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1.
Nature ; 582(7810): 78-83, 2020 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32494067

RESUMEN

Human evolutionary history is rich with the interbreeding of divergent populations. Most humans outside of Africa trace about 2% of their genomes to admixture from Neanderthals, which occurred 50-60 thousand years ago1. Here we examine the effect of this event using 14.4 million putative archaic chromosome fragments that were detected in fully phased whole-genome sequences from 27,566 Icelanders, corresponding to a range of 56,388-112,709 unique archaic fragments that cover 38.0-48.2% of the callable genome. On the basis of the similarity with known archaic genomes, we assign 84.5% of fragments to an Altai or Vindija Neanderthal origin and 3.3% to Denisovan origin; 12.2% of fragments are of unknown origin. We find that Icelanders have more Denisovan-like fragments than expected through incomplete lineage sorting. This is best explained by Denisovan gene flow, either into ancestors of the introgressing Neanderthals or directly into humans. A within-individual, paired comparison of archaic fragments with syntenic non-archaic fragments revealed that, although the overall rate of mutation was similar in humans and Neanderthals during the 500 thousand years that their lineages were separate, there were differences in the relative frequencies of mutation types-perhaps due to different generation intervals for males and females. Finally, we assessed 271 phenotypes, report 5 associations driven by variants in archaic fragments and show that the majority of previously reported associations are better explained by non-archaic variants.


Asunto(s)
Introgresión Genética/genética , Genoma Humano/genética , Genómica , Mutación , Hombre de Neandertal/genética , Animales , Femenino , Estudios de Asociación Genética , Haploidia , Humanos , Islandia , Masculino , Fenotipo , Filogenia
4.
Sci Total Environ ; 722: 137840, 2020 Jun 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32349199

RESUMEN

Literature data on the occurrence and prevalence of polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PBDDs) and polybrominated dibenzofurans (PBDFs) in foods including seafood are scarce. In this study, a number of cod-derived products including medicinal grade cod liver oils sourced from Northern Atlantic waters (Iceland, Norway) and the Baltic Sea (Poland) during 1972-2001 and canned cod liver sourced from the Baltic Sea in 2017, showed detectable levels of PBDFs: such as 2,3,8-TrBDF at 0.57 to 5.249 pg g-1 fat and 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpBDF at <0.018 to 0.302 pg g-1 fat. PBDDs were not detected in the cod liver oils. Canned cod liver products showed low levels of 2,3,7,8-TeBDD in the range <0.017 to 0.022 pg g-1 whole weight and 1,2,3,7,8-PeBDD at <0.03 to 0.039 pg g-1 whole weight. These concentrations were computed to yield upper bound toxic equivalences (TEQs) of 0.14 to 0.17 pg g-1 for the oils and 0.12 to 0.25 pg g-1 for the canned products (0.08 pg g-1 ww for both products). The resulting supplementary and dietary intakes are low (0.02 to 0.11 pg kg-1 bm day-1 for the oils and 0.07 to 0.17 pg kg-1 bm week-1 for the canned livers) in comparison to the recently expressed tolerable weekly intake of 2 pg kg-1 bm week-1. However, the intakes are underestimates, as due to a lack of analytical standards not all PBDD/F TEQ contributing congeners could be included. The PBDD/F TEQ contributes to the cumulative toxicity arising from other contaminants such as chlorinated dioxins and polychlorinated biphenyls.


Asunto(s)
Gadus morhua , Animales , Países Bálticos , Dibenzofuranos , Dibenzofuranos Policlorados , Dioxinas , Islandia , Hígado , Noruega , Polonia
5.
Laeknabladid ; 106(5): 247-250, 2020.
Artículo en Islandés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32367812

RESUMEN

A gentleman in his early fifties became ill with flu-like symptoms after vacationing abroad and was diagnosed with COVID-19 after returning to Iceland. A few days later he was admitted to the University Hospital, Landspitali, due to worsening respiratory symptoms and severe fatigue. A computed tomography scan of lthe lungs showed diffuse bilateral consolidations and ground glass changes. He developed respiratory failure and was transferred to the intensive care unit where he received further treatment, including tocilizumab (IL-6 receptor inhibitor). He subsequently showed clinical improvement and did not require endotracheal intubation.


Asunto(s)
Anticuerpos Monoclonales Humanizados/uso terapéutico , Infecciones por Coronavirus/tratamiento farmacológico , Neumonía Viral/tratamiento farmacológico , Betacoronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus/diagnóstico por imagen , Humanos , Islandia , Pulmón/diagnóstico por imagen , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/diagnóstico por imagen , Tomografía Computarizada por Rayos X , Viaje , Resultado del Tratamiento
6.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0229114, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32413039

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Sleep and physical activity are modifiable behaviors that play an important role in preventing overweight, obesity, and metabolic health problems. Studies of the association between concurrent objective measures of sleep, physical activity, and metabolic risk factors among adolescents are limited. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to examine the association between metabolic risk factors and objectively measured school day physical activity and sleep duration, quality, onset, and variability in adolescents. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We measured one school week of free-living sleep and physical activity with wrist actigraphy in 252 adolescents (146 girls), aged 15.8±0.3 years. Metabolic risk factors included body mass index, waist circumference, total body and trunk fat percentage, resting blood pressure, and fasting glucose and insulin levels. Multiple linear regression adjusted for sex, parental education, and day length was used to assess associations between metabolic risk factors and sleep and activity parameters. RESULTS: On average, participants went to bed at 00:22±0.88 hours and slept 6.2±0.7 hours/night, with 0.83±0.36 hours of awakenings/night. However, night-to-night variability in sleep duration was considerable (mean ± interquartile range) 0.75±0.55 hours) and bedtime (0.64±0.53 hours) respectively. Neither average sleep duration nor mean bedtime was associated with any metabolic risk factors. However, greater night-to-night variability in sleep duration and bedtime was associated with higher total body and trunk fat percentage, and less physical activity was associated with higher trunk fat percentage and insulin levels. CONCLUSION: Greater nightly variation in sleep duration and in bedtime and less physical activity were associated with a less favorable metabolic profile in adolescents. These findings support the idea that, along with an adequate amount of physical activity, a regular sleep schedule is important for the metabolic health of adolescents.


Asunto(s)
Ejercicio Físico , Síndrome Metabólico/epidemiología , Metaboloma , Trastornos del Sueño-Vigilia/epidemiología , Sueño , Adolescente , Glucemia/metabolismo , Presión Sanguínea , Composición Corporal , Índice de Masa Corporal , Femenino , Humanos , Islandia , Insulina/sangre , Masculino
8.
N Engl J Med ; 382(24): 2302-2315, 2020 06 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32289214

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: During the current worldwide pandemic, coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) was first diagnosed in Iceland at the end of February. However, data are limited on how SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes Covid-19, enters and spreads in a population. METHODS: We targeted testing to persons living in Iceland who were at high risk for infection (mainly those who were symptomatic, had recently traveled to high-risk countries, or had contact with infected persons). We also carried out population screening using two strategies: issuing an open invitation to 10,797 persons and sending random invitations to 2283 persons. We sequenced SARS-CoV-2 from 643 samples. RESULTS: As of April 4, a total of 1221 of 9199 persons (13.3%) who were recruited for targeted testing had positive results for infection with SARS-CoV-2. Of those tested in the general population, 87 (0.8%) in the open-invitation screening and 13 (0.6%) in the random-population screening tested positive for the virus. In total, 6% of the population was screened. Most persons in the targeted-testing group who received positive tests early in the study had recently traveled internationally, in contrast to those who tested positive later in the study. Children under 10 years of age were less likely to receive a positive result than were persons 10 years of age or older, with percentages of 6.7% and 13.7%, respectively, for targeted testing; in the population screening, no child under 10 years of age had a positive result, as compared with 0.8% of those 10 years of age or older. Fewer females than males received positive results both in targeted testing (11.0% vs. 16.7%) and in population screening (0.6% vs. 0.9%). The haplotypes of the sequenced SARS-CoV-2 viruses were diverse and changed over time. The percentage of infected participants that was determined through population screening remained stable for the 20-day duration of screening. CONCLUSIONS: In a population-based study in Iceland, children under 10 years of age and females had a lower incidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection than adolescents or adults and males. The proportion of infected persons identified through population screening did not change substantially during the screening period, which was consistent with a beneficial effect of containment efforts. (Funded by deCODE Genetics-Amgen.).


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Monitoreo Epidemiológico , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Betacoronavirus/genética , Niño , Preescolar , Trazado de Contacto , Femenino , Haplotipos , Humanos , Islandia/epidemiología , Lactante , Masculino , Tamizaje Masivo , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pandemias , Viaje , Adulto Joven
9.
Open Heart ; 7(1): e001220, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32341788

RESUMEN

Objective: The myosin-binding protein C (MYBPC3) c.927-2A>G founder mutation accounts for >90% of sarcomeric hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) in Iceland. This cross-sectional observational study explored the penetrance and phenotypic burden among carriers of this single, prevalent founder mutation. Methods: We studied 60 probands with HCM caused by MYBPC3 c.927-2A>G and 225 first-degree relatives. All participants underwent comprehensive clinical evaluation and relatives were genotyped. Results: Genetic and clinical evaluation of relatives identified 49 genotype-positive (G+) relatives with left ventricular hypertrophy (G+/LVH+), 59 G+without LVH (G+/LVH-) and 117 genotype-negative relatives (unaffected). Compared with HCM probands, G+/LVH+ relatives were older at HCM diagnosis, had less LVH, a less prevalent diastolic dysfunction, fewer ECG abnormalities, lower serum N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) and high-sensitivity cardiac troponin I levels, and fewer symptoms. The penetrance of HCM was influenced by age and sex; specifically, LVH was present in 39% of G+males but only 9% of G+females under age 40 years (p=0.015), versus 86% and 83%, respectively, after age 60 (p=0.89). G+/LVH- subjects had normal wall thicknesses, diastolic function and NT-proBNP levels, but subtle changes in LV geometry and more ECG abnormalities than their unaffected relatives. Conclusions: Phenotypic expression of the Icelandic MYBPC3 founder mutation varies by age, sex and proband status. Men are more likely to have LVH at a younger age, and disease manifestations were more prominent in probands than in relatives identified via family screening. G+/LVH- individuals had subtle clinical differences from unaffected relatives well into adulthood, indicating subclinical phenotypic expression of the pathogenic mutation.


Asunto(s)
Cardiomiopatía Hipertrófica/genética , Proteínas Portadoras/genética , Efecto Fundador , Heterocigoto , Mutación , Sarcómeros/genética , Función Ventricular Izquierda/genética , Remodelación Ventricular/genética , Adulto , Edad de Inicio , Anciano , Cardiomiopatía Hipertrófica/diagnóstico , Cardiomiopatía Hipertrófica/fisiopatología , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Predisposición Genética a la Enfermedad , Hemodinámica/genética , Herencia , Humanos , Islandia , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Linaje , Penetrancia , Fenotipo , Factores de Riesgo
11.
Environ Sci Technol ; 54(7): 4046-4058, 2020 04 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32160740

RESUMEN

There is increasing evidence that the ∼20 routinely monitored perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) account for only a fraction of extractable organofluorine (EOF) occurring in the environment. To assess whether PFAS exposure is being underestimated in marine mammals from the Northern Hemisphere, we performed a fluorine mass balance on liver tissues from 11 different species using a combination of targeted PFAS analysis, EOF and total fluorine determination, and suspect screening. Samples were obtained from the east coast United States (US), west and east coast of Greenland, Iceland, and Sweden from 2000 to 2017. Of the 36 target PFASs, perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) dominated in all but one Icelandic and three US samples, where the 7:3 fluorotelomer carboxylic acid (7:3 FTCA) was prevalent. This is the first report of 7:3 FTCA in polar bears (∼1000 ng/g, ww) and cetaceans (<6-190 ng/g, ww). In 18 out of 25 samples, EOF was not significantly greater than fluorine concentrations derived from sum target PFASs. For the remaining 7 samples (mostly from the US east coast), 30-75% of the EOF was unidentified. Suspect screening revealed an additional 37 PFASs (not included in the targeted analysis) bringing the total to 63 detected PFASs from 12 different classes. Overall, these results highlight the importance of a multiplatform approach for accurately characterizing PFAS exposure in marine mammals.


Asunto(s)
Ácidos Alcanesulfónicos , Fluorocarburos , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua , Animales , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Flúor , Groenlandia , Islandia , Suecia
12.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(11): 5997-6002, 2020 03 17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32132206

RESUMEN

Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have identified at least 10 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) risk. Most of these SNPs are common variants with small to moderate effect sizes. Here we assessed the combined genetic effects of these variants on PTC risk by using summarized GWAS results to build polygenic risk score (PRS) models in three PTC study groups from Ohio (1,544 patients and 1,593 controls), Iceland (723 patients and 129,556 controls), and the United Kingdom (534 patients and 407,945 controls). A PRS based on the 10 established PTC SNPs showed a stronger predictive power compared with the clinical factors model, with a minimum increase of area under the receiver-operating curve of 5.4 percentage points (P ≤ 1.0 × 10-9). Adding an extended PRS based on 592,475 common variants did not significantly improve the prediction power compared with the 10-SNP model, suggesting that most of the remaining undiscovered genetic risk in thyroid cancer is due to rare, moderate- to high-penetrance variants rather than to common low-penetrance variants. Based on the 10-SNP PRS, individuals in the top decile group of PRSs have a close to sevenfold greater risk (95% CI, 5.4-8.8) compared with the bottom decile group. In conclusion, PRSs based on a small number of common germline variants emphasize the importance of heritable low-penetrance markers in PTC.


Asunto(s)
Biomarcadores de Tumor/genética , Predisposición Genética a la Enfermedad , Herencia Multifactorial , Cáncer Papilar Tiroideo/genética , Neoplasias de la Tiroides/genética , Adulto , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Estudios de Cohortes , Análisis Mutacional de ADN , Femenino , Estudio de Asociación del Genoma Completo , Humanos , Islandia/epidemiología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Modelos Genéticos , Penetrancia , Polimorfismo de Nucleótido Simple , Valor Predictivo de las Pruebas , Curva ROC , Medición de Riesgo/métodos , Factores de Riesgo , Cáncer Papilar Tiroideo/epidemiología , Cáncer Papilar Tiroideo/patología , Glándula Tiroides/patología , Neoplasias de la Tiroides/epidemiología , Neoplasias de la Tiroides/patología , Reino Unido/epidemiología , Estados Unidos/epidemiología
13.
Sci Total Environ ; 721: 137768, 2020 Jun 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32197282

RESUMEN

Pollution of the marine environment by litter composed of plastics is a growing concern. Chemical additives such as organophosphate flame retardants (OPFRs), which are added to plastics to improve their qualities, are in focus because they allegedly cause adverse effects on marine fauna. Here we analyse OPFR levels in the muscle of fin whales because, as a mysticete, this cetacean obtains its food by filter-feeding and is thus highly vulnerable to marine litter. Moreover, the fin whale performs long-range migrations from low-latitude areas in winter to high-latitude areas in summer, a trait that makes it a potentially good large-scale biomonitor of pollution. We also analyse OPFR levels in its main prey, the krill Meganyctiphanes norvegica, to assess transfer through diet. The samples analysed consisted of muscle tissue from 20 fin whales and whole-body homogenates of 10 krill samples, all collected off West Iceland. From the 19 OPFRs analysed, we detected 7 in the fin whale and 5 in the krill samples. Tri-n-butyl phosphate (TNBP), Isopropylated triphenyl phosphate (IPPP) and Triphenylphosphine oxide (TPPO) were the most abundant compounds found in both species. Mean ∑OPFR concentration, expressed on a lipid weight basis, was 985 (SD = 2239) ng g-1 in fin whale muscle, and 949 (SD = 1090) ng g-1 in krill homogenates. These results constitute the first evidence of the presence of OPFRs in the tissues of fin whales. Furthermore, they seem to support the non-significance of bioaccumulation of OPFRs through lifespan and of biomagnification trough the food web.


Asunto(s)
Ballena de Aleta , Retardadores de Llama , Animales , Islandia , Organofosfatos , Plásticos
15.
PLoS One ; 15(3): e0230332, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32182260

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Penicillin non-susceptible (PNSP) and multi-resistant pneumococci have been prevalent in Iceland since early nineties, mainly causing problems in treatment of acute otitis media. The 10-valent protein conjugated pneumococcal vaccine (PHiD-CV) was introduced into the childhood vaccination program in 2011. The aim of the study was to investigate the changes in antimicrobial susceptibility and serotype distribution of penicillin non-susceptible pneumococci (PNSP) in Iceland 2011-2017. METHODS AND FINDINGS: All pneumococcal isolates identified at the Landspítali University Hospital in 2011-2017, excluding isolates from the nasopharynx and throat were studied. Susceptibility testing was done according to the EUCAST guidelines using disk diffusion with chloramphenicol, erythromycin, clindamycin, tetracycline, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole and oxacillin for PNSP screening. Penicillin and ceftriaxone minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) were measured for oxacillin resistant isolates using the E-test. Serotyping was done using latex agglutination and/or multiplex PCR. The total number of pneumococcal isolates that met the study criteria was 1,706, of which 516 (30.2%) were PNSP, and declining with time. PNSP isolates of PHiD-CV vaccine serotypes (VT) were 362/516 (70.2%) declining with time, 132/143 (92.3%) in 2011 and 17/54 (31.5%) in 2017. PNSP were most commonly of serotype 19F, 317/516 isolates declining with time, 124/143 in 2011 and 15/54 in 2017. Their number decreased in all age groups, but mainly in the youngest children. PNSP isolates of non PHiD-CV vaccine serotypes (NVT) were 154/516, increasing with time, 11/14, in 2011 and 37/54 in 2017. The most common emerging NVTs in 2011 and 2017 were 6C, 1/143 and 10/54 respectively. CONCLUSIONS: PNSP of VTs have virtually disappeared from children with pneumococcal diseases after the initiation of pneumococcal vaccination in Iceland and a clear herd effect was observed. This was mainly driven by a decrease of PNSP isolates belonging to a serotype 19F multi-resistant lineage. However, emerging multi-resistant NVT isolates are of concern.


Asunto(s)
Antibacterianos/farmacología , Portador Sano/microbiología , Infecciones Neumocócicas/prevención & control , Vacunas Neumococicas/uso terapéutico , Streptococcus pneumoniae/aislamiento & purificación , Antibacterianos/uso terapéutico , Portador Sano/diagnóstico , Portador Sano/epidemiología , Preescolar , Farmacorresistencia Bacteriana Múltiple , Femenino , Implementación de Plan de Salud/organización & administración , Implementación de Plan de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Islandia/epidemiología , Programas de Inmunización/organización & administración , Programas de Inmunización/estadística & datos numéricos , Esquemas de Inmunización , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Masculino , Pruebas de Sensibilidad Microbiana , Otitis Media , Resistencia a las Penicilinas , Faringe/microbiología , Infecciones Neumocócicas/epidemiología , Infecciones Neumocócicas/microbiología , Evaluación de Programas y Proyectos de Salud , Serotipificación/estadística & datos numéricos , Streptococcus pneumoniae/efectos de los fármacos , Streptococcus pneumoniae/inmunología
16.
Environ Sci Technol ; 54(7): 4295-4304, 2020 04 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32157885

RESUMEN

Geothermal waters often are enriched in trace metal(loid)s, such as arsenic, antimony, molybdenum, and tungsten. The presence of sulfide can lead to the formation of thiolated anions; however, their contributions to total element concentrations typically remain unknown because nonsuitable sample stabilization and chromatographic separation methods convert them to oxyanions. Here, the concurrent widespread occurrence of thioarsenates, thiomolybdates, thiotungstates, and thioantimonates, in sulfide-rich hot springs from Yellowstone National Park and Iceland is shown. More thiolation was generally observed at higher molar sulfide to metal(loid) excess (Iceland > Yellowstone). Thioarsenates were the most prominent and ubiquitous thiolated species, with trithioarsenate typically dominating arsenic speciation. In some Icelandic hot springs, arsenic was nearly quantitatively thiolated. Also, for molybdenum, thioanions dominated over oxyanions in many Icelandic hot springs. For tungsten and antimony, oxyanions typically dominated and thioanions were observed less frequently, but still contributed up to a few tens of percent in some springs. This order of relative abundance (thioarsenates > thiomolybdates > thiotungstates ≈ thioantimonates) was also observed when looking at processes triggering transformation of thioanions such as mixing with non-geothermal waters or H2S degassing and oxidation with increasing distance from a discharge. Even though to different extents, thiolation contributed substantially to speciation of all four elements studied, indicating that their analysis is required when studying geothermal systems.


Asunto(s)
Arsénico , Manantiales de Aguas Termales , Concentración de Iones de Hidrógeno , Islandia , Parques Recreativos
17.
Laeknabladid ; 106(3): 123-129, 2020.
Artículo en Islandés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32124735

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: To maximize the use of intensive care unit (ICU) re--sources, it is important to estimate the prevalence and risk factors for prolonged ICU unit stay after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) surgery. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This retrospective cohort study included all patients who underwent primary isolated CABG at Landspitali between 2001 and 2018. Patient information was collected from hospital charts and death registries. Patients who stayed in the ICU for the conventional one night postoperatively were compared with those who needed longer stays in the ICU. Survival rate was estimated with the Kaplan-Meier method. Predictors for prolonged ICU stay were calculated with logistic regression and the outcome used to create a calculator that estimates the probability of prolonged ICU stay. RESULTS: Out of 2177 patients, 20% required prolonged ICU stay. Patients with prolonged stay were more frequently female (23% vs 16%, p=0.001), had a higher rate of cardiovascular risk factors and higher EuroSCORE II (4.7 vs. 1.9, p<0.001). They also had a higher rate of impaired renal function before surgery (14% vs. 4%, p<0.001) and emergent surgery (18% vs. 2%, p<0.001). Furthermore, these patients had higher rates of both short-term and long-term complications, and lower long-term survival (85% vs 68% five-year survival rate, p<0.0001). Independent risk factors for prolonged ICU stay were advanced age, female gender, EuroSCORE II, history of heart diseases, impaired renal function and emergent surgery.  Conclusions: Every fifth patient had a prolonged ICU stay after CABG. Several risk factors predicted prolonged ICU stay after CABG, in particular patients' medical condition before surgery, EuroSCORE II and emergent surgery. A better understanding of the risk factors for prolonged ICU stay will hopefully aid in scheduling CABG surgeries at Landspitali.


Asunto(s)
Puente de Arteria Coronaria , Enfermedad de la Arteria Coronaria , Unidades de Cuidados Intensivos , Tiempo de Internación , Anciano , Enfermedad de la Arteria Coronaria/cirugía , Femenino , Humanos , Islandia , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Prevalencia , Estudios Retrospectivos , Medición de Riesgo , Factores de Riesgo
18.
Laeknabladid ; 106(3): 139-143, 2020.
Artículo en Islandés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32124737

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Newborn jaundice is caused by increased levels of bilirubin in the blood of the newborn during the first days after birth. Generally, neonatal jaundice does not need to be treated, however, if the blood bilirubin concentration becomes too high, it can cause neurological damage. Due to the prevalence of neonatal jaundice, it is important to assess its risk factors and their importance. This study at the National University Hospital of Iceland from 1997-2018, determines the risk factors for severe neonatal jaundice and their significance. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This was a retrospective case control study conducted at the National University Hospital of Iceland. It included all newborns diagnosed with severe jaundice (≥350 micromol/L) following a pregnancy of at least 37 weeks that were treated at the National University Hospital of Iceland from 1997 until 2018. General information on the pregnancy, health of the child at birth, as well as the diagnosis and treatment of jaundice was collected. 339 children met the inclusion criteria for this study. For each child diagnosed with severe jaundice one control was found. RESULTS: The incidence of severe jaundice from 1997 to 2018 was 0.52%. Of the 339 children, 16% were found to have a known significant risk factor for severe neonatal jaundice. The most common were ABO incompatibility and cephalohematoma. Only one child had severe neonatal jaundice because of Rhesus incompatibility. Regression analysis revealed the significant risk factors as followins: shorter pregnancy, bruising at birth, male gender, discharge before 36 hours after birth and relative weight loss the first five days of life. 33% were diagnosed during a -routine doctor's examination five days after birth. CONCLUSION: Early discharge from the hospital and -relative weight loss the first few days after birth are significant independent risk factors for severe neonatal jaundice. Most cases were diagnosed during a routine doctors five-day check- up. This indicates that there is room for improvement in the evaluation of jaundice in post-natal home care. Monitoring of neonates with Rhesus incompatibility in Iceland exemplary. Boys are at an increased risk for severe neonatal jaundice. It is espe-cially noteworthy given that the negative effect of jaundice on learning ability appears to be greater in boys than in girls.


Asunto(s)
Ictericia Neonatal , Femenino , Humanos , Islandia/epidemiología , Incidencia , Recién Nacido , Ictericia Neonatal/diagnóstico , Ictericia Neonatal/epidemiología , Masculino , Nacimiento Prematuro , Estudios Retrospectivos , Factores de Riesgo , Índice de Severidad de la Enfermedad , Factores Sexuales , Pérdida de Peso
19.
Mar Environ Res ; 154: 104842, 2020 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32056700

RESUMEN

This study aimed to add light-avoidance as a categorizing technique for the study of mesopelagic acoustic layers. Data recorded along the 20° W parallel from 20° N to Iceland showed three types of mesopelagic layers: the non-avoiding non-migrant deep scattering layer (NMDSL), which dropped its intensity toward the north, the avoiding migrating fish layers (MDSL), which were more intense at upwelling areas and toward the north, and a secondary deeper NMDSL at the southern part. Light avoidance was only discernible at 18 kHz within the main NMDSL when this layer was intense, suggesting that migrants are barely seen at 38 kHz when other resonant scatterers occupy these depths. These results highlight the importance of employing the 18 kHz frequency from a vessel borne echosounder or lowered echosounders attached to a probe to study gas-bearing migrants.


Asunto(s)
Acústica , Peces , Agua de Mar , Animales , Océano Atlántico , Islandia , Luz , Agua de Mar/química , Movimientos del Agua
20.
Mar Environ Res ; 155: 104884, 2020 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32072986

RESUMEN

Highly migratory marine species pose a challenge for the identification of management units due to the absence of clear oceanographic barriers. The population structure of North Atlantic fin whales has been investigated since the start of whaling operations but is still the subject of an ongoing scientific debate. Here we measured stable isotopes of carbon, nitrogen and oxygen in skin samples collected from 151 individuals from western Iceland, Galicia (NW Spain), the Azores archipelago and the Strait of Gibraltar (SoG). We found spatiotemporal differences in stable isotope ratios suggesting that fin whales sampled in these four areas may share a common feeding ground within the Northeast Atlantic at different times during the year. Our results also suggest that SoG whales use this common feeding ground in summer but exploit Mediterranean resources during the winter months, further supporting the existence of a limited but current exchange of individuals between these two basins.


Asunto(s)
Ballena de Aleta , Cadena Alimentaria , Animales , Azores , Gibraltar , Islandia , España
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