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12.
J Abnorm Psychol ; 129(1): 1-4, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31868382

RESUMEN

Clinical psychological science is a rapidly evolving field using a diverse set of methods in various populations. Many of our common research practices and everyday decisions on how and when to use certain methods are described with little detail and formal guidelines and open discussion of those (formal and informal) guidelines is often missing. This special section aims to take stock of current practices in our field and to reflect on them by providing user-friendly articles on common practices across a variety of methodologies in. The articles cover 4 broad areas: (a) diagnostic and clinical assessment including the importance of interrater reliability, the challenges of extreme group designs, and transdiagnostic approaches; (b) clinical neuroscience research including clinical psychophysiology work and translational neuroscience; (c) research conducted outside the laboratory setting including experience sampling and online studies; and (d) daily research practices. A particular focus is on how the discussed practices apply specifically to psychiatric and at-risk clinical populations and the unique methodological challenges that arise when working with these sensitive populations. The contributors to this special issue represent a diverse group whose efforts target a variety of settings and processes with the ultimate goal of increasing transparency surrounding our everyday decisions about designs, methods, and data analysis. We hope that each of the pieces in this section offer inspiration and provide a resource as well as a starting point for further discussion. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Asunto(s)
Investigación/normas , Humanos , Psicofisiología , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Factores de Riesgo
13.
J Abnorm Psychol ; 129(1): 5-13, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31868383

RESUMEN

The study of a wide range of topics covered by clinical research studies relies on data obtained by observational measures. These include observations of individuals (adults, children, but could also be animals), couples, parents and their child(ren), or groups observed for varying amounts of time in settings that range from naturalistic to structured. Data from observations, whether expressed affect, behavior, or verbalizations, are typically rated or coded. Regardless, interobserver reliability is a key criterion with which one evaluates the quality of evidence from observations. In this article, we discuss the complexities involved in designing, implementing, testing, and evaluating the adequacy of interobserver reliability. We offer options for addressing each complexity and discuss advantages and disadvantages of different approaches. We leave readers sufficiently well informed to make decisions about approaches to interobserver reliability regardless of their area of study within clinical research. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Asunto(s)
Guías como Asunto/normas , Psicología/normas , Investigación/normas , Adulto , Niño , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados
16.
Rev. bras. cir. plást ; 34(4): 468-476, oct.-dec. 2019. ilus, tab
Artículo en Inglés, Portugués | LILACS | ID: biblio-1047904

RESUMEN

Introdução: A lipoaspiração corporal e abdominoplastia são cirurgias muitas vezes realizadas em conjunto para obter melhores resultados na modelagem corporal. Cirurgias associadas sempre aumentam a espoliação, por isto conhecer o comportamento da hemoglobina (Hb) no pós-operatório e a recuperação do paciente submetido a estas cirurgias combinadas é importante para sua segurança. O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar a queda da Hb e a recuperação clínica e laboratorial dos pacientes submetidos à cirurgia combinada de lipoaspiração corporal e lipoabdominoplastia. Métodos: Realizou-se um estudo prospectivo em pacientes submetidos à lipoaspiração corporal e lipoabdominoplastia, coletando-se hemogramas antes da indução anestésica, ao final da cirurgia, antes da alta hospitalar, após a 1ª, 2ª e 4ª semanas de pós-operatórios e também acompanhando suas evoluções clínicas. Resultados: A média da Hb ao final da cirurgia e na alta hospitalar foi de 10,4g/dl (desvio padrão (DP) 0,76) e 8,92g/dl (DP 0,86), respectivamente. A recuperação em média da Hb após 1ª, 2ª e 4ª semanas foi de 2,4% (DP 18,07), 41,6% (DP 18,4) e 74% (DP 15,2), respectivamente, em relação a redução que ocorreu entre a Hb inicial e a da alta hospitalar. Queixas de fraqueza e lipotimia foram frequentes até o segundo dia. Conclusão: A melhora clínica ocorreu até o segundo dia de pós-operatório (DPO) e a hemoglobina levou aproximadamente 1 mês para normalizar na maioria dos pacientes tratados apenas com reposição oral de ferro, sem necessidade de hemotransfusão.


Introduction: Body liposuction and abdominoplasty are surgeries often performed together to obtain superior results in body modeling. Since associated surgeries often increase spoliation, being aware of the evolution of hemoglobin (Hb) in the postoperative period and during the recovery of the patients undergoing these associated surgeries is important for their safety. This study aimed to analyze the decrease in Hb and the clinical and laboratory results throughout the recovery of patients undergoing body liposuction associated with lipoabdominoplasty. Methods: A prospective study was conducted with patients undergoing body liposuction and lipoabdominoplasty. CBCs were collected before anesthetic induction, at the end of the surgery, before hospital discharge, after the 1st, 2nd, and 4th postoperative weeks, and during their clinical follow-up period. Results: The average Hb values at the end of surgery and hospital discharge were 10.4 g/dL (standard deviation (SD) 0.76) and 8.92 g/dL (SD 0.86), respectively. The average values during the recovery of Hb after the 1st, 2nd, and 4th weeks were 2.4% (SD 18.07), 41.6% (SD 18.4), and 74% (SD 15.2), respectively. This is in relation to the reduction between the initial Hb and at hospital discharge. Complaints of weakness and lipothymia were frequent until the second day. Conclusion: Clinical improvement was observed until the second postoperative day (PO day). Hemoglobin required approximately 1 month to normalize in most patients. These patients were treated only with oral iron replacement and did not require blood transfusions.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Femenino , Adulto , Persona de Mediana Edad , Historia del Siglo XXI , Pacientes , Complicaciones Posoperatorias , Investigación , Cirugía Plástica , Lipectomía , Evolución Clínica , Estudios Prospectivos , Abdomen , Contorneado Corporal , Anemia , Complicaciones Posoperatorias/sangre , Investigación/normas , Cirugía Plástica/métodos , Lipectomía/efectos adversos , Lipectomía/métodos , Evolución Clínica/métodos , Contorneado Corporal/efectos adversos , Contorneado Corporal/métodos , Abdomen/cirugía , Anemia/complicaciones
17.
Pan Afr Med J ; 33: 298, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31692770

RESUMEN

In Africa, training programmes as well as institutional policies on research integrity are lacking. Institutions have a responsibility to oversee research integrity through various efforts, including policies and training. We developed, implemented and evaluated an institutional approach to promote research integrity at African institutions, comprising a workshop for researchers ("bottom-up") and discussions with senior faculty on institutional policies ("top-down"). During the first day, we facilitated a workshop to introduce research integrity and promote best practices with regards to authorship, plagiarism, redundant publication and conflicts of interest. We used a variety of interactive teaching approaches to facilitate learning, including individual and group activities, small group discussions and case-based learning. We met with senior faculty on the following day to provide feedback and insights from the workshop, review current institutional policies and provide examples of what other research groups are doing. We evaluated the process. Participants actively engaged in discussions, recognised the importance of the topic and acknowledged that poor practices occurred at their institution. Discussions with senior researchers resulted in the establishment of a working group tasked with developing a publication policy for the institution. Our approach kick-started conversations on research integrity at institutions. There is a need for continued discussions, integrated training programmes and implementation of institutional policies and guidelines to promote good practices.


Asunto(s)
Política Organizacional , Investigadores/organización & administración , Investigación/normas , África , Autoria/normas , Humanos , Publicaciones/normas , Investigación/educación , Investigadores/educación
20.
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