid, robust and easy-to-use communication tools to facilitate remote teaching, learning and research. Recent advances in communication, video conferencing and digital technologies may facilitate continuity of teaching and research activities. Examples include highly-interactive video conferencing technology, collaborative tools, social media and networking platforms. In this narrative review, we examine the utility of these technologies in supporting effective communication and professional activities of anatomists during COVID-19 and after.


Asunto(s)
Anatomía/educación , Medios de Comunicación , Educación a Distancia , Investigación , Anatomía/métodos , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles , Conducta Cooperativa , Educación Médica/métodos , Humanos , Redes Sociales en Línea , Medios de Comunicación Sociales , Interfaz Usuario-Computador , Comunicación por Videocoferencia
6.
Ambio ; 50(1): 74-84, 2021 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32112294

RESUMEN

Relational thinking has recently gained increasing prominence across academic disciplines in an attempt to understand complex phenomena in terms of constitutive processes and relations. Interdisciplinary fields of study, such as science and technology studies (STS), the environmental humanities, and the posthumanities, for example, have started to reformulate academic understanding of nature-cultures based on relational thinking. Although the sustainability crisis serves as a contemporary backdrop and in fact calls for such innovative forms of interdisciplinary scholarship, the field of sustainability research has not yet tapped into the rich possibilities offered by relational thinking. Against this background, the purpose of this paper is to identify relational approaches to ontology, epistemology, and ethics which are relevant to sustainability research. More specifically, we analyze how relational approaches have been understood and conceptualized across a broad range of disciplines and contexts relevant to sustainability to identify and harness connections and contributions for future sustainability-related work. Our results highlight common themes and patterns across relational approaches, helping to identify and characterize a relational paradigm within sustainability research. On this basis, we conclude with a call to action for sustainability researchers to co-develop a research agenda for advancing this relational paradigm within sustainability research, practice, and education.


Asunto(s)
Investigación
7.
World Neurosurg ; 145: e202-e208, 2021 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33065350

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To determine the impact of the 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic on operative case volume in 8 U.S. neurosurgical residency training programs in early 2020 and to survey these programs regarding training activities during this period. METHODS: A retrospective review was conducted of monthly operative case volumes and types for 8 residency programs for 2019 and January through April 2020. Cases were grouped as elective cranial, elective spine, and nonelective emergent cases. Programs were surveyed regarding residents' perceptions of the impact of COVID-19 on surgical training, didactics, and research participation. Data were analyzed for individual programs and pooled across programs. RESULTS: Across programs, the 2019 monthly mean ± SD case volume was 211 ± 82; 2020 mean ± SD case volumes for January, February, March, and April were 228 ± 93, 214 ± 84, 180 ± 73, and 107 ± 45. Compared with 2019, March and April 2020 mean cases declined 15% (P = 0.003) and 49% (P = 0.002), respectively. COVID-19 affected surgical case volume for all programs; 75% reported didactics negatively affected, and 90% reported COVID-19 resulted in increased research time. Several neurosurgery residents required COVID-19 testing; however, to our knowledge, only 1 resident from the participating programs tested positive. CONCLUSIONS: This study documents a significant reduction in operative volume in 8 neurosurgery residency training programs in early 2020. During this time, neurosurgery residents engaged in online didactics and research-related activities, reporting increased research productivity. Residency programs should collect data to determine the educational impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on residents' operative case volumes, identify deficiencies, and develop plans to mitigate any effects.


Asunto(s)
Neurocirugia/educación , Pandemias , Educación de Postgrado en Medicina/estadística & datos numéricos , Procedimientos Quirúrgicos Electivos , Humanos , Transmisión de Enfermedad Infecciosa de Paciente a Profesional , Internado y Residencia , Investigación , Estudios Retrospectivos , Columna Vertebral/cirugía , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Estados Unidos
8.
J Environ Manage ; 278(Pt 1): 111520, 2021 Jan 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33166738

RESUMEN

The risk of a large-scale oil spill remains significant in marine environments as international maritime transport continues to grow. The environmental as well as the socio-economic impacts of a large-scale oil spill could be substantial. Oil spill models and modeling tools for Pollution Preparedness and Response (PPR) can support effective risk management. However, there is a lack of integrated approaches that consider oil spill risks comprehensively, learn from all information sources, and treat the system uncertainties in an explicit manner. Recently, the use of the international ISO 31000:2018 risk management framework has been suggested as a suitable basis for supporting oil spill PPR risk management. Bayesian networks (BNs) are graphical models that express uncertainty in a probabilistic form and can thus support decision-making processes when risks are complex and data are scarce. While BNs have increasingly been used for oil spill risk assessment (OSRA) for PPR, no link between the BNs literature and the ISO 31000:2018 framework has previously been made. This study explores how Bayesian risk models can be aligned with the ISO 31000:2018 framework by offering a flexible approach to integrate various sources of probabilistic knowledge. In order to gain insight in the current utilization of BNs for oil spill risk assessment and management (OSRA-BNs) for maritime oil spill preparedness and response, a literature review was performed. The review focused on articles presenting BN models that analyze the occurrence of oil spills, consequence mitigation in terms of offshore and shoreline oil spill response, and impacts of spills on the variables of interest. Based on the results, the study discusses the benefits of applying BNs to the ISO 31000:2018 framework as well as the challenges and further research needs.


Asunto(s)
Arte , Contaminación por Petróleo , Teorema de Bayes , Investigación , Medición de Riesgo , Incertidumbre
9.
Ambio ; 50(1): 229-241, 2021 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32451968

RESUMEN

Uncertain future payoffs and irreversible costs characterize investment in climate change adaptation and mitigation. Under these conditions, it is relevant to analyze investment decisions in a real options framework, as this approach takes into account the economic value associated with investment time flexibility. In this paper, we provide an overview of the literature adopting a real option approach to analyze investment in climate change adaptation and mitigation, and examine how the uncertain impacts of climate change on the condition of the human environment, risk preferences, and strategic interactions among decisions-makers have been modeled. We found that the complex nature of uncertainties associated with climate change is typically only partially taken into account and that the analysis is usually limited to decisions taken by individual risk neutral profit maximizers. Our findings call for further research to fill the identified gaps.


Asunto(s)
Cambio Climático , Investigación , Humanos , Incertidumbre
10.
Protein Sci ; 30(1): 115-124, 2021 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32981130

RESUMEN

The COVID-19 pandemic has triggered numerous scientific activities aimed at understanding the SARS-CoV-2 virus and ultimately developing treatments. Structural biologists have already determined hundreds of experimental X-ray, cryo-EM, and NMR structures of proteins and nucleic acids related to this coronavirus, and this number is still growing. To help biomedical researchers, who may not necessarily be experts in structural biology, navigate through the flood of structural models, we have created an online resource, covid19.bioreproducibility.org, that aggregates expert-verified information about SARS-CoV-2-related macromolecular models. In this article, we describe this web resource along with the suite of tools and methodologies used for assessing the structures presented therein.


Asunto(s)
/genética , Internet , Proteínas Virales/ultraestructura , /virología , Bases de Datos de Compuestos Químicos , Humanos , Modelos Estructurales , Pandemias , Investigación , /patogenicidad , Proteínas Virales/química , Proteínas Virales/genética
11.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 45(20): 5048-5056, 2020 Oct.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33350282

RESUMEN

Compound prescription of traditional Chinese medicine(TCM), the main form in prevention and treatment of diseases in TCM, has unique advantages in medical practice. New TCM drugs for certain syndromes serve as an important carrier of inheritance and innovation in TCM. The research and development of new TCM drugs for certain syndromes should be based on the theory of TCM, guided by clinical value, and based on the principle of quality, safety and effectiveness. Through the innovative understanding of disease development rules, clinicians carry out academic theory innovation to guide clinical practice, aiming to effectively promote academic innovation and the development of new TCM drugs for certain syndromes. In this paper, we expounded some understanding of the innovation system of TCM, and analyzed the research value of new TCM drugs for certain syndromes. Based on theoretical innovation, the overall research model was preliminarily put forward. Subsequently, a concrete discussion from three aspects, including pharmaco-logy and toxicology, pharmacy and clinic research, was made on the specific process and existing problems of new drug research and development of TCM. Our research group attempts to establish a new drug innovation ecosystem for TCM syndrome, with the purpose of providing reference for other researchers.


Asunto(s)
Medicamentos Herbarios Chinos , Preparaciones Farmacéuticas , Medicamentos Herbarios Chinos/uso terapéutico , Ecosistema , Humanos , Medicina China Tradicional , Investigación , Síndrome
12.
BMC Bioinformatics ; 21(Suppl 9): 538, 2020 Dec 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33272214

RESUMEN

This is an editorial report of the supplements to BMC Bioinformatics that includes 6 papers selected from the BIOCOMP'19-The 2019 International Conference on Bioinformatics and Computational Biology. These articles reflect current trend and development in bioinformatics research.


Asunto(s)
Biología Computacional/métodos , Investigación , Genómica , Humanos , Espectroscopía de Resonancia Magnética , Proteínas de Neoplasias/metabolismo , Neoplasias/mortalidad
13.
MEDICC Rev ; 22(4): 16-19, 2020 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33295313

RESUMEN

Virologist Dr María Guadalupe Guzmán is recognized as a global leader in dengue research and heads the Pedro Kourí Tropical Medicine Institute's work as a WHO/PAHO Collaborating Center for the Study of Dengue and Its Vector. The Institute (IPK) was founded in 1937 and is now Cuba's national reference center for the diagnosis, treatment, control and prevention of communicable diseases. Dr Guzmán is also president of the Cuban Society of Microbiology and Parasitology and directs IPK's Scientifi c Council, which is responsible for setting the Institute's research priorities. A recent h-index analysis found that Dr Guzmán is among the most widelypublished and cited Cuban researchers.


Asunto(s)
/prevención & control , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles , Investigación , Academias e Institutos , Cuba/epidemiología , Humanos , Pandemias
15.
BMC Bioinformatics ; 21(Suppl 21): 563, 2020 Dec 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33371868

RESUMEN

The International Association for Intelligent Biology and Medicine (IAIBM) is a nonprofit organization that promotes intelligent biology and medical science. It hosts an annual International Conference on Intelligent Biology and Medicine (ICIBM), which was initially established in 2012. Due to the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic, the ICIBM 2020 was held for the first time as a virtual online conference on August 9 to 10. The virtual conference had ~ 300 registered participants and featured 41 online real-time presentations. ICIBM 2020 received a total of 75 manuscript submissions, and 12 were selected to be published in this special issue of BMC Bioinformatics. These 12 manuscripts cover a wide range of bioinformatics topics including network analysis, imaging analysis, machine learning, gene expression analysis, and sequence analysis.


Asunto(s)
Biología Computacional/métodos , Congresos como Asunto , Internacionalidad , Medicina , Investigación , Regulación de la Expresión Génica , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Humanos , Aprendizaje Automático , Análisis de Secuencia
20.
Texto & contexto enferm ; 29: e20180345, Jan.-Dec. 2020. tab
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermería | ID: biblio-1059130

RESUMEN

ABSTRACT Objective: to analyze the content of the defining characteristics of the Disturbed Sleep Pattern Nursing Diagnosis (00198) in patients with Acute Coronary Syndrome. Method: content analysis performed by specialists who achieved a score equal to or greater than five, according to established criteria: clinical experience, teaching and/or research; participation in research groups; doctorate degree; master's degree; specialization and/or residency in cardiology and/or sleep and/or nursing classifications. Eight defining characteristics were evaluated for their relationship to population, relevance, clarity and accuracy. Descriptive statistics were performed to characterize the sample, binomial statistical test to establish if there is agreement between the experts and chi-square and Fisher's exact to establish associations between the evaluated items and the experts' variables. Results: 54 experts participated in the study. The defining characteristics validated by the experts were the following: dissatisfaction with sleep, feeling unrested, sleep deprivation, alteration in sleep pattern, unintentional awakening, difficulty initiating sleep and daytime sleepiness. There was a statistically significant association between evaluated items and the variables time of training, time of operation and punctuation. Conclusion: seven of the eight defining characteristics were considered valid after the application of binomial test. This study will contribute to the refinement of the Disturbed Sleep Pattern Nursing Diagnosis (000198) and may enable the improvement of the quality of care of patients hospitalized with Acute Coronary Syndrome regarding changes in sleep pattern. The content analysis stage will support the next stage of the validation process of the present diagnosis, the clinical validation.


RESUMEN Objetivo: analizar el contenido de las características definidoras del Diagnóstico de Enfermería de Patrón de Sueño Perjudicado (00198) en pacientes con Síndrome Coronario Agudo. Método: análisis de contenido realizado por especialistas que obtuvieron una puntaje mayor o igual a cinco, de acuerdo con los criterios establecidos: experiencia clínica, en docencia y/o en investigación; participación en grupos de investigación; doctorado; maestría; especialización y/o residencia en cardiología y/o en clasificaciones de enfermería. Se evaluaron ocho características definidoras en cuanto a su relación con la población, relevancia, claridad y precisión. Se realizó un análisis estadístico descriptivo para caracterizar la muestra, una prueba estadística de binomios para establecer si había concordancia entre los especialistas y las pruebas de chi-cuadrado y exacto de Fisher para establecer asociaciones entre los puntos evaluados y las variables de los especialistas. Resultados: del estudio participaron 54 especialistas. Las características definidoras que evaluaron los especialistas fueron las siguientes: insatisfacción con el sueño, no sentirse descansado, privación del sueño, alteración en el patrón de sueño, despertar no intencional, dificultad para iniciar el sueño y somnolencia diurna. Se registró una asociación estadística significativa entre los puntos evaluados y las siguientes variables: tiempo de formación, tiempo de ejercicio en la profesión y puntuación. Conclusión: siete de las ocho Características definidoras se consideraron válidas después de aplicar la prueba de binomios. El presente estudio contribuirá a perfeccionar el Diagnóstico de Enfermería de Patrón de Sueño Perjudicado (000198) y podrá hacer posible que se mejore la calidad de la atención de pacientes internados con Síndrome Coronario Agudo en lo referente a alteraciones en el patrón de sueño. La etapa del análisis de contenido servirá de ayuda para la próxima etapa del proceso de validación del presente diagnóstico: la validación clínica.


RESUMO Objetivo: analisar o conteúdo das características definidoras do Diagnóstico de Enfermagem Padrão de Sono Prejudicado (00198) em pacientes com Síndrome Coronariana Aguda. Método: análise de conteúdo realizada por especialistas que atingiram pontuação igual ou maior a cinco, de acordo com critérios estabelecidos: experiência clínica, no ensino e/ou pesquisa; participação em grupos de pesquisa; doutorado; mestrado; especialização e/ou residência em cardiologia e/ou sono e/ou classificações de enfermagem. Oito características definidoras foram avaliadas quanto a sua relação com a população, relevância, clareza e precisão. Realizou-se estatística descritiva para caracterização da amostra, teste estatístico binomial para estabelecer se há concordância entre os especialistas e qui-quadrado e exato de Fisher para estabelecer associações entre os itens avaliados e variáveis dos especialistas. Resultados: 54 especialistas participaram do estudo. As características definidoras validadas pelos especialistas foram: insatisfação com o sono, não se sentir descansado, privação do sono, alteração do padrão de sono, despertar não intencional, dificuldade para iniciar o sono e sonolência diurna. Houve associação estatística significativa entre itens avaliados e as variáveis tempo de formação, tempo de atuação e pontuação. Conclusão: sete das oito características definidoras foram consideradas válidas após aplicação de teste binomial. O presente estudo contribuirá para o refinamento do Diagnóstico de Enfermagem Padrão de Sono Prejudicado (000198) e poderá possibilitar a melhoria da qualidade do atendimento de pacientes internados com Síndrome Coronariana Aguda no que tange a alterações do padrão de sono. A etapa de análise de conteúdo subsidiará a próxima etapa do processo de validação do presente diagnóstico, a validação clínica.


Asunto(s)
Cardiología , Estudio de Validación , Proceso de Enfermería , Investigación , Sueño , Privación de Sueño , Diagnóstico de Enfermería , Unidades de Cuidados Coronarios , Diagnóstico , Síndrome Coronario Agudo
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