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1.
PLoS One ; 15(2): e0229687, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32092121

RESUMEN

Radiogenic strontium isotopes (87Sr/86Sr) have long been used in analyses of paleomobility within Mesoamerica. While considerable effort has been expended developing 87Sr/86Sr baseline values across the Maya region, work in central Mexico is primarily focused on the Classic period urban center of Teotihuacan. This study adds to this important dataset by presenting bioavailable 87Sr/86Sr values across central Mexico focusing on the Basin of Mexico. This study therefore serves to expand the utility of strontium isotopes across a wider geographic region. A total of 63 plant and water samples were collected from 13 central Mexican sites and analyzed for 87Sr/86Sr on a Thermo-Finnigan Neptune multi-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (MC-ICP-MS). These data were analyzed alongside 16 published 87Sr/86Sr values from two additional sites within the region of interest. A five-cluster k-means model was then generated to determine which regions of the Basin of Mexico and greater central Mexico can and cannot be distinguished isotopically using 87Sr/86Sr values. Although the two clusters falling within the Basin of Mexico overlap in their local 87Sr/86Sr ranges, many locations within the Basin are distinguishable using 87Sr/86Sr values at the site-level. This study contributes to paleomobility studies within central Mexico by expanding knowledge of strontium isotope variability within the region, ultimately allowing researchers to detect intra-regional residential mobility and gain a greater understanding of the sociopolitical interactions between the Basin of Mexico and supporting outlying regions of central Mexico.


Asunto(s)
Paleontología/métodos , Isótopos de Estroncio/análisis , Estroncio/análisis , Monitoreo del Ambiente/métodos , Monitoreo del Ambiente/normas , México , Radioisótopos
2.
Sci Total Environ ; 712: 136248, 2020 Apr 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31945525

RESUMEN

Strontium isotopes are used in archaeology, ecology, forensics, and other disciplines to study the origin of artefacts, humans, animals and food items. Strontium in animal and human tissues such as bone and teeth originates from food and drink consumed during life, leaving an isotopic signal corresponding to their geographical origin (i.e. where the plants grew, the animals grazed and the drinking water passed through). To contextualise the measurements obtained directly on animal and human remains, it is necessary to have a sound baseline of the isotopic variation of biologically available strontium in the landscape. In general, plants represent the main source of strontium for humans and animals as they usually contain much higher strontium concentrations than animal products (meat and milk) or drinking water. The observed difference between the strontium isotope composition of geological bedrock, soils and plants from the same locality warrants direct measurement of plants to create a reliable baseline. Here we present the first baseline of the biologically available strontium isotope composition for the island of Ireland based on 228 measurements on plants from 140 distinct locations. The isoscape shows significant variation in strontium isotope composition between different areas of Ireland with values as low as 0.7067 for the basalt outcrops in County Antrim and values of up to 0.7164 in the Mourne Mountains. This variability confirms the potential for studying mobility and landscape use of past human and animal populations in Ireland. Furthermore, in some cases, large differences were observed between different types of plants from the same location, highlighting the need to measure more than one plant sample per location for the creation of BASr baselines.


Asunto(s)
Isótopos de Estroncio/análisis , Animales , Arqueología , Humanos , Irlanda , Estroncio , Diente
3.
Sci Total Environ ; 704: 135449, 2020 Feb 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31818581

RESUMEN

The geographic distribution of the stable isotope ratio of Sr (87Sr/86Sr) is useful for identifying the provenance of drinking water, organisms, and agricultural products. To explore how environmental factors influence this ratio, we determined the 87Sr/86Sr, sulfur isotope ratio (δ34S), and elemental composition of 208 commercially available bottled waters in Japan, and compared them with the 87Sr/86Sr values of groundwater, rainwater, rocks, and vegetables from similar localities. We classified the bottled waters into seven categories based on the geology of their source aquifers. The 87Sr/86Sr and concentrations of several elements (Ca, K, Si, Rb, and Ba) of the bottled waters differed with the aquifer rock type and were well correlated with the 87Sr/86Sr of reported spring waters, indicating that bottled water, like other groundwater, reflects the lithology and chemistry of its aquifer. The 87Sr/86Sr of bottled water, taken as a proxy for groundwater, showed regional variations consistent with those of rocks and vegetables, demonstrating that an 87Sr/86Sr map of water and agricultural products has value for determining the production areas of these substances. However, the value and range of 87Sr/86Sr differed among these three materials, and the degree of the difference between groundwater and rock depended on the rock type. An analysis of geochemical data from rocks and rainwater suggests that groundwater contains Sr and additional S derived from atmospheric sources such as rainwater and sea salt aerosols. The atmospheric contribution of Sr to groundwater is greatest in areas of siliceous sedimentary rocks with low Sr concentrations and high resistance to weathering. A weak correlation of δ34S of bottled waters with 87Sr/86Sr indicates the usefulness of maps of combined Sr and S isotope ratios for groundwater provenance. This study shows that for accurate provenance determinations of groundwater, organisms, and agricultural products, it is essential to better quantify the contributions of Sr and S from the atmosphere as well as from rocks and human activities.


Asunto(s)
Agua Potable/análisis , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Isótopos de Estroncio/análisis , Isótopos de Azufre/análisis , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/análisis , Japón
4.
Isotopes Environ Health Stud ; 55(5): 478-498, 2019 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31402710

RESUMEN

Faecal isotopic analysis may complement other non-invasive wildlife survey tools for monitoring landscape use by carnivores, such as motion-detecting cameras and non-invasive genetic sampling. We analysed carbon, nitrogen, and strontium isotopes in faecal matter produced by jaguars (Panthera onca) as well as bones from consumed prey at the Mountain Pine Ridge Forest Reserve (MPR) in Belize, Central America. The MPR is ideally suited for a spatial isotope study as vegetation and geology both vary considerably. The isotopic composition of faecal matter should reflect the habitat and geology where consumed prey lived. We used bone from consumed prey recovered from jaguar scats as a proxy for diet. Faecal matter and bone showed comparable spatial isotopic trends, suggesting that the isotopic composition of jaguar faeces can be used to detect foraging in different habitats (pine forest versus broadleaf forest) or on different geologies (Mesozoic carbonates; Palaeozoic granite, contact metamorphics, and metasediments). This result is reassuring as bones are not always present in carnivore scats. Studying landscape use by cryptic and wide-ranging carnivore species like jaguars remains challenging. Isotopic analysis of faecal matter complements the existing array of non-invasive spatial monitoring tools.


Asunto(s)
Isótopos de Carbono/análisis , Heces/química , Isótopos de Nitrógeno/análisis , Panthera/fisiología , Conducta Predatoria , Animales , Belice , Huesos/química , Carnivoría/fisiología , Colágeno/análisis , Colágeno/química , Ecosistema , Isótopos de Estroncio/análisis
5.
Forensic Sci Int ; 302: 109919, 2019 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31451316

RESUMEN

We report isotopic ratios for δ18O and 87Sr/86Sr from 71 individual human permanent teeth, obtained from 61 individuals with known regions of origins from eight of the 32 departments in Colombia. This survey of the applicability of isotopic provenancing is a vital addition to the ongoing identification efforts within Colombia concerning unidentified decedents recovered from clandestine and cemetery burials. At this time, only median isotopic values are reported due to heterogeneity of inter- and intra-departmental variance among the obtained isotopic values. The use of department of origin as a regional assignment schema is inadequate to effectively georeference unidentified human remains, given the wide-ranging topography and climatic diversity within Colombia. Therefore, a critical need for additional isotopic sampling of individual reference material exists, in order to improve the accuracy of potential region of origin estimates of unknown decedents originating from forensic contexts within Colombia.


Asunto(s)
Esmalte Dental/química , Durapatita/química , Odontología Forense/métodos , Isótopos de Oxígeno/análisis , Isótopos de Estroncio/análisis , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Conflictos Armados , Restos Mortales , Colombia , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Adulto Joven
6.
Am J Phys Anthropol ; 170(1): 98-115, 2019 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31294838

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: The ancient city of Chichén Itzá in the northern Yucatán of Mexico was one of the most important in the Maya area, but its origins and history are poorly understood. A major question concerns the origins of the peoples who founded and later expanded the ancient city. Hundreds of people were ritually executed and their bodies thrown into the waters of the Sacred Cenote at Chichén. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this study, we use strontium and oxygen isotopes to study the place of origin of a large sample of these individuals. Isotopes are deposited in human tooth enamel. Enamel forms during the first years of life, remains largely unchanged long past death, and can provide a signature of the place of birth. If the isotope ratios in enamel are different from the place of death, the individual must have moved during his/her lifetime. RESULTS: Comparison of our results from the cenote with information on isotope ratios across the Maya region and elsewhere suggests that the individuals in the cenote came from a number of different parts of Mexico and possibly beyond. DISCUSSION: It is not known if all of the sacrificial victims resided in Chichén Itzá, but their suggested origins likely reflect patterns of population movement and social networks that existed between Chichén Itzá and both neighboring and distant regions. Various lines of evidence point to places in the Yucatán, along the Gulf Coast, Central America, or even in the Central Highlands of Mexico.


Asunto(s)
Conducta Ceremonial , Indios Norteamericanos/etnología , Indios Norteamericanos/historia , Adulto , Antropología Física , Niño , Preescolar , Femenino , Historia Medieval , Humanos , Masculino , México/etnología , Isótopos de Oxígeno/análisis , Cráneo/química , Cráneo/lesiones , Cráneo/patología , Isótopos de Estroncio/análisis
7.
Sci Justice ; 59(3): 322-331, 2019 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31054821

RESUMEN

Human provenance studies employing isotopic analysis have become an essential tool in forensic and archaeological sciences, with multi-isotope approaches providing more specific location estimates compared to single isotope studies. This study reports on the human provenancing capability of neodymium isotopes (143Nd/144Nd), a relatively conservative tracer in the environment. Neodymium isotope ratios have only recently been determined on human remains due to low concentrations in human dental enamel (ppb range), requiring thermal ionisation mass spectrometry (TIMS) using 1013â€¯Ω resistors. Dental elements (third molars) from 20 individuals born and raised in the Netherlands were analysed for Nd concentration (n = 12) and Nd isotope ratios (n = 15). The geological control on Nd isotope composition was examined using coupled Nd-Sr isotope analysis of the same third molar. Teeth from different geological environments were also analysed (Caribbean, Columbian, and Icelandic, n = 5). Neodymium elemental concentrations in dental elements ranged between 0.1 and 7.9 ppb (median 0.5 ppb). The Dutch 143Nd/144Nd ratios of the provinces of Limburg and Friesland were between 0.5118 and 0.5121, with Dutch 87Sr/86Sr ratios in agreement with the previously established local range (0.708-0.710). The current findings were compared to previously published results on Nd concentration and composition from Dutch individuals. The concentration of Nd and 143Nd/144Nd ratios were weakly correlated (R2 = 0.47, n = 17) in Dutch human dental enamel. The majority (n = 25, 83.3%) of individuals had Nd and Sr isotope values isotopically indistinguishable from the geological environment in which their third molars formed and mineralised. However, the Nd isotope ratios of the Icelandic individual and several Dutch individuals (n = 4) suggested that Nd in enamel is not solely influenced by geological environment. In order for neodymium isotopes to be quantitatively applied in forensic and archaeological settings further analyses of individuals from various geographical regions with well-defined dietary Nd isotope data are required.


Asunto(s)
Esmalte Dental/química , Isótopos/análisis , Espectrometría de Masas , Tercer Molar/química , Neodimio/análisis , Radioisótopos/análisis , Adolescente , Región del Caribe , Niño , Colombia , Dieta , Impedancia Eléctrica , Odontología Forense/métodos , Humanos , Islandia , Países Bajos , Dinámica Poblacional , Isótopos de Estroncio/análisis
8.
Food Chem ; 294: 35-45, 2019 Oct 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31126474

RESUMEN

The 87Sr/86Sr ratio and Sr concentrations of 43 authentic Bordeaux wines from the world's most prestigious châteaux are presented in the context of their relation to the geographical origin of wine and authenticity. The results demonstrate relatively narrow spans of variabilities observed for 87Sr/86Sr ratio and Sr concentrations in authentic Bordeaux wines, which can be used with reasonable certainty as specific parameters for identifying regional wineries. For comparison, a set of imitated Bordeaux wines was studied for Sr isotopic and elemental compositions. A significant excess of both parameters in suspicious wines were found in reference to authentic values. Such natural and anthropogenically induced variations offer an enhanced discriminating potential of Sr. The unique Sr binary signature may detect imitated wines and trace genuine products from different regional wineries. The obtained results shown a promising perspective for wine authenticity control by means of Sr isotopic and elemental composition.


Asunto(s)
Estroncio/análisis , Vino/análisis , Granjas , Espectrometría de Masas , Suelo/química , Isótopos de Estroncio/análisis
9.
PLoS One ; 14(5): e0216458, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31086373

RESUMEN

Contemporary West Indian biodiversity has been shaped by two millennia of non-native species introductions. Understanding the dynamics of this process and its legacy across extended temporal and spatial scales requires accurate knowledge of introduction timing and the species involved. Richard Ligon's 17th century account and celebrated map of early colonial Barbados records the translocation of several Old World species to the island in the post-contact era, including pigs (Sus scrofa) believed to have been released by passing sailors the century prior. Here we challenge this long-accepted historical narrative, presenting evidence that Ligon's "pigs" were in fact peccaries, a New World continental mammal often confused with wild boars. We document the first recorded instance of non-native peccary (Tayassuidae) on Barbados based on a securely identified mandibular specimen from a historic archaeological context. Results of specimen 87Sr/86Sr and AMS radiocarbon assays, along with newly reported data from Sr isotope environmental analyses, indicate a local origin dating to AD 1645-1670/1780-1800. These data support the presence of living peccary on Barbados some time during the first 175 years of English settlement, which, based on review of historical and archaeological data, most likely arises from 16th century peccary introduction from the Guianas/Trinidad by the Spanish or Portuguese. We argue dimorphic representations of "pigs" on Ligon's map reflect the co-occurrence of peccary and European domestic swine on historic Barbados. Our findings overturn conventional history and provide greater taxonomic and chronological resolution for Caribbean bioinvasion studies, helping to refine our understanding of potential ecological impacts. In addition, the new bioavailable 87Sr/86Sr data for Barbados reported here advance current efforts toward mapping the Caribbean Sr isoscape.


Asunto(s)
Artiodáctilos , Radioisótopos de Carbono/análisis , Fósiles/historia , Datación Radiométrica , Isótopos de Estroncio/análisis , Animales , Barbados , Historia del Siglo XVI , Especies Introducidas
10.
PLoS One ; 14(4): e0214925, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30943255

RESUMEN

Neanderthals had complex land use patterns, adapting to diversified landscapes and climates. Over the past decade, considerable progress has been made in reconstructing the chronology, land use and subsistence patterns, and occupation types of sites in the Rhône Valley, southeast France. In this study, Neanderthal mobility at the site of Payre is investigated by combining information from lithic procurement analysis ("chaîne evolutive" and "chaîne opératoire" concepts) and strontium isotope analysis of teeth (childhood foraging area), from two units (F and G). Both units date to the transition from Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 8 to MIS 7, and show similar environmental conditions, but represent contrasting occupation durations. Level Gb (unit G) represents a long-term year-round use, in contrast to short-term seasonal use of the cave in level Fb (unit F). For both levels, lithic material and food were generally collected from a local to semi-local region. However, in level Gb, lithic materials were mainly collected from colluviums and food collected in the valley, whereas in level Fb, lithic procurement focused primarily on alluvial deposits and food was collected from higher elevation plateaus. These procurement or exchange patterns might be related to flint availability, knapping advantages of alluvial flint or occupation duration. The site of Payre is located in a flint rich circulation corridor and the movement of groups or exchanges between groups were organized along a north-south axis on the plateaus or towards the east following the river. The ridges were widely used as they are rich in flint, whereas the Rhône Valley is not an important source of lithic raw materials. Compared to other western European Middle Palaeolithic sites, these results indicate that procurement strategies have a moderate link with occupation types and duration, and with lithic technology. The Sr isotope ratios broadly match the proposed foraging areas, with the Rhône Valley being predominantly used in unit G and the ridges and limestone plateaus in unit F. While lithic reconstructions and childhood foraging are not directly related this suggests that the three analysed Neanderthals spend their childhood in the same general area and supports the idea of mobile Neanderthals in the Rhône Valley and neighbouring higher elevation plateaus. The combination of reconstructing lithic raw material sources, provisioning strategies, and strontium isotope analyses provides new details on how Neanderthals at Payre practised land use and mobility in the Early Middle Palaeolithic.


Asunto(s)
Arqueología , Clima , Fósiles , Hombre de Neandertal , Isótopos de Estroncio/análisis , Diente , Animales , Francia , Hombre de Neandertal/anatomía & histología , Hombre de Neandertal/metabolismo , Diente/anatomía & histología , Diente/química , Diente/metabolismo
11.
Isotopes Environ Health Stud ; 55(2): 179-198, 2019 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30907135

RESUMEN

Elemental and isotopic pattern of n(87Sr)/n(86Sr) and δ88Sr/86SrSRM987 were used to characterise groundwater and recharge of saline ponds in a clastic aquifer in East Austria. Therefore, shallow, artesian and thermal groundwaters of the investigated aquifer along with rainfall and rivers were analysed using (MC) ICP-MS. The n(87Sr)/n(86Sr) ratio and elemental pattern changed with aquifer depth as a result of progressing bedrock leaching and dissolution with increasing groundwater residence time. The n(87Sr)/n(86Sr) ratio of shallow groundwater below saline ponds of 0.71019 ± 0.00044 was significantly different from thermal groundwater of 0.71205 ± 0.00035 (U, k = 2). In contrast to previous theories, this result suggested no recharge of saline ponds by upwelling paleo-seawater. Isotope pattern deconvolution revealed that rainfall accounted to about 60% of the n(87Sr)/n(86Sr) ratio of shallow groundwater below saline ponds. The δ88Sr/86SrSRM987 values of groundwater decreased from about 0.25 ‰ in most shallow, to predominantly negative values of about -0.24 ‰ in artesian groundwater. This result indicated leaching and dissolution of weathered minerals. In turn, the δ88Sr/86SrSRM987 of deep thermal groundwater showed positive values of about 0.12 ‰, which suggested removal of 86Sr from solution by carbonate precipitation. These results highlight the potential of δ88Sr/86SrSRM987 signature as an additional geochemical tracer.


Asunto(s)
Monitoreo del Ambiente/métodos , Agua Subterránea/química , Ríos/química , Agua de Mar/química , Isótopos de Estroncio/análisis , Ciclo Hidrológico , Austria
12.
Sci Adv ; 5(3): eaau6078, 2019 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30891495

RESUMEN

The great henge complexes of southern Britain are iconic monuments of the third millennium BCE, representing great feats of engineering and labor mobilization that hosted feasting events on a previously unparalleled scale. The scale of movement and the catchments that the complexes served, however, have thus far eluded understanding. Presenting the largest five-isotope system archeological dataset (87Sr/86Sr, δ34S, δ18O, δ13C, and δ15N) yet fully published, we analyze 131 pigs, the prime feasting animals, from four Late Neolithic (approximately 2800 to 2400 BCE) complexes to explore the networks that the feasts served. Because archeological evidence excludes continental contact, sources are considered only in the context of the British Isles. This analysis reveals wide-ranging origins across Britain, with few pigs raised locally. This finding demonstrates great investment of effort in transporting pigs raised elsewhere over vast distances to supply feasts and evidences the very first phase of pan-British connectivity.


Asunto(s)
Vacaciones y Feriados/historia , Migración Humana/historia , Carne/historia , Datación Radiométrica/métodos , Transportes/historia , Animales , Arqueología/métodos , Isótopos de Carbono/análisis , Femenino , Historia Antigua , Humanos , Masculino , Mandíbula/química , Isótopos de Nitrógeno/análisis , Isótopos de Oxígeno/análisis , Isótopos de Estroncio/análisis , Isótopos de Azufre/análisis , Porcinos , Reino Unido
13.
Sci Adv ; 5(3): eaav8083, 2019 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30891501

RESUMEN

The application of 87Sr/86Sr in prehistoric mobility studies requires accurate strontium reference maps. These are often based from present-day surface waters. However, the use of agricultural lime in low to noncalcareous soils can substantially change the 87Sr/86Sr compositions of surface waters. Water unaffected by agriculture in western Denmark has an average 87Sr/86Sr ratio of 0.7124 as compared to an average of 0.7097 in water from nearby farmland. The 87Sr/86Sr ratio obtained from samples over 1.5 km along a stream, which originates in a forest and flows through lime-treated farmland, decreased from 0.7131 to 0.7099. Thus, 87Sr/86Sr-based mobility and provenance studies in regions with low to noncalcareous soils should be reassessed. For example, reinterpreting the iconic Bronze Age women at Egtved and Skrydstrup using values unaffected by agricultural lime indicates that it is most plausible that these individuals originated close to their burial sites and not far abroad as previously suggested.


Asunto(s)
Agricultura/historia , Agua Subterránea/química , Migración Humana/historia , Datación Radiométrica/métodos , Suelo/química , Isótopos de Estroncio/análisis , Agricultura/métodos , Arqueología/métodos , Compuestos de Calcio/análisis , Dinamarca , Femenino , Fertilizantes/análisis , Historia Antigua , Humanos , Óxidos/análisis
14.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 1003, 2019 01 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30700797

RESUMEN

Isolated spherical carbonate concretions are frequently observed in finer grained marine sediments of widely varying geological age. Recent studies on various kinds of spherical carbonate (CaCO3) concretions revealed that they formed very rapidly under tightly constrained conditions. However, the formation ages of the isolated spherical carbonate concretions have never been determined. Here we use 87Sr/86Sr ratios to determine the ages of these spherical concretions. The studied concretions formed in the Yatsuo Group of Miocene age in central Japan. Some formed post-mortem around tusk-shells (Fissidentalium spp.), while other concretions have no shell fossils inside. The deformation of sedimentary layers around the concretions, combined with geochemical analyses, reveal that Sr was incorporated into the CaCO3 concretions during their rapid formation. Strontium isotopic stratigraphy using 87Sr/86Sr ratios of all concretions indicates an age of 17.02 ± 0.27 Ma, with higher accuracy than the ages estimated using micro-fossils from the Yatsuo Group. The results imply that the 87Sr/86Sr ratio of isolated spherical carbonate concretions can be applied generally to determine the numerical ages of marine sediments, when concretions formed soon after sedimentation. The 87Sr/86Sr age determinations have high accuracy, even in cases without any fossils evidence.


Asunto(s)
Carbonato de Calcio/análisis , Fósiles/historia , Sedimentos Geológicos/química , Geología , Moluscos/química , Isótopos de Estroncio/análisis , Animales , Historia Antigua , Japón
15.
Sci Total Environ ; 653: 1458-1512, 2019 Feb 25.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30759584

RESUMEN

Radiostrontium is released to the environment from routine and accidental discharge and acts on living organisms either from external sources or after absorption. When incorporated by plants, it enters the food chain and causes primary threat to human health and the environment. Understanding the mechanisms of plants for strontium uptake and retention is therefore essential for decision making concerning agriculture: are uptake rates low enough so that plants can serve as food? Or is radiostrontium accumulated so that plants should not be eaten but could be probably used for extracting strontium from water and soil in hot spots of pollution? The review presents a summary of studies about the origin of stable and radioactive strontium in the environment and effects coming from both internal and external exposure of plants. Mobility and availability of strontium to plant roots in soil are controlled by external factors such as chemical composition of the soil and pH, temperature and agricultural soil cultivation as well as soil biological networks built by microbial communities. Plant surfaces may receive input of strontium from deposition induced by atmospheric pollution or by acquisition from water through the whole immersed surface. Cells have entry mechanisms for strontium such as plasma membrane transporters for calcium and potassium. Part of absorbed strontium can be lost via processes discussed in this review. We give examples on strontium transfer factors for 149 plants to estimate plant absorption capacity for strontium from soil, water and air. Uptake efficiency of terrestrial and aquatic plants is deciding about their remediation potential to either remove radiostrontium by accumulation and rhizofiltration or to retain it in roots or aerial parts. Data of strontium content in soils after fallout and edible plants from long-term monitoring support the evaluation of the potential hazards posed by strontium input to the food chain.


Asunto(s)
Monitoreo del Ambiente , Plantas/metabolismo , Isótopos de Estroncio/análisis , Estroncio/análisis , Biodegradación Ambiental , Cadena Alimentaria , Plantas/efectos de los fármacos , Estroncio/metabolismo , Isótopos de Estroncio/metabolismo
16.
PLoS One ; 14(1): e0209693, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30625174

RESUMEN

This study investigates to what extent Bronze Age societies in Northern Italy were permeable accepting and integrating non-local individuals, as well as importing a wide range of raw materials, commodities, and ideas from networks spanning continental Europe and the Mediterranean. During the second millennium BC, the communities of Northern Italy engaged in a progressive stabilization of settlements, culminating in the large polities of the end of the Middle/beginning of the Late Bronze Age pivoted around large defended centres (the Terramare). Although a wide range of exotic archaeological materials indicates that the inhabitants of the Po plain increasingly took part in the networks of Continental European and the Eastern Mediterranean, we should not overlook the fact that the dynamics of interaction were also extremely active on local and regional levels. Mobility patterns have been explored for three key-sites, spanning the Early to Late Bronze Age (1900-1100 BC), namely Sant'Eurosia, Casinalbo and Fondo Paviani, through strontium and oxygen isotope analysis on a large sample size (more than 100 individuals). The results, integrated with osteological and archaeological data, document for the first time in this area that movements of people occurred mostly within a territorial radius of 50 km, but also that larger nodes in the settlement system (such as Fondo Paviani) included individuals from more distant areas. This suggests that, from a demographic perspective, the process towards a more complex socio-political system in Bronze Age Northern Italy was triggered by a largely, but not completely, internal process, stemming from the dynamics of intra-polity networks and local/regional power relationships.


Asunto(s)
Isótopos de Oxígeno/análisis , Isótopos de Estroncio/análisis , Arqueología , Historia Antigua , Humanos , Italia , Dinámica Poblacional
17.
Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom ; 33(5): 461-472, 2019 Mar 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30597678

RESUMEN

RATIONALE: Strontium isotope ratios (87 Sr/86 Sr) of hair may be a valuable tool to estimate human provenance. However, the systematics and mechanisms controlling spatial variation in 87 Sr/86 Sr of modern human hair remain unclear. Here, we measure 87 Sr/86 Sr of hair specimens from across the USA to assess the presence of geospatial relationships. METHODS: Ninety-eight human hair specimens were collected from salon/barbershop floors in 48 municipalities throughout the conterminous USA. [Sr] and 87 Sr/86 Sr ratios were measured from hair using quadrupole and multi-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometers, respectively. The [Sr] and 87 Sr/86 Sr ratios of hair were compared with the measured [Sr] and 87 Sr/86 Sr ratios of tap waters from the collection locations. In addition, the 87 Sr/86 Sr ratio of hair was compared with the modeled ratios of bedrock and surface waters. RESULTS: Hair color was independent of the 87 Sr/86 Sr ratio, but related to [Sr]. The 87 Sr/86 Sr ratios of hair and leachate were not statistically different and were positively correlated; however, in several hair-leachate pairs, the ratios were conspicuously different. The 87 Sr/86 Sr ratios of both hair and leachate were linearly correlated with tap water. The 87 Sr/86 Sr ratio of hair was also significantly correlated with the modeled ratio of bedrock and surface waters, although the 87 Sr/86 Sr ratio of hair was most strongly correlated with the measured ratio of tap water. CONCLUSIONS: The 87 Sr/86 Sr ratio of hair is related to the ratio of tap water, which varied geographically. The ratio of hair provided geographic information about an individual's recent residence. Differences in the 87 Sr/86 Sr ratios of hair and hair leachate may be concomitant with travel and could potentially be used as a screening tool to identify recent movements.


Asunto(s)
Agua Potable/análisis , Cabello/química , Isótopos de Estroncio/análisis , Agua Dulce/química , Humanos , Espectrometría de Masas , Estados Unidos
18.
Sci Total Environ ; 651(Pt 1): 1126-1136, 2019 Feb 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30360244

RESUMEN

The transfer of metal and metalloid trace elements (MTEs) from contaminated soil to grapevines is a major issue for grape consumption and for the associated health risks. Based on an isotopic approach, we shed light on the concept of MTE bioavailability. The bioavailable fractions are identified by using the Sr-isotope ratio as a proxy for MTEs. This allows us to differentiate three soil reservoirs: the 'current available fraction' in soil water, the 'reserve available fraction' stored in mineral phases of the soil fractions, and the 'non-available fraction'. The reserve available fraction, representing 10 to 60% of bulk soil depending on the MTE, includes the exchangeable, carbonates, humic substance and oxides fractions. The 87Sr/86Sr isotopic signatures of grape berries and vine leaves show an additional source of MTEs, which is imported by foliar uptake and can contribute up to 10% of the MTEs in leaves. In addition, root-uptake and translocation rates show high accumulation rates of Co, Sn and Cu, and low ones for As, Sb, Zn and Cd. A daily intake between 1 and 3 kg of (dry grapes) would reach the benchmark dose level for a 0.5% (BMDL0.5). While such a daily intake of grapes is unreasonable, consumption of other local vegetables and fruit would contribute to the daily intake. Hence, a chronic arsenic exposure is of great concern for human health in mining areas. We outline the importance of geochemical tracers, such as Sr isotopes, when determining the transfer and translocation of MTEs in plants. Our method presents a high-precision evaluation of the bioavailability and bioaccumulation of MTEs, and a better understanding of these processes in plants, thus leading to a better assessment of the environmental risk on human health.


Asunto(s)
Arsénico/metabolismo , Monitoreo del Ambiente/métodos , Contaminantes del Suelo/análisis , Isótopos de Estroncio/análisis , Oligoelementos/metabolismo , Vitis/metabolismo , Disponibilidad Biológica , Metaloides/metabolismo
19.
Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom ; 33(3): 281-290, 2019 Feb 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30421822

RESUMEN

RATIONALE: Stable isotope analysis has become an indispensable tool for the identification of the flow of matter in ecological sciences. Stable strontium isotope ratios are used in several different scientific fields as markers for provenance, mobility, and migration. A crucial prerequisite for such studies is a reliable definition of local ranges and an estimation of expected isotopic variability. METHODS: To study the local variability of stable strontium isotope ratios at a specific place, a farrow of ecologically and locally grown pigs was investigated and strontium was extracted from their hard tissues (tooth enamel, bones and bristles) as well as soft tissues (meat, organs and blood) via dry- and wet-ashing procedures and subsequent column separation. The 87 Sr/86 Sr ratio was then measured via TIMS (thermal ionization mass spectrometry). RESULTS: Reliable 87 Sr/86 Sr data was generated from all tissue types. Both intra- and inter-individual variability was high and tissue-specific patterns could be identified. High ranges occurred in sample types which were analyzed for animals of different age (pigs as well as piglets): teeth, parietal, mandible, femur, and leg muscle as well as in jaw muscle samples, which were only analyzed in adult pigs. Tooth enamel data showed a tooth-type-dependent pattern. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that a time factor played a role for the observed variability, e.g. a shift in food supply. Furthermore, we presume that local range estimates from the literature only work for tissues which integrate all consumed components over a sufficient amount of time and average fluctuations which can be found in tissues with higher turnover rates.


Asunto(s)
Huesos/química , Esmalte Dental/química , Músculo Esquelético/química , Isótopos de Estroncio/análisis , Factores de Edad , Animales , Animales Recién Nacidos , Variación Biológica Poblacional , Mandíbula/química , Espectrometría de Masas , Porcinos
20.
Sci Total Environ ; 648: 236-252, 2019 Jan 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30118937

RESUMEN

87Sr/86Sr isotopic ratios in skeletal remains of archaeological vertebrates are used for provenance analysis since long. However, the definition of the past bioavailable isotopic ratio at the site of recovery is not known beforehand and geological maps can provide no more than gross expectations. Therefore, the assessment of the "local Sr isotopic signature" is still of crucial importance. In this study, we present a tool for the prediction of such local isotopic signatures by creating a concentration weighted mixing model that links lithospheric, biospheric, and atmospheric strontium per site. The major strontium sources and their input into an animal's body were assessed by choosing elemental strontium and its isotopic signature in groundwater, soil, vegetation, and precipitation as components for the mixing model, augmented by literature values. The model was applied to 24 sites located in the alpine transect of the Inn-Eisack-Adige-Brenner passage across the European Alps, a passage used since the Mesolithic. Predicted local bioavailable 87Sr/86Sr ratios were compared with measured values from locally excavated archaeozoological bone samples from three taxa of large and mainly residential vertebrates (cattle, pig, red deer) to verify the models' accuracy. With regard to the fact that the environmental samples predict the past local bioavailable 87Sr/86Sr at a specific site while the vertebrates had different and species-specific home ranges, thereby integrating strontium from a region of primarily unknown size, the model is capable of assigning reasonable expectation values. For 11 sites, up to 100% of the vertebrate isotopic signatures were correctly predicted. Mismatches at the remaining sites are explainable by special environmental factors, and also the fact that some import of animals can never be excluded beforehand. Suggestions for site-specific adjustments of the model are made.


Asunto(s)
Huesos/química , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Agua Subterránea/análisis , Isótopos de Estroncio/análisis , Animales , Arqueología , Austria , Bovinos , Ciervos , Alemania , Italia , Modelos Químicos , Sus scrofa
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