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2.
Rev Med Suisse ; 16(679): 226-227, 2020 Jan 29.
Artículo en Francés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31995317
3.
Anaesthesia ; 75 Suppl 1: e28-e33, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31903576

RESUMEN

Deaths following surgery are the third largest contributor to deaths globally, and in Africa are twice the global average. There is a need for a peri-operative research agenda to ensure co-ordinated, collaborative research efforts across Africa in order to decrease peri-operative mortality. The objective was to determine the top 10 research priorities for peri-operative research in Africa. A Delphi technique was used to establish consensus on the top research priorities. The top 10 research priorities identified were (1) Develop training standards for peri-operative healthcare providers (surgical, anaesthesia and nursing) in Africa; (2) Develop minimum provision of care standards for peri-operative healthcare providers (surgical, anaesthesia and nursing) in Africa; (3) Early identification and management of mothers at risk from peripartum haemorrhage in the peri-operative period; (4) The role of communication and teamwork between surgical, anaesthetic, nursing and other teams involved in peri-operative care; (5) A facility audit/African World Health Organization situational analysis tool audit to assess emergency and essential surgical care, which includes anaesthetic equipment available and level of training and knowledge of peri-operative healthcare providers (surgeons, anaesthetists and nurses); (6) Establishing evidence-based practice guidelines for peri-operative physicians in Africa; (7) Economic analysis of strategies to finance access to surgery in Africa; (8) Establishment of a minimum dataset surgical registry; (9) A quality improvement programme to improve implementation of the surgical safety checklist; and (10) Peri-operative outcomes associated with emergency surgery. These peri-operative research priorities provide the structure for an intermediate-term research agenda to improve peri-operative outcomes across Africa.


Asunto(s)
Atención Perioperativa/métodos , Investigación/estadística & datos numéricos , África , Técnica Delfos , Humanos
4.
Nature ; 577(7790): 318, 2020 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31937965
6.
J Homosex ; 67(3): 325-334, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30372374

RESUMEN

This article explores the development of LGBTQ studies and scholarship in Bulgaria. In part, it brings to the forefront the personal experiences of some of the first Bulgarian scholars working on LGBTQ studies. The personal is interpreted in part through explorations of Bourdieu's concept of "symbolic violence." Elaborating on the challenges regarding the emergence and the development of LGBTQ studies on an institutional and personal level, I discuss three main topics: (1) the emergence and the development of LGBTQ scholarship and university courses in Bulgaria; (2) the main institutional obstacles and the "symbolic violence" within the academia against scholars dealing with LGBTQ subjects, including issues of funding, evaluation, and discrimination; and (3) the future development of the subject in Bulgaria, with a particular attention to the need for "LGBTQ studies solidarity" to overcome the disadvantaged position of LGBTQ scholars in post-socialist countries.


Asunto(s)
Minorías Sexuales y de Género , Bulgaria , Educación/tendencias , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Investigación/tendencias , Comunicación Académica , Socialismo , Universidades , Violencia
7.
J Homosex ; 67(3): 417-434, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30372382

RESUMEN

Our article tackles gender and sexual diversity scholarship in Colombia and Perú, two countries without institutionalized LGBT studies programs. By analyzing the impact of literary works in Perú and an annual conference in Colombia's capital, we show how LGBT-related scholarship (and activism) has been advanced in these Andean countries with tactful maneuvering, as they offset contemporary violence-and a strong religious influence. Our comparison allows us to showcase two of the most common ways through which these countries have engaged in LGBT research and activism. This region-centered, dual-country approach underscores the broader need of researching and documenting these efforts.


Asunto(s)
Minorías Sexuales y de Género , Colombia , Escolaridad , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Perú , Investigación
8.
J Homosex ; 67(3): 384-397, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30346871

RESUMEN

This essay maps the epistemological terrain trans* studies may face as it is widely incorporated into queer studies programs, often housed within women's studies departments. Over the past two decades, queer studies and women's studies have rapidly professionalized, producing new modes of disciplinary power that may seek to either include or cite trans* studies, often without fully welcoming its specific material and political investments. Under such conditions, trans* studies may find itself heard largely as a but-an epistemic blockage, a distraction from proper objects, a hindrance to customary methods-that must be disciplined.


Asunto(s)
Investigación , Minorías Sexuales y de Género , Transexualismo , Femenino , Identidad de Género , Humanos , Masculino , Mujeres
9.
Anaesthesia ; 75(2): 247-253, 2020 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31472021

RESUMEN

Pilot and feasibility studies are preliminary investigations undertaken before a larger study. We hypothesised that only a small proportion of pilot or feasibility studies published in anaesthesia journals were correctly labelled as such. We searched for papers published between 2007 and 2017 in six anaesthesia journals using the text words 'pilot' OR 'feasibility' and included 266 original articles with 26,682 human participants. Only 34 (12.8%) were correctly labelled as a pilot or feasibility study. They were more likely to: have more median (IQR [range]) participants, 73 (40-130 [4-2716]) vs. 27 (15-60 [2-3305], p < 0.001; report feasibility outcomes, 82.4% vs. 4.3%, p < 0.001; and report an intention to convert, 100% vs. 39.7%, p < 0.001. They were less likely to test the efficacy of the primary outcome, 50% vs. 72.8%, p = 0.009; and report firm clinical conclusions 41.2% vs. 67.7%, p = 0.004. Of the studies published more than 5 years ago, correctly labelled pilot or feasibility studies were more likely to precede a published conversion study, 53.8% vs. 16%, p = 0.004. There was no difference between the number of citations 18 (9-44 [2-216]) vs. 20 (7-47 [0-251]), p = 0.865. These results have important consequences for patients, trialists, researchers and funders. We argue that correctly labelled pilot studies enhance the quality of scientific research by encouraging methodological rigour, ensuring scientific validity and reducing research waste. Authors, reviewers, editors and publishers should ensure they adhere to the contents of the 2016 CONSORT extension for pilot and feasibility studies.


Asunto(s)
Anestesiología/estadística & datos numéricos , Bibliometría , Publicaciones Periódicas como Asunto , Investigación/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Proyectos Piloto
10.
J Homosex ; 67(3): 335-345, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30335581

RESUMEN

This article reflects on the author's own experience of promoting LGBTQ research and teaching in mainland China, where the fight for institutional legitimacy and recognition has been a core element in this journey. After a historical survey of how Chinese LGBTQ research has grown out of the particular sociopolitical milieu, it focuses on a discussion of the "normalization project"-a key approach to both create and expand the institutional space for LGBTQ studies. Apart from the positive effects this project entails, this article also critically examines its limitations by bringing into the picture certain critical perspectives.


Asunto(s)
Investigación/tendencias , Minorías Sexuales y de Género , Enseñanza/tendencias , China , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Minorías Sexuales y de Género/educación , Normas Sociales
11.
J Homosex ; 67(3): 367-383, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30335589

RESUMEN

This essay examines the intersection of queerness and social class as it impinges on the field of LGBTQ+ studies. Specifically, it considers some of the disciplinary aims of queer critique in relation to the challenges facing first-generation queer scholars; in so doing, it suggests how forms of difference operate in relation to the personal over time. As a discipline committed to intersectional frameworks, LGBTQ+ studies (and its ongoing evolution) might thus usefully foreground overlapping understandings of outsiderness: namely, how queerness might be experienced as a form of class, and how class might be experienced as a form of queerness.


Asunto(s)
Homosexualidad , Minorías Sexuales y de Género , Clase Social , Escolaridad , Identidad de Género , Humanos , Investigación
12.
Acta Neurochir Suppl ; 127: 11-13, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31407056

RESUMEN

In the 1960s Professor Setsuro Ebashi, a physiologist from the University of Tokyo, discovered calcium ion plays a pivotal role in muscle contraction for the first time. However, he was confounded by icy neglect of the society of physiologists. The International Conference on Physiology was held in Boston in 1962, and Dr. Ebashi and his coworker Dr. Anne Mary Weber gave a talk about calcium signal which is a key mechanism for regulating muscle contraction. Every single attendant stood against their theory and even laughed at them.


Asunto(s)
Contracción Muscular , Vasoconstricción , Calcio , Historia del Siglo XX , Humanos , Japón , Masculino , Investigación/historia
14.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1179: 1-16, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31741331

RESUMEN

Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a DNA virus, belonging to the Hepadnaviridae family. It is a partially double-stranded DNA virus with a small viral genome (3.2 kb). Chronic HBV infection remains a global public health problem. If left untreated, chronic HBV infection can progress to end-stage liver disease, such as liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In recent years, tremendous advances in the field of HBV basic and clinical research have been achieved, ranging from the HBV biological characteristics, immunopathogenesis, and animal models to the development of new therapeutic strategies and new drugs against HBV. In this overview, we begin with a brief history of HBV discovery and treatment milestones. We then briefly summarize the HBV research advances, which will be detailed in the following chapters.


Asunto(s)
Carcinoma Hepatocelular , Virus de la Hepatitis B , Hepatitis B Crónica , Cirrosis Hepática , Neoplasias Hepáticas , Animales , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/etiología , Hepatitis B/complicaciones , Virus de la Hepatitis B/fisiología , Hepatitis B Crónica/complicaciones , Cirrosis Hepática/etiología , Neoplasias Hepáticas/etiología , Investigación/tendencias
15.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1188: 1-19, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31820380

RESUMEN

RPPA technology has graduated from a research tool to an essential component of clinical drug discovery research and personalized medicine. Next generations of RPPA technology will be a single clinical instrument that integrates all the steps of the workflow.


Asunto(s)
Medicina de Precisión , Análisis por Matrices de Proteínas , Proteómica , Medicina de Precisión/instrumentación , Medicina de Precisión/tendencias , Análisis por Matrices de Proteínas/normas , Análisis por Matrices de Proteínas/tendencias , Investigación/instrumentación , Investigación/tendencias
16.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 1044, 2019 Dec 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31822267

RESUMEN

Scrub typhus is an important arthropod-borne disease causing significant acute febrile illness by infection with Orientia spp.Using a risk-based approach, this review examines current practice, the evidence base and regulatory requirements regarding matters of biosafety and biosecurity, and presents the case for reclassification from Risk Group 3 to Risk Group 2 along with recommendations for safe working practices of risk-based activities during the manipulation of Orientia spp. in the laboratory.We recommend to reclassify Orientia spp. to Risk Group 2 based on the classification for RG2 pathogens as being moderate individual risk, low community risk. We recommend that low risk activities, can be performed within a biological safety cabinet located in a Biosafety Level (BSL) 2 core laboratory using standard personal protective equipment. But when the risk assessment indicates, such as high concentration and volume, or aerosol generation, then a higher biocontainment level is warranted. For, the majority of animal activities involving Orientia spp., Animal BSL 2 (ABSL2) is recommended however where high risk activities are performed including necropsies, Animal BSL (ABSL3) is recommended.


Asunto(s)
Contención de Riesgos Biológicos/clasificación , Orientia tsutsugamushi/patogenicidad , Tifus por Ácaros/transmisión , Guías como Asunto , Humanos , Investigación , Medición de Riesgo , Tifus por Ácaros/diagnóstico , Lugar de Trabajo
17.
Environ Monit Assess ; 192(1): 29, 2019 Dec 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31823019

RESUMEN

Industrial parks, which are characterized as a group of industrial businesses designed to meet the concomitant demands of different organizations within an area, have played an important role in the national development strategies of many countries. Industrial parks have received increasingly more attention over time. Nevertheless, few scholars have visually analyzed global scientific data. This paper quantitatively and visually examines global academic research papers on industrial parks from 1987 to 2016 by using a bibliometric analysis. A total of 1823 papers from Science Citation Index Expanded and Social Sciences Citation Index databases were analyzed. The distributions of authorship, keywords, countries/territories, and institutes were generated. According to data from Science Citation Index Expanded and Social Sciences Citation Index databases, the top five most productive authors (i.e., Geng Y. with 22 articles, Fujita T. with 17, El-Halwagi M.M. with 15, Zhang Y. with 14, and Tan R.R. with 12) have contributed significantly to industrial park research. Papers on industrial park research have mainly been from China, the USA, and Taiwan. The dominant keywords from industrial park research from 1987 to 2016 are "China", "system", "heavy metal", and "eco-industrial park". These keywords will be the hot topics in industrial park research in the future. The research findings can provide a reference for understanding the research development process and trends in analyses in the field of industrial parks.


Asunto(s)
Bibliometría , Instalaciones Industriales y de Fabricación/estadística & datos numéricos , Investigación/tendencias , Terminología como Asunto
18.
F1000Res ; 82019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31824652

RESUMEN

Image analysis in clinical research has evolved at fast pace in the last decade. This review discusses basic concepts ranging from immunohistochemistry to advanced techniques such as multiplex imaging, digital pathology, flow cytometry and intravital microscopy. Tissue imaging ex vivo is still one of the gold-standards in the field due to feasibility. We describe here different protocols and applications of digital analysis providing basic and clinical researchers with an overview on how to analyse tissue images. In vivo imaging is not accessible to researchers; however, it provides invaluable dynamic information easily. Overall, we discuss a plethora of techniques that - when combined - constitute a powerful platform for basic and translational cancer research.


Asunto(s)
Neoplasias , Humanos , Inmunohistoquímica , Microscopía Intravital , Investigación
19.
Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao ; 35(11): 2069-2080, 2019 Nov 25.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31814355

RESUMEN

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) cause enormous environmental hazards that threaten human health. Bacterial degradation of PAHs has been extensively studied. Bacteria enhanced their biodegradability through multiple levels of regulatory analysis and adaptive evolution to produce diverse catabolic pathways. Based on recent developments, we address here the research progress in bioremediation technology to degrade low molecular weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.


Asunto(s)
Biodegradación Ambiental , Hidrocarburos Policíclicos Aromáticos , Bacterias/metabolismo , Peso Molecular , Hidrocarburos Policíclicos Aromáticos/metabolismo , Investigación/tendencias
20.
Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao ; 35(11): 2121-2132, 2019 Nov 25.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31814359

RESUMEN

Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are widely used brominated flame-retardants in a variety of commercial products especially in the electronics and household industries. However, they are bioaccumulative, biotoxic and persistent, making them a globally distributed organic chemical toxin nowadays. Thus, it is extremely important to degrade PBDEs. This paper illustrates the research progress of metabolic pathways of PBDEs under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions, and also combines with in situ degradation studies to infer the degradation potential of archaea. The characteristics and comprehensive factors of various degradation pathways are analyzed. In addition, future researches on biodegradation mechanism of PBDEs, the design and application of PBDEs degradation system are discussed.


Asunto(s)
Archaea , Biodegradación Ambiental , Éteres Difenilos Halogenados , Archaea/metabolismo , Retardadores de Llama/metabolismo , Éteres Difenilos Halogenados/metabolismo , Investigación/tendencias
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