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3.
J Med Internet Res ; 26: e52935, 2024 Apr 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38578685

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Large language models (LLMs) have gained prominence since the release of ChatGPT in late 2022. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the accuracy of citations and references generated by ChatGPT (GPT-3.5) in two distinct academic domains: the natural sciences and humanities. METHODS: Two researchers independently prompted ChatGPT to write an introduction section for a manuscript and include citations; they then evaluated the accuracy of the citations and Digital Object Identifiers (DOIs). Results were compared between the two disciplines. RESULTS: Ten topics were included, including 5 in the natural sciences and 5 in the humanities. A total of 102 citations were generated, with 55 in the natural sciences and 47 in the humanities. Among these, 40 citations (72.7%) in the natural sciences and 36 citations (76.6%) in the humanities were confirmed to exist (P=.42). There were significant disparities found in DOI presence in the natural sciences (39/55, 70.9%) and the humanities (18/47, 38.3%), along with significant differences in accuracy between the two disciplines (18/55, 32.7% vs 4/47, 8.5%). DOI hallucination was more prevalent in the humanities (42/55, 89.4%). The Levenshtein distance was significantly higher in the humanities than in the natural sciences, reflecting the lower DOI accuracy. CONCLUSIONS: ChatGPT's performance in generating citations and references varies across disciplines. Differences in DOI standards and disciplinary nuances contribute to performance variations. Researchers should consider the strengths and limitations of artificial intelligence writing tools with respect to citation accuracy. The use of domain-specific models may enhance accuracy.


Asunto(s)
Inteligencia Artificial , Lenguaje , Humanos , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Investigadores , Escritura
5.
PLoS One ; 19(4): e0299081, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38564575

RESUMEN

Community engagement (CE) is praised to be a powerful vehicle in empowering communities with knowledge and skills to make informed decisions for better health care. Several CE approaches have been proposed to improve participants' and research communities' understanding of genomic research including pharmacogenomic information and results. However, there is limited literature on how these approaches can be used to communicate findings of pharmacogenomic research to communities of people living with HIV. This study explored stakeholders' perspectives on the role of community engagement in promoting understanding of pharmacogenomic research results among people living with HIV. We adopted a qualitative approach that involved 54 stakeholders between September 2021 and February 2022. We held five focus group discussions among 30 community representatives from five research institutions, 12 key informant interviews among researchers, and 12 in-depth interviews among ethics committee members. A thematic approach was used to analyze the results. Five themes merged from this data and these included (i) benefits of engaging communities prior to returning individual pharmacogenomic research results to participants. (ii) Obtaining community consensus on the kinds of pharmacogenomic results to be returned. (iii) Opinions on how pharmacogenomic research information and results should be communicated at community and individual levels. (iv) Perceived roles of community stakeholders in promoting participants' understanding and utilization of pharmacogenomic research results. (v) Perceived challenges of engaging communities when returning individual results to research participants. Stakeholders opined that CE facilitates co-learning between researchers and research communities. Researchers can adapt existing CE approaches that are culturally acceptable for meaningful engagement with minimal ethical and social risks when communicating pharmacogenomic research results. CE approaches can facilitate understanding of pharmacogenomic research and findings among research participants and communities. Therefore, if creatively adapted, existing and new CE approaches can enable researchers to communicate simple and understandable results of pharmacogenomic research.


Asunto(s)
Síndrome de Inmunodeficiencia Adquirida , Humanos , Farmacogenética , Grupos Focales , Atención a la Salud , Investigadores
6.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 121(15): e2315735121, 2024 Apr 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38557195

RESUMEN

Is there a formula for a competitive NIH grant application? The Serenity Prayer may provide one: "Grant me the serenity to accept the things I cannot change, the ability to change the things I can, and the wisdom to know the difference." But how to tell the difference? In this Perspective, we provide an inclusive roadmap-elements of NIH funding. Collectively, we have over 30 y of peer review experience as NIH Scientific Review Officers in addition to over 30 y of program experience as NIH Program Officers. This article distills our NIH experience. We use Euclid's 13-book landmark, The Elements, as our template to humbly share what we learned. We have three specific aims: inform, guide, and motivate prospective applicants. We also address ways that support diversity and inclusion among applicants and young investigators in biomedical research. The elements we describe come from a wide range of sources. Some themes will be general. Some will be specific. All will be candid. The ultimate goal is a competitive application, serenity, and hopefully both.


Asunto(s)
Investigación Biomédica , Humanos , Estados Unidos , Investigadores , Revisión por Pares , Motivación , National Institutes of Health (U.S.)
7.
Nature ; 628(8006): 221-223, 2024 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38561407
8.
Biol Open ; 13(4)2024 Apr 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38592154

RESUMEN

Each year, the European Summer School on Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine (SCSS) attracts early-career researchers and actively practicing clinicians who specialise in stem cell and regenerative biology. The 16th edition of this influential course took place from 12th to 19th September 2023 on the charming Greek island of Spetses. Focusing on important concepts and recent advances in stem cells, the distinguished faculty included experts spanning the spectrum from fundamental research to clinical trials to market-approved therapies. Alongside an academically intensive programme that bridges the various contexts of stem cell research, delegates were encouraged to critically address relevant questions in stem cell biology and medicine, including broader societal implications. Here, we present a comprehensive overview and key highlights from the SCSS 2023.


Asunto(s)
Medicina Regenerativa , Células Madre , Humanos , Investigadores , Estaciones del Año
9.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2798: 183-194, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38587743

RESUMEN

Proline metabolism has been associated with the induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS), antioxidant enzymes, and the control of cellular redox status. Moreover, proline accumulation is a highly evolutionarily conserved response to diverse abiotic stresses in plants. Thus, proline quantification has been helpful in abiotic stress research as a stress marker. The need for a reliable, fast, and simple method to detect proline in plant tissues is a powerful resource to imply the physiological status of plants under abiotic stress. This chapter summarizes the main strategies for proline extraction and quantification, highlighting their limitations and advantages, and recommends and details a specific protocol for proline extraction and quantification. The chapter provides a friendly version of this protocol with notes useful for researchers to perform the protocol.


Asunto(s)
Antioxidantes , Prolina , Humanos , Especies Reactivas de Oxígeno , Investigadores
11.
12.
HIV Res Clin Pract ; 25(1): 2335454, 2024 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38577964

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Meaningful involvement of people with HIV and affected communities in HIV cure research is essential to ensuring that cure research efforts are conducted transparently, socially justly, and ethically. This study set out to investigate how people with HIV and affected communities are involved in cure research in the Netherlands and explore what can be done to optimize involvement and engagement. METHODS: Eighty-five semi-structured online, telephone, and face-to-face interviews were conducted with people with HIV (N = 30), key populations (N = 35), and key informants (KI; N = 20) in the field of HIV. The interviews were analyzed using reflexive thematic analysis. RESULTS: Awareness of the meaningful involvement of people with HIV (MIPA) efforts was low among people with HIV and key populations, which contrasted with KI, who exhibited greater awareness. People with HIV and KI emphasized the importance of MIPA in ensuring the representation of lived experiences in HIV cure research and fostering trust between communities and researchers. Practical implementations of MIPA were unclear, ultimately resulting in difficulties defining MIPA beyond clinical trial participation. People with HIV and key populations also doubted their skills and self-efficacy to make meaningful contributions when confronted with involvement beyond participating in research and clinical trials. CONCLUSIONS: MIPA is crucial for improving the quality, transparency, and ethical conduct of HIV cure research. It emphasizes the need for increased awareness and funding, standardized guidelines to ensure meaningful involvement, and combat tokenism and misconceptions.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por VIH , Humanos , Infecciones por VIH/tratamiento farmacológico , Países Bajos , Investigadores
14.
Elife ; 122024 Apr 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38598270

RESUMEN

Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is associated with higher fracture risk, despite normal or high bone mineral density. We reported that bone formation genes (SOST and RUNX2) and advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) were impaired in T2D. We investigated Wnt signaling regulation and its association with AGEs accumulation and bone strength in T2D from bone tissue of 15 T2D and 21 non-diabetic postmenopausal women undergoing hip arthroplasty. Bone histomorphometry revealed a trend of low mineralized volume in T2D (T2D 0.249% [0.156-0.366]) vs non-diabetic subjects 0.352% [0.269-0.454]; p=0.053, as well as reduced bone strength (T2D 21.60 MPa [13.46-30.10] vs non-diabetic subjects 76.24 MPa [26.81-132.9]; p=0.002). We also showed that gene expression of Wnt agonists LEF-1 (p=0.0136) and WNT10B (p=0.0302) were lower in T2D. Conversely, gene expression of WNT5A (p=0.0232), SOST (p<0.0001), and GSK3B (p=0.0456) were higher, while collagen (COL1A1) was lower in T2D (p=0.0482). AGEs content was associated with SOST and WNT5A (r=0.9231, p<0.0001; r=0.6751, p=0.0322), but inversely correlated with LEF-1 and COL1A1 (r=-0.7500, p=0.0255; r=-0.9762, p=0.0004). SOST was associated with glycemic control and disease duration (r=0.4846, p=0.0043; r=0.7107, p=0.00174), whereas WNT5A and GSK3B were only correlated with glycemic control (r=0.5589, p=0.0037; r=0.4901, p=0.0051). Finally, Young's modulus was negatively correlated with SOST (r=-0.5675, p=0.0011), AXIN2 (r=-0.5523, p=0.0042), and SFRP5 (r=-0.4442, p=0.0437), while positively correlated with LEF-1 (r=0.4116, p=0.0295) and WNT10B (r=0.6697, p=0.0001). These findings suggest that Wnt signaling and AGEs could be the main determinants of bone fragility in T2D.


Type 2 diabetes is a long-term metabolic disease characterised by chronic high blood sugar levels. This in turn has a negative impact on the health of other tissues and organs, including bones. Type 2 diabetes patients have an increased risk of fracturing bones compared to non-diabetics. This is particularly true for fragility fractures, which are fractures caused by falls from a short height (i.e., standing height or less), often affecting hips or wrists. Usually, a lower bone density is associated with higher risk of fractures. However, patients with type 2 diabetes have increased bone fragility despite normal or higher bone density. One reason for this could be the chronically high levels of blood sugar in type 2 diabetes, which alter the properties of proteins in the body. It has been shown that the excess sugar molecules effectively 'react' with many different proteins, producing harmful compounds in the process, called Advanced Glycation End-products, or AGEs. AGEs are ­ in turn ­thought to affect the structure of collagen proteins, which help hold our tissues together and decrease bone strength. However, the signalling pathways underlying this process are still unclear. To find out more, Leanza et al. studied a signalling molecule, called sclerostin, which inhibits a signalling pathway that regulates bone formation, known as Wnt signaling. The researchers compared bone samples from both diabetic and non-diabetic patients, who had undergone hip replacement surgery. Analyses of the samples, using a technique called real-time-PCR, revealed that gene expression of sclerostin was increased in samples of type 2 diabetes patients, which led to a downregulation of Wnt signaling related genes. Moreover, the downregulation of Wnt genes was correlated with lower bone strength (which was measured by compressing the bone tissue). Further biochemical analysis of the samples revealed that higher sclerostin activity was also associated with higher levels of AGEs. These results provide a clearer understanding of the biological mechanisms behind compromised bone strength in diabetes. In the future, Leanza et al. hope that this knowledge will help us develop treatments to reduce the risk of bone complications for type 2 diabetes patients.


Asunto(s)
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Humanos , Femenino , Reacción de Maillard , Vía de Señalización Wnt , Huesos , Investigadores
16.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 10: e48186, 2024 Mar 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38451620

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Increasingly, survey researchers rely on hybrid samples to improve coverage and increase the number of respondents by combining independent samples. For instance, it is possible to combine 2 probability samples with one relying on telephone and another on mail. More commonly, however, researchers are now supplementing probability samples with those from online panels that are less costly. Setting aside ad hoc approaches that are void of rigor, traditionally, the method of composite estimation has been used to blend results from different sample surveys. This means individual point estimates from different surveys are pooled together, 1 estimate at a time. Given that for a typical study many estimates must be produced, this piecemeal approach is computationally burdensome and subject to the inferential limitations of the individual surveys that are used in this process. OBJECTIVE: In this paper, we will provide a comprehensive review of the traditional method of composite estimation. Subsequently, the method of composite weighting is introduced, which is significantly more efficient, both computationally and inferentially when pooling data from multiple surveys. With the growing interest in hybrid sampling alternatives, we hope to offer an accessible methodology for improving the efficiency of inferences from such sample surveys without sacrificing rigor. METHODS: Specifically, we will illustrate why the many ad hoc procedures for blending survey data from multiple surveys are void of scientific integrity and subject to misleading inferences. Moreover, we will demonstrate how the traditional approach of composite estimation fails to offer a pragmatic and scalable solution in practice. By relying on theoretical and empirical justifications, in contrast, we will show how our proposed methodology of composite weighting is both scientifically sound and inferentially and computationally superior to the old method of composite estimation. RESULTS: Using data from 3 large surveys that have relied on hybrid samples composed of probability-based and supplemental sample components from online panels, we illustrate that our proposed method of composite weighting is superior to the traditional method of composite estimation in 2 distinct ways. Computationally, it is vastly less demanding and hence more accessible for practitioners. Inferentially, it produces more efficient estimates with higher levels of external validity when pooling data from multiple surveys. CONCLUSIONS: The new realities of the digital age have brought about a number of resilient challenges for survey researchers, which in turn have exposed some of the inefficiencies associated with the traditional methods this community has relied upon for decades. The resilience of such challenges suggests that piecemeal approaches that may have limited applicability or restricted accessibility will prove to be inadequate and transient. It is from this perspective that our proposed method of composite weighting has aimed to introduce a durable and accessible solution for hybrid sample surveys.


Asunto(s)
Investigadores , Humanos , Probabilidad
17.
J Bodyw Mov Ther ; 37: 296-307, 2024 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38432821

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION AND PURPOSE: According to the prevalence of balance disorders among children with hearing loss (HL), researchers used exercise programs to improve balance in children with HL. So, the present systematic review and meta-analysis briefly summarize findings regarding the impacts of exercise training programs on balance in children with HL. METHODS: Science Direct, MEDLINE/PubMed, SCOPUS, LILACS, CINAHL, CENTRAL, Web of Science, PEDro, and Google Scholar were searched from inception until November 11th, 2023. Two independent researchers analyzed and extracted the data from potential papers whose eligibility was confirmed. Then, the PEDro scale was used to obtain quality assessment scores. The total PEDro score is 11 and incorporates the presentation of statistical analysis and evaluation criteria of internal validity. Studies that scored 7-11 were considered methodologically "high", 5 to 6 were "fair", and ≤4 were considered "poor". RESULTS: 10 studies involving a total of 304 participations were included in the systematic review. Our results demonstrate that exercise training programs positively impact static balance (p = 0.001) with level 1a evidence, the postural sway (p = 0.001) with level 1a evidence, and dynamic balance (p = 0.001) with level 1a evidence in children with HL. CONCLUSION: The findings of this systematic review and meta-analysis related to studies with excellent methodological quality revealed that the intended training programs significantly impact postural sway along with static and dynamic balance in children with HL. It is recommended that future exercise training programs be paired with rehabilitation programs for children with HL.


Asunto(s)
Pérdida Auditiva , Niño , Humanos , Ejercicio Físico , Terapia por Ejercicio , Proyectos de Investigación , Investigadores
18.
J Bodyw Mov Ther ; 37: 379-385, 2024 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38432832

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Chronic mechanical low back pain (CMLBP) is one of the most prevalent and costly disorders. Determining its most effective treatment approach is a priority for researchers. PURPOSE: To examine the effects of including aerobic exercise within a conventional therapy regimen for young adults with CMLBP. METHODS: Fifty CMLBP patients (22 males and 28 females) were randomly and equally assigned to one of two groups to receive the prescribed treatment for 8 weeks. The control group received the traditional program only (infrared, ultrasound, burst TENS, and exercises); for the experimental group, an aerobic training program using a stationary bicycle was added. Back pain intensity was the primary outcome. Secondary outcomes included the Oswestry disability index, back extensor endurance measured by the Sorensen test, and physical performance indicated by the back performance scale and the 6-min walk test. A Two-way MANOVA was used for data analysis. RESULTS: Multivariate tests revealed statistically significant effects of group (p = 0.002, partial η2 = 0.182), time (p < 0.001, partial η2 = 0.928), and group-by-time interaction (p = 0.01, partial η2 = 0.149). Univariate group-by-time interactions were significant for back disability (p = 0.043), extensor endurance (p = 0.023) and results of the 6-min walk test (p = 0.023) showing greater improvement in the experimental group. However, back pain intensity and the back performance scale revealed no significant group-by-time interactions. Within-group comparisons were significant for all measured variables in both groups (p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Although a traditional program of infrared, ultrasound, TENS, and exercises is beneficial for CMLBP treatment, adding aerobic exercises to the program leads to more beneficial outcomes.


Asunto(s)
Dolor de la Región Lumbar , Femenino , Masculino , Adulto Joven , Humanos , Dolor de la Región Lumbar/terapia , Ejercicio Físico , Terapia por Ejercicio , Rendimiento Físico Funcional , Investigadores
19.
J Cell Sci ; 137(5)2024 Mar 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38441500

RESUMEN

In this Perspective, Journal of Cell Science invited researchers working on cell and tissue polarity to share their thoughts on unique, emerging or open questions relating to their field. The goal of this article is to feature 'voices' from scientists around the world and at various career stages, to bring attention to innovative and thought-provoking topics of interest to the cell biology community. These voices discuss intriguing questions that consider polarity across scales, evolution, development and disease. What can yeast and protists tell us about the evolution of cell and tissue polarity in animals? How are cell fate and development influenced by emerging dynamics in cell polarity? What can we learn from atypical and extreme polarity systems? How can we arrive at a more unified biophysical understanding of polarity? Taken together, these pieces demonstrate the broad relevance of the fascinating phenomenon of cell polarization to diverse fundamental biological questions.


Asunto(s)
Polaridad Celular , Investigadores , Animales , Humanos , Biofisica , Diferenciación Celular , Saccharomyces cerevisiae
20.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2774: 99-117, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38441761

RESUMEN

Recent progress in synthetic biology has enabled the design of complex genetic circuits that interface with innate cellular functions, such as gene transcription, and control user-defined outputs. Implementing these genetic networks in mammalian cells, however, is a cumbersome process that requires several steps of optimization and benefits from the use of predictive modeling. Combining deterministic mathematical models with software-based numerical computing platforms allows researchers to quickly design, evaluate, and optimize multiple circuit topologies to establish experimental constraints that generate the desired control systems. In this chapter, we present a systematic approach based on predictive mathematical modeling to guide the design and construction of gene activity-based sensors. This approach enables user-driven circuit optimization through iterations of sensitivity analyses and parameter scans, providing a universal method to engineer sense and respond cells for diverse applications.


Asunto(s)
Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Programas Informáticos , Animales , Humanos , Simulación por Computador , Investigadores , Biología Sintética , Mamíferos
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