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1.
Chemosphere ; 262: 127835, 2021 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32763581

RESUMEN

This study evaluates the bioaccessibility and health risks related to heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Co, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn and metalloid As) in airborne dust samples (TSP and PM2.5) in Zabol, Iran during the summer dust period, when peak concentration levels of PM are typically observed. High bioaccessibilities of carcinogenic metals in PM2.5 (i.e. 53.3%, 48.6% and 47.6% for Ni, Cr and As, respectively) were calculated. The carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic health risks were assessed for three exposure pathways (inhalation, ingestion and dermal contact), separately for children and adults. Non-carcinogenic inhalation risks were very high (Hazard Index: HI > 1) both for children and adults, while the carcinogenic risks were above the upper acceptable threshold of 10-4 for adults and marginally close (5.0-8.4 × 10-5) for children. High carcinogenic risks (>10-4) were found for the ingestion pathway both for children and adults, while HI values > 1 (8.2) were estimated for children. Carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic risk estimates for dermal contact were also above the limits considered acceptable, except for the carcinogenic risk for children (7.6 × 10-5). Higher non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic risks (integrated for all elements) were associated with the inhalation pathway in adults and children with the exception of carcinogenic risk for children, where the ingestion route remains the most important, while As was linked with the highest risks for nearly all exposure pathways. A comparative evaluation shows that health risks related with toxic elements in airborne particles in Sistan are among the highest reported in the world.


Asunto(s)
Contaminación del Aire/estadística & datos numéricos , Polvo/análisis , Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales/estadística & datos numéricos , Sustancias Peligrosas/análisis , Adulto , Carcinógenos/análisis , Niño , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Humanos , Irán , Metales Pesados/análisis , Medición de Riesgo , Estaciones del Año
2.
Sci Total Environ ; 751: 141709, 2021 Jan 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32889461

RESUMEN

Inappropriate handling of pesticides in agriculture poses a major risk to the environment and human health, but factors affecting farmers' behavior are diverse and often unclear. The present study examined farmers' behavior in safe pesticide use (disposal of spray solution leftovers, places for washing sprayers, disposal of rinsates, and use of personal protective equipment) in Ardabil Province, Iran by applying the well-known theory of planned behavior, which states that attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control of individuals shape intention and engagement in a specific behavior. Almost 30% of the farmers threw pesticide spray solution leftovers away, while the remaining farmers kept it for next spraying. Concerning place for washing sprayers, 55.3% of the farmers washed sprayers in their home yard, 21.0% washed them in the river or the canal flow, and 14.7% washed them in the water source of the farm. Just less than two-thirds (64.3%) of the farmers said that they leave the rinsates onto the farm, while almost one-third (34.0%) said that they pour the rinsates into the river or the canal flow. Most farmers used trousers and blouse and to a lesser extent mask, gloves, and hat when handling pesticides. Attitudes towards safe pesticide use showed the highest mean score (2.91), illustrating neutral to relatively negative attitudes of farmers towards safe pesticide use. Intention showed the lowest mean score (2.28), indicating poor motive to use pesticides safely. Attitudes showed positive impact, while perceived behavioral control showed negative impact on intention. Subjective norms had no significant impact on intention. These three constructs totally explained 78.1% of the variance in farmers' intention towards safe pesticide use. Improving attitudes and perceived behavioral control of farmers towards safe pesticide use through extension education should be targeted for improving farmers' intention and behavior towards safe pesticide handling.


Asunto(s)
Exposición Profesional , Plaguicidas , Agricultura , Agricultores , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Humanos , Irán
3.
Sci Total Environ ; 752: 141542, 2021 Jan 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32889256

RESUMEN

The occurrence of microplastics (MPs) in the digestive tract of commercial Kutum fish, Rutilus frisii kutum was investigated. Fish samples, ranging from 33 to 48.5 cm fork length which sold for human consumption, were collected from local fish markets in Bandar-e Torkaman (the south-eastern of Caspian Sea) on November 2017, and March 2018. The MPs were characterized using optical microscopy, NR staining, and SEM-EDS for number, shape, color, surface morphology, and elemental composition. On average, 11.4 MP items per fish (0.015 items per 1 g fish wet weight) were found in Kutum's stomach at an individual detection rate of 80%. Around 66% of all identified MP items were < 500 µm, and 53% possessed light colors. Morphological researches indicated that fish ingested the degradation fragments from larger plastic pieces, fibers, and manufactured microbeads. Microfibers are the most dominant items accounting for over 75% of all MPs. The SEM images indicated the various degrees of erosions upon environmental exposure. Some MPs had surface cracks, broken margins, scaly appearances, and obvious pores. Considering the commercial importance which the Kutum plays for Iran's fishery, the potential effect of MPs on the trophic food web, particularly for human consumption and health, should be urgently investigated.


Asunto(s)
Cyprinidae , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua , Animales , Mar Caspio , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Humanos , Irán , Microplásticos , Plásticos , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/análisis
4.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 1636, 2020 Nov 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33138798

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: In this study, we aimed to evaluate the impact of the COVID-19 epidemic on the workload and mental health of Iranian medical staff using the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) and NASA -Task Load Index (NASA-TLX) Questionnaire between March and April 2020, respectively. METHODS: The present cross-sectional study was conducted from March 5th to April 5th, 2020. To evaluate the workload and mental health of participants NASA-TLX and GHQ-12 online questionnaires were distributed. Data were entered into software SPSS (Version 23) and T-test, ANOVA, Regression methods were used for data analysis. RESULTS: Health workers who encountered COVID- 19 patients, were subjected to more task load compared to those who had no contact with COVID- 19 patients at the workplace (p <  0.001). In terms of the subscale score of NASA-TLX, nurses had more scores in mental pressure, physical pressure, time pressure (temporal), and frustration compared to the other jobs (p <  0.05). Moreover, nurses had significantly more workload compared to the other jobs. CONCLUSIONS: Type of job, the shift of work, educational level, and facing COVID-19 affected the score of NASA-TLX. NASA-TLX scores were higher in nursing compared to the scores of other health staff groups. The results of this study indicate that the scores of NASA-TLX and GHQ-12 among staff who had contact with COVID-19 patients were significantly higher than those who did not face COVID-19 patients. We suggested that a comprehensive assistance should be provided to support the well-being of healthcare workers especially nurses and healthcare workers who treated COVID-19 patients.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/terapia , Epidemias , Personal de Salud/psicología , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/terapia , Carga de Trabajo/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Personal de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Irán/epidemiología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pandemias , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Adulto Joven
5.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 806, 2020 Oct 31.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33129259

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: This study aimed at determining the prevalence of and risk factors for hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) among incarcerated people who inject drugs (PWID) in Iran in 2015-16. METHODS: The required data was collected from a database provided by Iranian national bio-behavioral surveillance surveys (BBSSs) on 11,988 prisoners selected from among 55 prisons in 19 provinces in 2015-16. The data on demographics and behavioral variables were collected through interviews and the status of exposure to HBV and HCV were determined using ELISA blood test. A total of 1387 individuals with a history of drug injection in their lifetime were enrolled into the study. Data were analyzed using the survey package in Stata/SE software, Version 14.0. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression tests were used to investigate the relationships between risk factors and outcomes. RESULTS: The mean age of the incarcerated PWID was 36.83 ± 8.13 years. Of all the studied subjects, 98.46% were male and 50.97% were married. The prevalence of HCV and HBV among the subjects were 40.52 and 2.46%, respectively. The prevalence of HCV was associated with age ≥ 30 years, being single, illiteracy and low level of education, prison term> 5 years, history of piercing, and extramarital sex in lifetime (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of HCV is alarmingly high. In general, it is recommended to adopt measures to screen and treat patients with HCV and vaccinat incarcerated PWID without a history of vaccination against HBV.


Asunto(s)
Hepatitis B/epidemiología , Hepatitis C/epidemiología , Prisioneros , Abuso de Sustancias por Vía Intravenosa/complicaciones , Adulto , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Hepacivirus , Hepatitis B/complicaciones , Hepatitis B/prevención & control , Virus de la Hepatitis B , Hepatitis C/complicaciones , Hepatitis C/prevención & control , Humanos , Irán/epidemiología , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Prevalencia , Prisioneros/estadística & datos numéricos , Prisiones , Factores de Riesgo , Vacunas contra Hepatitis Viral/administración & dosificación
6.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 1650, 2020 Nov 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33148209

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Strong evidence demonstrates that social support plays a key role in facilitating preventive health behaviors. The aim of the current study was to assess the effects of perceived social support on compliance with stay-at-home orders in response to a COVID-19 outbreak during the Persian New Year (Nowruz) holydays, since Nowruz holidays of 2020 coincided with the peak of the coronavirus epidemic in Iran. METHODS: This cross-sectional survey was carried out based on phone interviews of 1073 adults aged over 18 years from 4 to 12 April 2020 in Mashhad, Khorasan-Razavi Province, as the second largest city of Iran. A systematic random sampling was carried out using fixed phone number lists provided by Telecommunication Company of Khorasan-Razavi Province. Phone interviews were carried out by trained interviewers from the Iranian Students Polling Agency (ISPA) at various times of the day. The survey included sociodemographic questions, perceived social support scale (MSPSS) and questions about self-isolation during the Nowruz holiday. Statistical analysis included Chi-square test, Mann-Whitney test and multivariate logistic regression. RESULTS: 20.5% of participants reported poor compliance with stay at home orders during the first 2 weeks of Nowruz. Clear social gradients were not found in stay-at-home compliance. When controlling socio-demographic factors, perceived social support, interestingly, both fostered and hindered people's compliance with stay at home orders, depending on the source of support from family members (OR = .874, 95% CI = .803, .950, p < .005), friends (OR = 1.147, 95% CI = 1.076, 1.222, p < .001) and a significant other person (OR = .926, 95% CI = .849, 1.010, p = .084). CONCLUSIONS: Public health messaging may need to emphasize the role that friends and families can play in helping to protect those in their friendship/family groups by promoting compliance with social distancing. Further in-depth studies are recommended to evaluate how this kind of messaging can most effectively encourage people to engage in social distancing practices.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Brotes de Enfermedades , Adhesión a Directriz/estadística & datos numéricos , Pandemias/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Cuarentena/legislación & jurisprudencia , Apoyo Social , Adulto , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Irán/epidemiología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología
7.
BMC Psychol ; 8(1): 116, 2020 Nov 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33143747

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Choosing the most useful and versatile way to solve one's personal and social problems is one of the most important choices in individual life. The aim of this study was to compare the coping styles of people living with Human immunodeficiency virus positive and negative. METHODS: This is a Cross-sectional study that accomplished in Shiraz Behavioural Disease Counselling Centre in 2019 and 2020. For this purpose, in the first phase, 40 HIV+ and 40 HIV- patients were randomly selected to answer the questionnaire of dealing with the stressful conditions of Andler and Parker. In the second phase, the same questionnaire was filled out along with a reality distortion questionnaire from similar individuals (40 HIV+ and 40 HIV-). RESULTS: 92% of the HIV population in this study was between 15 and 55 years and 8% was upper than 55 years. 90% of them had no university degree. Among all, 47.5% of them were, 48.5% were self-employed and 49% of them were infected sexually. The results showed that in the first stage there was a significant relationship between marital status and the chances of getting the disease in people, and after controlling the demographic factors, coping styles did not show a significant effect on the disease. In the second stage, the factors of age, sex, education, and marital status had significant effects on people living with HIV, but the effect of coping styles on people with HIV was not significant (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Therefore, it can be concluded that demographic factors more than coping styles can affect the chances of high-risk behaviours; so, what is identified and measured as a coping style in people in the process that leads to the manifestation of high-risk behaviours or healthy behaviour does not matter much. It should be noted that the reason for rejecting the hypotheses of this study could be the effect of cultural and social factors of Iranian society.


Asunto(s)
Adaptación Psicológica , Infecciones por VIH/psicología , Seronegatividad para VIH , Seropositividad para VIH , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Irán , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Adulto Joven
8.
Braz Oral Res ; 34: e121, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33146317

RESUMEN

COVID-19 is an emerging and rapidly-evolving situation. This study aimed to measure the level of knowledge and attitude of the Iranian dental students towards COVID-19 and its infection control strategies. This cross-sectional study was designed using a web-based method. The questionnaire associated with COVID-19 was sent to all Iranian students in the clinical course. The extracted data regarding the knowledge and attitude of the students were statistically analyzed. In this study, 531 dental students of the clinical course in 32 Iranian universities were included. The mean age of the participants was 23.13 ± 2.29 years. The average percentage of knowledge and attitude scores were 59.7% (moderate) and 66.0% (neutral), respectively. The association between the attitude of the students and their semesters was statistically significant (r = 0.183, p < 0.001). The age of the students was also significantly associated with their attitudes (r = 0.150, p = 0.001). The outbreak of COVID-19 might resurge due to re-opening of the dental faculties. Training courses on COVID-19 infection prevention strategies should be held for dental students, especially the junior ones, and the guidelines should be sent to all of them.


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral , Estudiantes de Odontología , Adulto , Estudios Transversales , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Humanos , Control de Infecciones , Irán/epidemiología , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Adulto Joven
9.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 160: 111682, 2020 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33181955

RESUMEN

Frequency, distribution, color, and types of microplastics (<5 mm) in water and sediment of Chabahar Bay in southeastern Iran was investigated in 10 stations. Density of microplastics in water samples was between 86 and 362 particles/L (average density 218 ± 17 particle/L). In the sediment, microplastic density was between 112 and 468 particles/L (average density of 262 ± 17 particle/kg). The highest concentrations of microplastics were in stations adjacent to urban, commercial, recreational, and fishing sites. The most abundant forms in surface water and sediment were fragments (42.34%) and fibers (32.22%). Highest frequency colors were black, transparent, and white, respectively. A fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectrometer was used to determine micro plastic composition. Polyethylene, polyethylene terephthalate and nylon were detected. Polyethylene, a common packaging material made up 38% of the total polymers. Polyethylene terephthalate, used in clothing, liquid and food containers was found at 29% of the total microplastics.


Asunto(s)
Plásticos , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua , Bahías , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Irán , Microplásticos , Omán , Espectroscopía Infrarroja por Transformada de Fourier , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/análisis
10.
Environ Monit Assess ; 192(12): 757, 2020 Nov 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33184716

RESUMEN

This study was performed on the soil of the Hyrcanian forests near Saravan municipal solid waste dumpsite, Rasht, Iran. In this research, the contents of metals (As, Pb, Cr, Cd, Cu, Hg, and Zn) were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The geoaccumulation index (Igeo), contamination factor (CF), and enrichment factor (EF), as well as pollution load index (PLI), were used to evaluate the metals contamination. The ecological risk factor ([Formula: see text]) and the potential ecological risk index (PERI) were applied to assess ecological risk. Pearson's correlation coefficients and the principal component analysis (PCA) were used to determine the possible origin of the metals. The metal concentrations were as follows: Zn > Pb > Cu > Cr > As > Cd > Hg. The results of the statistical tests showed that, except for Cr, the other elements had a significant difference with the control station (P < 0.05). The results of the Pearson's correlation coefficients, the PCA, and the Igeo revealed that the possible source of As, Hg, and Pb was the waste dumpsite activities and other anthropogenic origins, while Cd, Cu, Zn, and Cr probably have geogenic sources. The PLI was < 1, in unpolluted grade for all stations. The [Formula: see text] of the metals ranged as follows Hg > Cd > As > Pb > Zn, Cu > Cr, which implies that Cd and Hg play a key role in determining the ecological risk. The mean value of the PERI was 192.11 that represented a moderate ecological risk.


Asunto(s)
Metales Pesados , Eliminación de Residuos , Contaminantes del Suelo , China , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Irán , Metales Pesados/análisis , Medición de Riesgo , Suelo , Contaminantes del Suelo/análisis
11.
Environ Monit Assess ; 192(12): 759, 2020 Nov 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33184748

RESUMEN

In recent years, indirect methods have been used to estimate soil salinity in agricultural lands. In this research, the electrical conductivity of 93 soil samples from 0 to 30 cm and 0 to 100 cm was measured using the hypercube technique at Sharifabad-Saveh Plain, Iran. Land area parameters such as TWI, TCI, STP, DEM, and LS were used as topographic variables and spatial indices of salinity and vegetation were derived from Landsat 8 images. Soil salinity off crops and gardens was determined at 0-30 cm and 0-100 cm. The data were divided into two series: the training set (70%) and the test set (30%). In order to model and predict salinity, models such as an artificial neural network (ANN), integration of neural network and genetic algorithm (ANN-GA), PLSR, and decision tree (DT) were used. The results of the models' evaluation based on MSE and R2 indices showed that the ANN-GA model has the highest accuracy in predicting soil properties. This model improved the accuracy of soil salinity prediction by 28%, 42%, and 23% in 0-30 cm and by 20%, 28%, and 25% at 100 cm than ANN, PLSR, and DT. The result showed the 2 dS/m EC at alfalfa and cucurbits farmlands while pistachio orchards have low salinity and bare lands have moderate and high salinity.


Asunto(s)
Salinidad , Suelo , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Irán , Aprendizaje Automático
12.
Environ Monit Assess ; 192(11): 684, 2020 Oct 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33026519

RESUMEN

Groundwater quality monitoring is a critical part of water management in all groundwater basins. In order to be effective and to meet the required needs, groundwater quality monitoring networks (GQMNs) must be designed to be able to operate long-term and economically without minimal disruption. The analytical hierarchical process (AHP), a multi-criteria decision-making program, was used to design a GQMN for an alluvial aquifer located in the Islam Abad plain west of Kermanshah province, Iran. This semi-arid area is subject to groundwater depletion and water quality changes. The model used 8 primary criteria sub-divided with 5 sub-criteria based on a combination of empirical data and expert opinion. The primary criteria included density of wells, well discharge, well depth, water quality (conductivity), flow direction, annual groundwater extraction, water level declines, and accessibility. The model showed that 59 of 254 production wells in the basin could provide optimal monitoring locations. When a second screening of the wells was used to determine constraints (physical conditions of the wells and pumps, owner permission of use, type of the pump, etc.), the number of wells was reduced to 13 wells. An initial round of water sampling and chemical analysis demonstrated that the design of the GQMN met the goals of the water management agency of the region.


Asunto(s)
Sistemas de Información Geográfica , Agua Subterránea , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Irán , Pozos de Agua
13.
Environ Monit Assess ; 192(11): 685, 2020 Oct 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33026535

RESUMEN

The Anzali wetland (located in northern Iran) and many parts of its catchment are considered important habitats for the swan mussel (Anodonta cygnea). The habitat of this native bioindicator mussel is being threatened in many locations of the catchment due to various anthropogenic activities. The present study aimed to apply a classification tree model (J48 algorithm) to predict the habitat preferences of A. cygnea in 12 sampling sites based on various water quality and physical-habitat variables. The species was present in 50% of sampling sites, while it was absent in the remaining of the sampling sites. In total, 144 samples of A. cygnea (72 presence and 72 absence instances) were monthly measured together with the abiotic variables during 1-year study period (2017-2018). For the CT model, two-thirds of datasets (96 instances) served as a training and the remainder was employed for the validation set (48 instances). Among 25 environmental variables introduced to the model (with pruning confidence factor = 0.10, threefold cross-validation and 5 times randomization effort), the validity of 6 variables was confirmed by the model in all three subsets. Water salinity, flow velocity, water depth and water turbidity were jointly predicted by the model in three subsets. The model predicted that the absence of A. cygnea might be associated with increasing flow velocity, total phosphate and water turbidity. In contrast, the presence of A. cygnea might be related to decreased water depth and increased calcium concentration. The model also confirmed that all predicted variables for the species might be completely dependent on the water salinity. According to the chi-square test (x2 = 26.53, p < 0.05), the habitat condition of A. cygnea is influenced by significant variations in the spatio-temporal patterns.


Asunto(s)
Anodonta , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua , Animales , Ecosistema , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Irán , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/análisis
14.
Environ Monit Assess ; 192(11): 683, 2020 Oct 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33026556

RESUMEN

The main objective of this research was to investigate the impact of the construction of Karkheh Dam in 2001 (referred to as the intervention time), on groundwater quality. The time series of total dissolved solids (TDS) and other water quality data including potassium (K+), sodium (Na+), magnesium (Mg2+), calcium (Ca2+), bicarbonate (HCO3-), sulfate (SO42-), and chloride (Cl-) for the period between 1996 and 2012 were analyzed. The magnitude of the trend by Sen's slope estimator for HCO3-, SO42-, and TDS was 0.005, - 0.02 and - 3.04, where a decline expected for SO42- and TDS, whereas for HCO3-, an increase was expected. According to the Pettitt's test, the mean of TDS decreased from 2306.9 mg/l between 1996 and 2002 to 797.2 mg/l between 2002 and 2012. During this time, the standard deviation of TDS declined from 2187.1 to 132.0 mg/l. The results of change point detection by the Pruned Exact Linear Time (PELT) algorithm were consistent with that of Pettitt's test providing confirmation that a change point in Ca2+, Mg2+, SO42-, and TDS time series data occurred in 2002.The findings from intervention analysis using the Bayesian structural time series (BSTS) technique showed that TDS concentration during the post-intervention period had an average value of 1127 mg/l compared with 1972 mg/l, before the dam construction. The time series of TDS demonstrated a decrease of about 43% following the intervention time.


Asunto(s)
Agua Subterránea , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua , Teorema de Bayes , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Irán , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/análisis
15.
Environ Monit Assess ; 192(11): 677, 2020 Oct 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33025276

RESUMEN

Local water quality indices (WQIs) are usually developed by modifying internationally recognized indices, which are considered reference index. In previous works on WQIs, the performance of local and reference indices has not been compared with each other. Therefore, the question crosses the mind whether using local or international indicators individually can show all qualitative aspects of a water resource. In this study, it was aimed to make this comparison between NSFWQIm (National Sanitation Foundation Water Quality Index) as the reference index and IRWQIsc (Iranian Water Quality Index for Surface Water Resource-Conventional Parameters) as the local one through a case study (Sefidroud River in northern Iran). Based on the results, the indices' performance in representing the seasonal and spatial fluctuations of the river water quality was almost similar. However, the water quality scores obtained by the two indices were somewhat different. Based on NSFWQIm, the average water quality score of the river was about 49.0, by which the water was categorized in "bad" class, while IRWQIsc represented an average score of 56.1, which corresponds to "fairly good" class. Therefore, NSFWQIm identified the water quality with stricter criteria than IRWQIsc, regarding the public health. On the other hand, according to relative standard deviations (0.17 for NSFWQIm, 0.21 for IRWQIsc) of the obtained water qualities, IRWQIsc better distinguished between high and low water qualities of the river. Accordingly, in order to better interpret the quality conditions of surface water resources in Iran, it is necessary to use both indices since NSFWQIm (reference index) attracts attention to stricter international standards and requirements, while IRWQIsc (local index) causes more focus on seasons or locations with the worst water quality.


Asunto(s)
Ríos , Calidad del Agua , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Irán , Contaminación del Agua/análisis
16.
Zootaxa ; 4778(1): zootaxa.4778.1.2, 2020 May 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33055831

RESUMEN

A new pachylaelapid mite species of the genus Onchodellus, O. masani sp. nov., is described and illustrated based on female specimens from Iran. The new species is compared with congeneric species with shortened peritremes. The new regional distributions for three examined species, Onchodellus hispani (Berlese), O. karawaiewi (Berlese), and O. strigifer (Berlese) are presented, and the situation of other species of the genus in Iran is revised. The current knowledge of the pachylaelapid species of Iran is discussed and a new list of the described and recorded species of the family is provided.


Asunto(s)
Ácaros , Animales , Femenino , Irán
17.
Zootaxa ; 4861(1): zootaxa.4861.1.1, 2020 Oct 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33055866

RESUMEN

Five new species from different tribes of the family Onychiuridae, namely Heteraphorura kaprusi sp. nov. (Hymenaphorurini), Deuteraphorura dashtenazensis sp. nov. and Onychiuroides mazandaranensis sp. nov. (Onychiurini), Protaphorura hyrcanica sp. nov. and P. iranica sp. nov. (Protaphorurini), from different Caspian Hyrcanian Mixed Forests in the Northern Iranian province of Mazandaran are described and illustrated. H. kaprusi sp. nov. belongs to the oriental species-group of the genus characterized by granulated vesicles in PAO, D. dashtenazensis sp. nov.-to the group of Deuteraphorura species with 1+1 pso on Th. I, and with 3+3 pso on the posterior part of head and Th. II-Abd. III tergites, O. mazandaranensis sp. nov.-to the group of Onychiuroides with 4 papillae and 5 chaetae on AIIIO, P. hyrcanica sp. nov. and P. iranica sp. nov.-to the group of Protaphorura species with 3 pso on Ant. base, 2+2 pso on Th. II and subcoxae 1 of legs II-III without pso. In addition two other species have been found in the same forests: Protaphorura sakatoi (Yosii, 1966) and Protaphorura golestanica Kaprus', Shayanmehr Kahrarian, 2017 (second record of the species). An identification key of the 30 species of Onychiuridae recorded so far from Iran is given.


Asunto(s)
Artrópodos , Animales , Bosques , Irán , Registros
18.
Zootaxa ; 4834(3): zootaxa.4834.3.1, 2020 Aug 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33056112

RESUMEN

Chigger mites of northern Iran were studied on the basis of field collections from rodent hosts. Thirty-five species were recorded. Two new species, Cheladonta afshari Stekolnikov and Shamsi sp. nov., collected on Apodemus sp. in Guilan and Mazandaran Provinces, and Neotrombicula tehranensis Stekolnikov and Shamsi sp. nov., collected on Cricetulus migratorius and Chionomys sp. in Tehran Province, are described. One new synonym is established: Neotrombicula vernalis (Willmann, 1942) (= Neotrombicula kermani Kudryashova, 1977 syn. nov.). Seventeen species were recorded in Iran for the first time; thus, the number of known Iranian chiggers constitutes 104. The record of Neotrombicula autumnalis (Shaw, 1790) in Iran is important from the veterinarian and medical points of view, as this species attacks humans and domestic animals.


Asunto(s)
Trombiculidae , Animales , Animales Domésticos , Arvicolinae , Irán , Murinae
19.
Zootaxa ; 4853(4): zootaxa.4853.4.5, 2020 Sep 24.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33056360

RESUMEN

Caprella moradi sp. nov. is described from intertidal zone of the Gulf of Oman, Iran. This species is differentiated from the most similar species Caprella danilevskii (Czerniavski, 1868), by four rows of fine setae on the body surface and bears a curved anterior surface of propodus in the second male gnathopod.


Asunto(s)
Anfípodos , Animales , Irán , Masculino , Omán
20.
Zootaxa ; 4789(2): zootaxa.4789.2.3, 2020 Jun 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33056433

RESUMEN

Gonatopodinae (Hymenoptera, Chrysidoidea, Dryinidae) of Iran, were taxonomically reviewed. A recent sampling in South-Eastern Iran has led to the identification of eight species belonging to three different genera, Echthrodelphax Perkins (one species), Gonatopus Ljungh (six species), and Haplogonatopus Perkins (one species). A new species, Gonatopus opsiicida Rakhshani Olmi sp. nov. is described and Illustrated. It was found  in association with leafhoppers on Tamarix stricta Boiss., in Hamoon international wetlands (Sistan, Iran). Two species, E. tauricus Ponomarenko and G. lunatus Klug, are recorded for the first time from Iran A description was also provided for the previously recorded species. The key for identification and distribution maps are also provided for the known species of Gonatopodinae in Iran.


Asunto(s)
Hemípteros , Avispas , Distribución Animal , Animales , Irán
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