Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 6.247
Filtrar
1.
Recenti Prog Med ; 112(3): 173-181, 2021 03.
Artículo en Italiano | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33687354

RESUMEN

When a pandemic occurs, scientific research moves fast in order to achieve readily results, such as effective therapies to fight the SARS-CoV-2 and vaccines. But this high-speed science, engaged by the emergency and characterized by the explosion of online publications in preprint form not subject to scrutiny by peer reviewers, carries some risks. And it represents a challenge to maintain research integrity and to comply with those globally recognized standard principles of fairness. Competition and the pressure to publish immediately - a way of encouraging rapid data sharing - can favor the dissemination of incomplete if not erroneous results obtained from partial studies, which feed false news, such as the benefits of a drug, and illusory hopes. It is commonly through press releases that "speed science" disseminates information to an audience that wants to be informed and reassured. Financial and political interests often mix with the urgency to find solutions. Covid-19 has highlighted in particular the risk of a politicization of science at the expense of transparency.


Asunto(s)
Pandemias , Edición/normas , Investigación/normas , Adenosina Monofosfato/análogos & derivados , Adenosina Monofosfato/economía , Adenosina Monofosfato/provisión & distribución , Adenosina Monofosfato/uso terapéutico , Alanina/análogos & derivados , Alanina/economía , Alanina/provisión & distribución , Alanina/uso terapéutico , Antivirales/economía , Antivirales/provisión & distribución , Antivirales/uso terapéutico , Brotes de Enfermedades , Aprobación de Drogas , Unión Europea , Humanos , Gripe Humana/tratamiento farmacológico , Gripe Humana/economía , Gripe Humana/epidemiología , Gripe Humana/prevención & control , Difusión de la Información , Consentimiento Informado , Oseltamivir/economía , Oseltamivir/provisión & distribución , Oseltamivir/uso terapéutico , Revisión de la Investigación por Pares , Publicaciones Periódicas como Asunto , Política , Riesgo , Factores de Tiempo , Estados Unidos
3.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 49(D1): D1-D9, 2021 01 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33396976

RESUMEN

The 2021 Nucleic Acids Research database Issue contains 189 papers spanning a wide range of biological fields and investigation. It includes 89 papers reporting on new databases and 90 covering recent changes to resources previously published in the Issue. A further ten are updates on databases most recently published elsewhere. Seven new databases focus on COVID-19 and SARS-CoV-2 and many others offer resources for studying the virus. Major returning nucleic acid databases include NONCODE, Rfam and RNAcentral. Protein family and domain databases include COG, Pfam, SMART and Panther. Protein structures are covered by RCSB PDB and dispersed proteins by PED and MobiDB. In metabolism and signalling, STRING, KEGG and WikiPathways are featured, along with returning KLIFS and new DKK and KinaseMD, all focused on kinases. IMG/M and IMG/VR update in the microbial and viral genome resources section, while human and model organism genomics resources include Flybase, Ensembl and UCSC Genome Browser. Cancer studies are covered by updates from canSAR and PINA, as well as newcomers CNCdatabase and Oncovar for cancer drivers. Plant comparative genomics is catered for by updates from Gramene and GreenPhylDB. The entire Database Issue is freely available online on the Nucleic Acids Research website (https://academic.oup.com/nar). The NAR online Molecular Biology Database Collection has been substantially updated, revisiting nearly 1000 entries, adding 90 new resources and eliminating 86 obsolete databases, bringing the current total to 1641 databases. It is available at https://www.oxfordjournals.org/nar/database/c/.


Asunto(s)
Bases de Datos de Ácidos Nucleicos , Biología Molecular/estadística & datos numéricos , Ácidos Nucleicos , Publicaciones Periódicas como Asunto/estadística & datos numéricos , Investigación/estadística & datos numéricos , /genética , /epidemiología , /virología , Biología Computacional/métodos , Epidemias , Genómica/métodos , Humanos , Internet , Biología Molecular/métodos , Biología Molecular/normas , Publicaciones Periódicas como Asunto/normas , Investigación/normas , /fisiología
4.
Trends Parasitol ; 37(3): 240-250, 2021 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33317926

RESUMEN

Anthelmintic drugs are the major line of defense against parasitic nematode infections, but the arsenal is limited and resistance threatens sustained efficacy of the available drugs. Discoveries of the modes of action of these drugs and mechanisms of resistance have predominantly come from studies of a related nonparasitic nematode species, Caenorhabditis elegans, and the parasitic nematode Haemonchus contortus. Here, we discuss how our understanding of anthelmintic resistance and modes of action came from the interplay of results from each of these species. We argue that this 'cycle of discovery', where results from one species inform the design of experiments in the other, can use the complementary strengths of both to understand anthelmintic modes of action and mechanisms of resistance.


Asunto(s)
Resistencia a Medicamentos , Nematodos/efectos de los fármacos , Animales , Antihelmínticos/farmacología , Antihelmínticos/uso terapéutico , Caenorhabditis elegans/efectos de los fármacos , Haemonchus/efectos de los fármacos , Infecciones por Nematodos/terapia , Investigación/normas , Investigación/tendencias
5.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2179: 19-28, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32939710

RESUMEN

When referring to the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), readers are familiar with sentences alluding to its pivotal role both in embryonic development and in disease. Following that argument, usually there is a point on the importance of studying the process and the impact it has on the design of therapeutic strategies. However, it is also very common to find arguments on how the EMT is very difficult to tackle, being a somehow obscure and complex process, where the field cannot reach universal conclusions, particularly in pathological contexts. Even worse, it is sometimes defined as a process that cannot be described with universal markers, making it therefore very difficult for cancer studies, where there is a need to use optimal animal models and stratify patients for differential therapeutic strategies. In the face of all this, the question is whether you have been frightened off working on pathological EMTs, or even if you are not interested anymore and would prefer waiting till the field reaches a steady state of robust knowledge. Do not be afraid and be interested now. It only involves being more plastic, like the EMT itself.


Asunto(s)
Desarrollo Embrionario/genética , Transición Epitelial-Mesenquimal/genética , Neoplasias/genética , Investigación/normas , Humanos
7.
J Thromb Haemost ; 18(11): 3099-3105, 2020 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33174388

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Observational studies indicate that children hospitalized with COVID-19-related illness, like adults, are at increased risk for venous thromboembolism (VTE). A multicenter phase 2 clinical trial of anticoagulant thromboprophylaxis in children hospitalized with COVID-19-related illness has recently been initiated in the United States. To date, there remains a paucity of high-quality evidence to inform clinical practice world-wide. Therefore, the objective of this scientific statement is to provide consensus-based recommendations on the use of anticoagulant thromboprophylaxis in children hospitalized for COVID-19-related illnesses, and to identify priorities for future research. METHODS: We surveyed 20 pediatric hematologists and pediatric critical care physicians from several continents who were identified by Pediatric/Neonatal Hemostasis and Thrombosis Subcommittee leadership as having experience and expertise in the use of anticoagulant thromboprophylaxis and/or the management of COVID-19-related illness in children. A comprehensive review of the literature on COVID-19 in children was also performed. RESULTS: Response rate was 90%. Based on consensus of expert opinions, we suggest the administration of low-dose low molecular weight heparin subcutaneously twice-daily as anticoagulant thromboprophylaxis (in the absence of contraindications, and in combination with mechanical thromboprophylaxis with sequential compression devices, where feasible) in children hospitalized for COVID-19-related illness (including the multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children [MIS-C]) who have markedly elevated D-dimer levels or superimposed clinical risk factors for hospitalassociated VTE. For children who are clinically unstable or have severe renal impairment, we suggest the use of unfractionated heparin by continuous intravenous infusion as anticoagulant thromboprophylaxis. In addition, continued efforts to characterize VTE risk and risk factors in children with COVID-19, as well as to evaluate the safety and efficacy of anticoagulant thromboprophylaxis strategies in children hospitalized with COVID-19-related illness (including MIS-C) via cooperative multicenter trials, were identified among several key priorities for future research. CONCLUSION: These consensus-based recommendations on the use of anticoagulant thromboprophylaxis in children hospitalized for COVID-19-related illnesses and priorities for future research will be updated as high-quality evidence emerges.


Asunto(s)
Anticoagulantes/administración & dosificación , Infecciones por Coronavirus/tratamiento farmacológico , Medicina Basada en la Evidencia/normas , Hospitalización , Neumonía Viral/tratamiento farmacológico , Investigación/normas , Tromboembolia Venosa/prevención & control , Adolescente , Factores de Edad , Anticoagulantes/efectos adversos , Niño , Preescolar , Toma de Decisiones Clínicas , Consenso , Infecciones por Coronavirus/sangre , Infecciones por Coronavirus/complicaciones , Encuestas de Atención de la Salud , Humanos , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/sangre , Neumonía Viral/complicaciones , Medición de Riesgo , Factores de Riesgo , Resultado del Tratamiento , Tromboembolia Venosa/sangre , Tromboembolia Venosa/etiología , Adulto Joven
8.
Metas enferm ; 23(9): 15-21, nov. 2020. tab
Artículo en Español | IBECS | ID: ibc-197935

RESUMEN

Este artículo presenta la composición, líneas de investigación y evolución del grupo de investigación enfermera (GRIN) vinculado al Instituto de Investigación Biomédica de Bellvitge (IDIBELL). Las líneas principales de investigación van dirigidas a la prestación de cuidados enfermeros y su impacto en los resultados de salud de los pacientes y familias, orientándose principalmente en la investigación en cuidados a poblaciones vulnerables, enfermos críticos, pacientes crónicos complejos y personas en extremos de edad, en las siguientes áreas de interés: i) promoción de la salud; ii) innovaciones tecnológicas, sistemas de información e inteligencia artificial para la salud; iii) desarrollo metodológico, ético y social de los cuidados; iv) gestión de cuidados y resultados sensibles a la práctica enfermera; v) cribado, detección precoz y prevención de complicaciones y discapacidades. Actualmente el grupo está formado por 33 enfermeras/os, que pertenecen a cuatro hospitales y la Universidad de Barcelona, siendo el 48% doctores y el 36% doctorandos. El grupo ha producido más de 150 publicaciones científicas en siete años, de las cuales, durante el último año, el 50% fue en Q1 y el 20% en Q2, además destacando que el 60% de los proyectos obtuvo algún tipo de financiación durante el último año. El grupo de investigación está acreditado como grupo preconsolidado por la Agencia de Gestión de Ayudas Universitarias y de Investigación (AGAUR) de la Generalitat de Cataluña


This article presents the composition, lines of research and evolution of the nursing research group (GRIN) linked to the Bellvitge Institute for Biomedical Research (IDIBELL). The main lines of research are targeted to the provision of nursing care and its impact on health outcomes for patients and relatives; it is particularly oriented towards research in care for vulnerable populations, critical patients, complex chronic patients, and people with extreme ages, within the following areas of interest: i) health promotion; ii) technological innovations, information systems and artificial intelligence for health; iii) methodological, ethical and social development of care; iv) management of care and nursing-sensitive outcomes; v) screening, early detection and prevention of complications and disabilities. Currently, the group is formed by 33 nurses from four hospitals and the University of Barcelona; 48% of its members are doctors and 36% are doctoral candidates. The group has published over 150 scientific articles in seven years; during the last year, 50% of these were in Q1 and 20% in Q2. It should also be highlighted that 60% of projects obtained some type of funding during the past year. The research group is accredited as a preconsolidated group by the Agency for Management of University and Research Grants (AGAUR) of the Generalitat of Catalonia


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Investigación/organización & administración , Investigación/normas , Investigación en Enfermería/organización & administración , Atención de Enfermería , Enfermería Práctica/organización & administración , Investigación en Enfermería/normas , Enfermería Práctica/normas
12.
Rev. Hosp. Ital. B. Aires (2004) ; 40(3): 151-155, sept. 2020. tab
Artículo en Español | LILACS | ID: biblio-1129377

RESUMEN

Para que una persona sea merecedora de la autoría de una investigación debe haber realizado alguna contribución académica sustancial para que esta pudiera llevarse a cabo y, además, ser capaz de dar cuenta públicamente de la integridad de sus procesos y sus resultados. Este artículo resume: 1) la matriz propuesta por L. W. Roberts para contribuir a definir las autorías durante las etapas iniciales de la investigación, 2) los criterios de autoría del Comité Internacional de Editores de Revistas Médicas para definir quiénes merecen dichos créditos y quiénes no, 3) la taxonomía de 14 roles propuesta por la Declaración CRediT para transparentar las tareas realizadas por cada una de las personas proclamadas autoras de una investigación biomédica y 4) las principales conductas que degradan la transparencia de las autorías. (AU)


For a person to deserve an investigation authorship he/she must have made some substantial academic contribution so that that research could be carried out and, in addition, must be able to publicly account for the integrity of their processes and their results. This article summarizes: 1) the matrix proposed by Roberts to help defining authorship during the initial stages of the investigation; 2) authorship criteria of the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors to define who deserves such credits and who does not; 3) the 14-role taxonomy proposed by the CRediT Declaration to transparent the tasks performed by each of the proclaimed authors of a biomedical research; 4) the main behaviors that degrade the transparency of authorships. (AU)


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Investigación/normas , Autoria/normas , Revisión de la Investigación por Pares , Ética en Investigación , Evaluación de la Investigación en Salud , Ética en la Publicación Científica , Publicaciones Científicas y Técnicas , Autoría y Coautoría en la Publicación Científica , Comunicación Académica/normas
15.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 112(3): 721-769, 2020 09 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32687145

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The US faces remarkable food and nutrition challenges. A new federal effort to strengthen and coordinate nutrition research could rapidly generate the evidence base needed to address these multiple national challenges. However, the relevant characteristics of such an effort have been uncertain. OBJECTIVES: Our aim was to provide an objective, informative summary of 1) the mounting diet-related health burdens facing our nation and corresponding economic, health equity, national security, and sustainability implications; 2) the current federal nutrition research landscape and existing mechanisms for its coordination; 3) the opportunities for and potential impact of new fundamental, clinical, public health, food and agricultural, and translational scientific discoveries; and 4) the various options for further strengthening and coordinating federal nutrition research, including corresponding advantages, disadvantages, and potential executive and legislative considerations. METHODS: We reviewed government and other published documents on federal nutrition research; held various discussions with expert groups, advocacy organizations, and scientific societies; and held in-person or phone meetings with >50 federal staff in executive and legislative roles, as well as with a variety of other stakeholders in academic, industry, and nongovernment organizations. RESULTS: Stark national nutrition challenges were identified. More Americans are sick than are healthy, largely from rising diet-related illnesses. These conditions create tremendous strains on productivity, health care costs, health disparities, government budgets, US economic competitiveness, and military readiness. The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak has further laid bare these strains, including food insecurity, major diet-related comorbidities for poor outcomes from COVID-19 such as diabetes, hypertension, and obesity, and insufficient surveillance on and coordination of our food system. More than 10 federal departments and agencies currently invest in critical nutrition research, yet with relatively flat investments over several decades. Coordination also remains suboptimal, documented by multiple governmental reports over 50 years. Greater harmonization and expansion of federal investment in nutrition science, not a silo-ing or rearrangement of existing investments, has tremendous potential to generate new discoveries to improve and sustain the health of all Americans. Two identified key strategies to achieve this were as follows: 1) a new authority for robust cross-governmental coordination of nutrition research and other nutrition-related policy and 2) strengthened authority, investment, and coordination for nutrition research within the NIH. These strategies were found to be complementary, together catalyzing important new science, partnerships, coordination, and returns on investment. Additional complementary actions to accelerate federal nutrition research were identified at the USDA. CONCLUSIONS: The need and opportunities for strengthened federal nutrition research are clear, with specific identified options to help create the new leadership, strategic planning, coordination, and investment the nation requires to address the multiple nutrition-related challenges and grasp the opportunities before us.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/complicaciones , Trastornos Nutricionales/complicaciones , Fenómenos Fisiológicos de la Nutrición , Neumonía Viral/complicaciones , Investigación/normas , Costo de Enfermedad , Costos de la Atención en Salud , Disparidades en Atención de Salud/economía , Humanos , Personal Militar , National Institutes of Health (U.S.)/economía , Trastornos Nutricionales/economía , Trastornos Nutricionales/epidemiología , Pandemias , Estados Unidos/epidemiología , United States Department of Agriculture/economía , United States Dept. of Health and Human Services/economía
16.
Br J Anaesth ; 125(5): 835-842, 2020 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32611528

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Reliable, high-quality research is essential to the field of anaesthesiology. Reproducibility and transparency have been investigated in the biomedical domain and in the social sciences, with both lacking to provide necessary information to reproduce the study findings. In this study, we investigated 14 indicators of reproducibility in anaesthesiology research. METHODS: We used the National Library of Medicine catalogue to search for all anaesthesiology journals that are MEDLINE indexed and provide English texts. PubMed was searched with the list of journals to identify all publications from January 1, 2014 to December 31, 2018. We randomly sampled 450 publications that fit the inclusion criteria for our analysis. Data extraction was then conducted in a blinded, duplicate fashion using a pilot-tested Google form. RESULTS: The PubMed search of these journals identified 171 441 publications, with 28 310 being within the time frame. From the 450 publications sampled, 444 full-text publications were accessible. The majority of publications analysed did not have a statement regarding availability of data (164/188), analysis scripts (187/188), or study materials (160/188). CONCLUSIONS: Anaesthesiology research needs to improve indicators of reproducibility and transparency. By making research publicly available and improving accessibility to detailed study components, primary research can be reproduced in subsequent studies and help contribute to the development of new practice guidelines.


Asunto(s)
Anestesiología/normas , Investigación/normas , Animales , Estudios Transversales , Interpretación Estadística de Datos , Medicina Basada en la Evidencia , Humanos , PubMed , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados
18.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(32): 18948-18950, 2020 08 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32719133

RESUMEN

We resolve a controversy over two competing hypotheses about why people object to randomized experiments: 1) People unsurprisingly object to experiments only when they object to a policy or treatment the experiment contains, or 2) people can paradoxically object to experiments even when they approve of implementing either condition for everyone. Using multiple measures of preference and test criteria in five preregistered within-subjects studies with 1,955 participants, we find that people often disapprove of experiments involving randomization despite approving of the policies or treatments to be tested.


Asunto(s)
Ensayos Clínicos Controlados Aleatorios como Asunto/normas , Investigación/normas , Ética en Investigación , Humanos , Distribución Aleatoria , Ensayos Clínicos Controlados Aleatorios como Asunto/ética
SELECCIÓN DE REFERENCIAS
DETALLE DE LA BÚSQUEDA
...