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1.
Chemosphere ; 242: 125289, 2020 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31896204

RESUMEN

Selenium (Se) and zinc (Zn) are essential microelements for humans with crucial biological functions. In this study, we determined Se and Zn concentrations in soils and rice grains on Hainan Island and investigated how their spatial distributions are related to soil mineral elements, topography, and vegetation coverage. Overall, the concentrations of Se and Zn in soils were higher than the background values for Chinese soil; the Se concentrations in rice grains were higher than the threshold value for Se deficiency in grains, but Zn concentrations were lower than the proposed critical concentration. Both Spearman's correlation and stepwise regression analysis showed that the concentrations of soil Fe and Ca significantly affected soil Se and Zn: a difference of 1 g kg-1 in soil Fe changed soil Se by 2.820 µg kg-1 and soil Zn by 0.785 mg kg-1, respectively, while a difference of 1 g kg-1 in soil Ca changed soil Se by 3.249 µg kg-1 and soil Zn by 0.356 mg kg-1, respectively. For rice grains, Se and Zn concentrations decreased with increasing elevation; every 100 m increase in elevation could decrease Se by 0.022 mg kg-1 and Zn by 0.912 mg kg-1. Moreover, the impact of Fe and Ca on soil Zn was relatively strong in the northeast region, while the influence of elevation on rice grain Se was more significant in the central region. The findings contribute to a better understanding of factors driving the distribution of Se and Zn in soils and crops.


Asunto(s)
Grano Comestible/química , Monitoreo del Ambiente/métodos , Oryza/química , Selenio/análisis , Suelo/química , Zinc/análisis , Altitud , Calcio/análisis , China , Humanos , Hierro/análisis , Islas , Análisis de Regresión , Análisis Espacial
2.
J Environ Manage ; 257: 110006, 2020 Mar 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31989962

RESUMEN

Urban heat island (UHI) phenomena is among the major consequences of the alteration of earth's surface due to human activities. The relatively warmer temperatures in urban areas compared to suburban areas (i.e. UHI) has potential health hazards, such as mortality due to high temperatures and heat waves. In addition, UHI situation demands more energy (e.g. fans and air-conditioners) that would trigger greenhouse gas emissions. Studies on UHI intensity help to assess its impact on urban population, city planning, and urban health planning. This is particularly important for a country like India, where 32% people (~7% of total world population), live in urban areas. We conducted a detailed study on surface UHI intensity (SUHII), which is the difference between urban and surrounding rural land surface temperatures, across all seasons in 44 major cities of India, which shows that mean daytime SUHII is positive (up to 2 °C) for most cities, as analysed from satellite temperature measurements for the period 2000-2017, in contrast to previous studies. However, although statistically insignificant, most cities show a positive trend in SUHII for monsoon and post-monsoon periods, but negative for winter and summer seasons. The increasing night-time SUHII in all seasons for most cities suggest increasing trend in temperature in cities due to the impact of the rapid urbanisation, and thus, suggesting the influence of anthropogenic forcing on SUHII. This is also supported by the analysis of aerosols, night lights, precipitation and vegetation in the study regions. Therefore, this study shall aid planning and management of urban areas by giving insights about the effects of nature and intensity of development, land cover and land use mix and the structure of cities on SUHII.


Asunto(s)
Calor , Urbanización , Ciudades , Humanos , India , Islas
3.
Water Res ; 171: 115440, 2020 Mar 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31955059

RESUMEN

Managing waterborne and water-related diseases is one of the most critical factors in the aftermath of hurricane-induced natural disasters. The goal of the study was to identify water-quality impairments in order to set the priorities for post-hurricane relief and to guide future decisions on disaster preparation and relief administration. Field investigations were carried out on St. Thomas, U.S. Virgin Islands as soon as the disaster area became accessible after the back-to-back hurricane strikes by Irma and Maria in 2017. Water samples were collected from individual household rain cisterns, the coastal ocean, and street-surface runoffs for microbial concentration. The microbial community structure and the occurrence of potential human pathogens were investigated in samples using next generation sequencing. Loop mediated isothermal amplification was employed to detect fecal indicator bacteria, Enterococcus faecalis. The results showed both fecal indicator bacteria and Legionella genetic markers were prevalent but were low in concentration in the water samples. Among the 22 cistern samples, 86% were positive for Legionella and 82% for Escherichia-Shigella. Enterococcus faecalis was detected in over 68% of the rain cisterns and in 60% of the coastal waters (n = 20). Microbial community composition in coastal water samples was significantly different from cistern water and runoff water. Although identification at bacterial genus level is not direct evidence of human pathogens, our results suggest cistern water quality needs more organized attention for protection of human health, and that preparation and prevention measures should be taken before natural disasters strike.


Asunto(s)
Tormentas Ciclónicas , Calidad del Agua , Heces , Humanos , Islas , Lluvia , Islas Virgenes de los Estados Unidos , Microbiología del Agua
4.
Waste Manag ; 102: 587-597, 2020 Feb 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31778970

RESUMEN

Tourism contributes substantially to municipal solid waste generation, yet the waste from tourism systematically remains hidden behind residential waste flows. As a result, municipal fees are set without precise information about waste producers' contributions, causing budget imbalances and cross-subsidies between residential and economic activities. To estimate tourism's contribution to mixed waste generation in an island destination, socio-demographic, economic and disposal-related factors are modelled using municipal panel data from 2004 to 2015 for Tenerife (Spain). In contrast to previous studies, a mixed demand-supply approach is adopted to estimate the contribution of main tourism activities to mixed waste generation, thus, differentiating between tourists and residents' contributions. An auxiliary model is used to isolate employment levels in tourism activities attributable to residents' consumption and to capture tourists' and residents' mobility on the island. Estimates show that main tourism activities generate 0.40 kg of mixed waste per tourist daily, while residential and economic sectors account for 1.19 kg per resident daily. This tourism contribution is significantly lower compared to other studies, as it captures tourism's contribution to mixed waste generation, attributable only to tourists, following a mixed demand-supply approach. These results shift impacts from tourists to main tourism activities, which highlights the choices made by producers rather than the final customers and reinforces the producers extended responsibility principle. The implementation of a Pay-As-You-Throw tariff for mixed waste is discussed as a way of promoting waste prevention and recycling, as well as avoiding cross-subsidies among waste producers and, as a result, imbalances in municipal budgets.


Asunto(s)
Eliminación de Residuos , Administración de Residuos , Islas , Residuos Sólidos , España
5.
Ecol Lett ; 23(2): 305-315, 2020 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31762170

RESUMEN

Geographic isolation substantially contributes to species endemism on oceanic islands when speciation involves the colonisation of a new island. However, less is understood about the drivers of speciation within islands. What is lacking is a general understanding of the geographic scale of gene flow limitation within islands, and thus the spatial scale and drivers of geographical speciation within insular contexts. Using a community of beetle species, we show that when dispersal ability and climate tolerance are restricted, microclimatic variation over distances of only a few kilometres can maintain strong geographic isolation extending back several millions of years. Further to this, we demonstrate congruent diversification with gene flow across species, mediated by Quaternary climate oscillations that have facilitated a dynamic of isolation and secondary contact. The unprecedented scale of parallel species responses to a common environmental driver for evolutionary change has profound consequences for understanding past and future species responses to climate variation.


Asunto(s)
Evolución Biológica , Clima , Flujo Génico , Especiación Genética , Geografía , Islas , Océanos y Mares , Filogenia
6.
Chemosphere ; 239: 124785, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31726533

RESUMEN

The concentrations of total and proportions of organic mercury were measured in tissues of 355 individuals of 8 species of Southern Ocean squid (Alluroteuthis antarcticus, Bathyteuthis abyssicola, Filippovia knipovitchi, Galiteuthis glacialis, Gonatus antarcticus, Kondakovia longimana, Psychroteuthis glacialis and Slosarczykovia circumantarctica). Squid were caught around South Georgia (Scotia Sea) during 5 cruises, between the austral summers of 2006/07 to 2016/17 to evaluate temporal changes in bioaccumulation and tissue partitioning. Total mercury concentrations varied between 4 ng g-1 and 804 ng g-1 among all tissues. Net accumulation of mercury in muscle with size was observed in A. antarcticus, B. abyssicola and P. glacialis, but no relationship was found for S. circumantarctica and lower concentrations were observed in larger individuals of G. glacialis. Muscle tissues had the highest mercury concentrations in the majority of species, except for F. knipovitchi for which the digestive gland contained highest concentrations. In terms of the percentage of organic mercury in the tissues, muscle always contained the highest values (67%-97%), followed by the digestive gland (22%-38%). Lowest organic mercury percentages were found consistently in the gills (9%-19%), suggesting only low levels of incorporation through the dissolved pathway and/or a limited redistribution of dietary organic mercury towards this tissue. Overall, results are indicative of a decreasing trend of mercury concentrations in the majority of analysed species over the last decade. As cephalopods are an important Southern Ocean trophic link between primary consumers and top predators, these changes suggest decreasing mercury levels in lower trophic levels and an alleviation of the mercury burden on higher predators that consume squid.


Asunto(s)
Decapodiformes/química , Monitoreo del Ambiente/métodos , Mercurio/análisis , Músculos/química , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/análisis , Animales , Cadena Alimentaria , Islas , Océanos y Mares , Alimentos Marinos/análisis
7.
Sci Total Environ ; 700: 134527, 2020 Jan 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31629262

RESUMEN

This study presents an overview of the air pollution levels in the Maltese Islands including trends in particulate matter (PM), ozone (O3) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) at four monitoring stations in Malta and one in Gozo between 2008 and 2017. In addition, the health impacts associated with long-term exposure to annual mean PM2.5 and NO2 are estimated at each site. Irrespective of the site, PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations show statistically significant decreasing trends while statistically significant increasing trends are noted for the coarse fraction, PM2.5-10 and O3. Trends for the different pollutants vary for each site and differ from the overall trend both in magnitude and sign especially for NO2 concentrations. The attributable fraction (AF) associated with long-term exposure to PM2.5 and NO2 ranges from 0.67% (CI: 0.27%,1.07%) in Gharb to 11.79% (CI: 7.77,15.45) in Msida (2011). The corresponding attributable mortality is estimated to reach a maximum of 119 (CI: 78,156) attributable deaths associated with long-term exposure to PM2.5 in Msida in 2011. This paper thus highlights the importance of continuous air quality monitoring in distinctively different conurbations especially for pollutants showing increasing trends and is the first to outline the potential long-term health effects of air pollutant concentrations in the Maltese Islands.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Atmosféricos/análisis , Contaminación del Aire/estadística & datos numéricos , Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Islas , Estudios Longitudinales , Malta , Dióxido de Nitrógeno/análisis , Ozono/análisis , Material Particulado/análisis
8.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 30(12): 4249-4258, 2019 Dec.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31840471

RESUMEN

According to the fishery resources investigation data in the east of the Nanji Islands during autumn in 2017 and spring in 2018, the inter-specific relationships and ecological relationships between major nekton were analyzed via the index of relative importance, niche breadth, cluster analysis, niche overlap, χ2-test, variance ratio test, association coefficient, percentage of co-occurrence, and point correlation coefficients. The results showed that there were 30 major nekton species in this area. The dominant species were Harpadon nehereus, Portunus trituberculatus, and Oratosquilla oratoria. The niche width of these dominant species was relatively wide. Based on the cluster analysis of niche breadth, the 30 major nekton species could be divided into three categories, wide niche breadth species, moderate niche breath species, and narrow niche breath species. The distribution range of niche overlap value was [0, 0.98], indicating that there were differences in the similarity of species to resource utilization and that the niche was differentiated and accompanied by inter-specific competition. The values of VR and W showed that there was a significant positive correlation among the major nekton species. The χ2-test results indicated significantly interspecific association for 76 species pair (χ2≥3.841), which was related to community stability and species coexistence. Results of association coefficient, percentage of co-occurrence and point correlation coefficients test suggested that the interspecific association was strong and tended to be positive.


Asunto(s)
Ecosistema , Explotaciones Pesqueras , Animales , Peces , Islas , Estaciones del Año
9.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 30(11): 3707-3715, 2019 Nov.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31833683

RESUMEN

We compared the ecological characteristics of tussock individuals and populations undergoing natural and artificial restoration in Carex tussock wetlands in the Sun Island in Harbin and identified the relationships between the growth of Carex tussock and environmental factors. Results showed that there were obvious seasonal dynamics in morphological characteristics of C. appendiculata. Tussocks grew rapidly from May to June, peaked in June, and then decreased steadily from July to August. There were significant differences in ecological characteristics of Carex tussocks between natural and artificial restorations. The morphological characteristics of individual tussock, including leaf area, leaf width, fresh weight per ramet, dry weight per ramet, and the hummock shape indicators (hummock height, diameter, volume and surface area) in natural restored area were significantly higher than those in artificial transplanting area. For the Carex tussock community, tussock density, coverage and biomass in natural restoration area were significantly lower than those in artificial transplanting area. Soil water content, water depth and hummock spacing in natural restoration area were significantly higher than those in artificial restoration area, which facilitated the formation and development of individual tussock. Higher transplanting density was the main factor leading to higher density, coverage, and biomass in artificial restoration area. Our results suggested that the distribution characteristics of tussocks in natural restoration area should be taken into account in future restoration and protection works. Appropriate adjustment of the distance between hummock (54.22-117.89 cm) and population density (1.9-3.1 ind·m-2), as well as proper water recharge measures in spring in arid areas to regulate soil water content and water depth, would be conducive to promoting the growth and rapid recovery of Carex tussock, which would maintain the long-term health and stability of tussock wetland.


Asunto(s)
Carex (Planta) , Ecología , Islas , Suelo , Humedales
10.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 30(11): 3875-3884, 2019 Nov.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31833701

RESUMEN

We quantitatively evaluated Thousand-Island Lake's aquatic ecosystem service value and analyzed its developing trend at the whole lake scale. We built an index system to evaluate the ecosystem service of Thousand-Island Lake, which included 16 indicators of 10 categories. The results showed that the total value of ecosystem services of Thousand-Island Lake was 49.3 billion and 57.2 billion yuan in 2007 and 2017, respectively. The highest value of Thousand-Island Lake's ecosystem service was its regulating function, which played an absolutely dominant role. Ranked according to their values, different functions of the final ecosystem services were in a descending order of floodwater regulation, surface water regulation, carbon sequestration (reduction), oxygen generation, tourism, water purification, fishing, energy saving through water source heat pump, water for hydropower, agriculture, forestry and animal husbandry uses of water resources, ecological and public use of water resources, water source for industrial use, volume of freight transportation, water source for city resident use, water circulation cooling, and passenger transportation. Thousand-Island Lake provided a total ecosystem services value of 86.0 million and 99.8 million yuan·km-2, which was 47.6 and 17.3 times as the GDP per area in Chun'an County in 2007 and 2017.


Asunto(s)
Ecosistema , Lagos , Animales , China , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Islas
11.
Pol J Microbiol ; 68(4): 449-456, 2019 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31880889

RESUMEN

There is an increased demand for molecular and epidemiological information regarding Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) infection as the disease severity depends on these specifications. We have aimed to analyze nucleos(t)ide analogues (NA) resistance and typical HBsAg escape mutations with the dispersion of HBV genotype/subgenotype/HBsAg serotypes on overlapping pol/S gene regions in the Turkish population. Samples were collected in Northern Cyprus. Reverse transcriptase (rt) region between 80-250 amino acids were amplified. Typical HBsAg escape mutations were determined as HBIg escape (6.48%), vaccine escape (8.34%), HBsAg misdiagnosis (9.25%), and immune escape mutations (8.34%). NAs resistances were determined as primary (2.78%), partial (2.78%), and compensatory mutations (26.85%) in overlapping pol/S gene region. The study patients were predominantly infected with HBV genotype D/D1 (98%). However, the predominant HBsAg serotype was ayw2 (99%). The most common NA resistance mutation was rtQ215H/P/S (16.67%), however, for S gene the misdiagnosis mutations were observed most frequently (9.25%). We can conclude that HBV D/D1 is the dominant strain and ayw2 is the dominant serotype in the Turkish Cypriot. Cyprus is an island located in the Eastern Mediterranean region, and it is, therefore, a key location for human trafficking and immigration; as a result of this reputation, it is necessary to analyze HBV phylogenetically for local dynamics, and our results indicate that treatment naïve population is prone to these pol/S gene mutations. However, if HBV strains were also analyzed among Greek Cypriots too, this would enable a complete island survey. With this work, we believe that we have enlightened this subject for further research.There is an increased demand for molecular and epidemiological information regarding Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) infection as the disease severity depends on these specifications. We have aimed to analyze nucleos(t)ide analogues (NA) resistance and typical HBsAg escape mutations with the dispersion of HBV genotype/subgenotype/HBsAg serotypes on overlapping pol/S gene regions in the Turkish population. Samples were collected in Northern Cyprus. Reverse transcriptase (rt) region between 80­250 amino acids were amplified. Typical HBsAg escape mutations were determined as HBIg escape (6.48%), vaccine escape (8.34%), HBsAg misdiagnosis (9.25%), and immune escape mutations (8.34%). NAs resistances were determined as primary (2.78%), partial (2.78%), and compensatory mutations (26.85%) in overlapping pol/S gene region. The study patients were predominantly infected with HBV genotype D/D1 (98%). However, the predominant HBsAg serotype was ayw2 (99%). The most common NA resistance mutation was rtQ215H/P/S (16.67%), however, for S gene the misdiagnosis mutations were observed most frequently (9.25%). We can conclude that HBV D/D1 is the dominant strain and ayw2 is the dominant serotype in the Turkish Cypriot. Cyprus is an island located in the Eastern Mediterranean region, and it is, therefore, a key location for human trafficking and immigration; as a result of this reputation, it is necessary to analyze HBV phylogenetically for local dynamics, and our results indicate that treatment naïve population is prone to these pol/S gene mutations. However, if HBV strains were also analyzed among Greek Cypriots too, this would enable a complete island survey. With this work, we believe that we have enlightened this subject for further research.


Asunto(s)
Virus de la Hepatitis B/genética , Virus de la Hepatitis B/aislamiento & purificación , Hepatitis B/virología , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Niño , ADN Viral/genética , Femenino , Genotipo , Antígenos de Superficie de la Hepatitis B/genética , Virus de la Hepatitis B/clasificación , Humanos , Islas/epidemiología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Epidemiología Molecular , Mutación , Filogenia , Turquia/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
12.
Pol J Microbiol ; 68(4): 527-539, 2019 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31880896

RESUMEN

Ulleungdo and Dokdo are volcanic islands with an oceanic climate located off the eastern coast of South Korea. In the present study, we used barcoded Illumina MiSeq to analyze eukaryotic microalgal genera collected from Seonginbong, the highest peak on Ulleungdo, and from groundwater sites on Dongdo and Seodo Islands, which are part of Dokdo. Species richness was significantly greater in the Seonginbong samples than in the Dongdo and Seodo samples, with 834 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) identified from Seonginbong compared with 203 OTUs and 182 OTUs from Dongdo and Seodo, respectively. Taxonomic composition analysis was also used to identify the dominant microalgal phyla at each of the three sites, with Chlorophyta (green algae) the most abundant phyla on Seonginbong and Dongdo, and Bacillariophyta (diatoms) the most abundant on Seodo. These findings suggest that differences in the abundances of Chlorophyta and Bacillariophyta species in the Seonginbong, Dongdo, and Seodo samples are due to variations in species richness and freshwater resources at each sampling location. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report to detail freshwater microalgal communities on Ulleungdo and Dokdo. As such, the number of species identified in the Seonginbong, Dongdo, and Seodo samples might be an indicator of the ecological differences among these sites and varying characteristics of their microbial communities. Information regarding the microalgal communities also provides a basis for understanding the ecological interactions between microalgae species and other eukaryotic microorganisms.Ulleungdo and Dokdo are volcanic islands with an oceanic climate located off the eastern coast of South Korea. In the present study, we used barcoded Illumina MiSeq to analyze eukaryotic microalgal genera collected from Seonginbong, the highest peak on Ulleungdo, and from groundwater sites on Dongdo and Seodo Islands, which are part of Dokdo. Species richness was significantly greater in the Seonginbong samples than in the Dongdo and Seodo samples, with 834 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) identified from Seonginbong compared with 203 OTUs and 182 OTUs from Dongdo and Seodo, respectively. Taxonomic composition analysis was also used to identify the dominant microalgal phyla at each of the three sites, with Chlorophyta (green algae) the most abundant phyla on Seonginbong and Dongdo, and Bacillariophyta (diatoms) the most abundant on Seodo. These findings suggest that differences in the abundances of Chlorophyta and Bacillariophyta species in the Seonginbong, Dongdo, and Seodo samples are due to variations in species richness and freshwater resources at each sampling location. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report to detail freshwater microalgal communities on Ulleungdo and Dokdo. As such, the number of species identified in the Seonginbong, Dongdo, and Seodo samples might be an indicator of the ecological differences among these sites and varying characteristics of their microbial communities. Information regarding the microalgal communities also provides a basis for understanding the ecological interactions between microalgae species and other eukaryotic microorganisms.


Asunto(s)
Microalgas/aislamiento & purificación , Chlorophyta/clasificación , Chlorophyta/genética , Diatomeas/clasificación , Diatomeas/genética , Diatomeas/aislamiento & purificación , Agua Dulce/análisis , Islas , Microalgas/clasificación , Microalgas/genética , Filogenia , Análisis de Secuencia de ADN
13.
Zootaxa ; 4612(2): zootaxa.4612.2.3, 2019 May 29.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31717065

RESUMEN

Limnephilus minos Malicky 1970 is a micro-endemic caddisfly restricted to the Greek island of Crete. Mesophylax impunctatus aduncus (Navás 1923) is known from Turkey and the southern Balkan peninsula; Greek records range from islands close to the mainland and Skiros to the northern mainland, and Attica. This paper describes the previously unknown larvae of both taxa. Information on the morphology of the 5th larval instar of each taxon is given, and the most important diagnostic characters are illustrated. A discriminatory matrix for the Greek limnephilid larvae with multifilament gills is also provided. In the context of existing identification keys, the larva of L. minos belongs to the group of Limnephilini larvae where face setae are lacking on the mid- and/or hind femora; the species keys together with L. auricula Curtis 1834 and can be separated from the latter species by setae present between the primary setae on the distal section of mid- and hind trochanters. In contrast, face setae are present on the mid- and/or hind femora in M. impunctatus aduncus. Its larva can be easily identified by the fact that 3 or more ventral-edge setae are present on the midfemur, by setae present on both sides of the anal slit, and by its grazer-type mandible lacking terminal teeth.


Asunto(s)
Branquias , Insectos , Animales , Peninsula Balcánica , Grecia , Islas , Larva , Turquia
14.
Zootaxa ; 4610(1): zootaxa.4610.1.1, 2019 May 27.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31717090

RESUMEN

An initial contribution to the revision of the genus Dziriblatta Chopard, 1936a, formerly synonymized erroneously with Lobolampra Houlbert, 1927, is presented. The species of the genus, hitherto placed in the subgenera Phyllodromica, Arbiblatta Chopard, 1936a and Lobolampra Houlbbert, 1927, of the genus Phyllodromica Fieber 1853, are distributed on the northern Macaronesian Islands, in southern Spain, North Africa, and the Near East (Israel, Cyprus). The genus is divided into nine new subgenera: Autumnoblatta subgen. nov., Blattantis subgen. nov., Discleroblatta subgen. nov., Dziriblatta subgen. nov., Macaroblatta subgen. nov., Monoscleroblatta subgen. nov., Pauciscleroblatta subgen. nov., Sculptoblatta subgen. nov., and Sulcoblatta subgen. nov.. The characteristics of the genus and its subgenera are described including also a determination key which allows the discrimination of the subgenera in both sexes. The presumable phylogenetic position of the genus and the relationships between the subgenera are discussed and shown in cladograms. The described species and their distribution are shown in numerous figures and distribution maps, respectively.Three new species are described: Dziriblatta (Sculptoblatta) prisca spec. nov., Dziriblatta (Autumnoblatta) nasuta spec. nov., and Dziriblatta (Macaroblatta) dendroglandulosa spec. nov. Nomenclatory changes: The species Blatta carpetana Bolívar, 1873, is designated as lectotype for the subgenus Lobolampra Houlbert, 1927. New synonyms: Aphlebia cazurroi Bolívar, 1885, is a junior synonym of Dziriblatta algerica (Bolívar, 1881); Dziriblatta theryi Chopard, 1936a, Hololampra finoti Bolívar, 1914, and Lobolampra adelungi Chopard, 1943, are synonyms of Dz. (Pauciscleroblatta) kroumiriensis (Adelung, 1914); Dz. vicina Chopard, 1936b, is a synonym of Dz. (Monoscleroblatta) merrakescha (Adelung, 1914).


Asunto(s)
Blattellidae , África del Norte , Distribución Animal , Animales , Chipre , Femenino , Islas , Israel , Masculino , Medio Oriente , Filogenia , España
15.
Zootaxa ; 4609(1): zootaxa.4609.1.1, 2019 May 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31717117

RESUMEN

Siargao Island is located on the southeastern part of the Philippines. We have very little knowledge on the Orthoptera from this island which is covered with forest over limestone, open vegetation, and mangrove, despite being designated as one of the terrestrial Key Biodiversity Areas (KBAs) in the Philippines. We conducted surveys in 2018 to search for orthopterans. In total, thirty-seven species from 34 genera were found. Seventeen species are recorded in Siargao Island for the first time, representing 45.9% of all collected species, thus, validating that orthopterans in the island are indeed overlooked. Out of the 37 species, 21 of these are endemic to the Philippines and 9 are endemic to Siargao Island, hence suggesting that species on the island can be biologically significant..                We also observed that a huge proportion of the species in Siargao Island are fully winged and capable of flight, but most species are small sized. We also provide taxonomic notes and illustrations, including descriptions of the male Segestidea punctipennis Bolívar, 1903 and female Eumecopoda reducta Hebard, 1922 for the first time. We inferred that species from Siargao Island are closely associated with Sundaland and for within Philippines, Mindanao and Luzon.


Asunto(s)
Ortópteros , Animales , Asia Sudoriental , Biodiversidad , Femenino , Islas , Masculino , Filipinas
16.
Zootaxa ; 4609(1): zootaxa.4609.1.2, 2019 May 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31717118

RESUMEN

Eleven species including six new species of Gnathiidae (Crustacea, Isopoda, Cymothoida) are reported from the Heron Island and Wistari Reef, Capricorn Group, southern Great Barrier Reef: Elaphognathia queenslandica sp. nov., Gnathia acrorudus sp. nov., Gnathia capricornica sp. nov., Gnathia carinodenta sp. nov., Gnathia formosa sp. nov. and Gnathia glaucostega sp. nov. Gnathia cornuta Holdich Harrison, 1980 and Gnathia grutterae Ferreira, Smit Davies, 2010 are for the first time reported from Heron Island and new records from Heron Island are provided for Gnathia biorbis Holdich Harrison, 1980, Gnathia variobranchia Holdich Harrison, 1980, and Gnathia wistari Svavarsson Bruce, 2012.


Asunto(s)
Isópodos , Animales , Aves , Islas
17.
Zootaxa ; 4608(2): zootaxa.4608.2.1, 2019 May 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31717144

RESUMEN

The Lesser Antilles, in the Eastern Caribbean, were long considered to have only two species in the genus Iguana Laurenti 1768: the Lesser Antillean iguana Iguana delicatissima, which is endemic to parts of the Lesser Antilles, and the Common green iguana Iguana iguana, which also occurs throughout Central and South America. No subspecies are currently recognised. However, herpetologists and reptile collectors have pointed out strong physical differences between some of the island populations of Iguana iguana and those from the continent. Drawing on both morphological and genetic data, this paper describes two subspecies of the Common green iguana Iguana iguana from the southern Lesser Antilles, specifically the countries of Saint Lucia Iguana iguana sanctaluciae and Iguana iguana insularis from St Vincent the Grenadines, and Grenada. The form on the island of Saint Vincent has not been identified. The new subspecies are described based on the following unique combination of characters: Presence of high median and medium to small lateral horns on the snout; Small subtympanic plate not exceeding 20% of the eardrum size; Two or three scales of decreasing size anterior to the subtympanic plate; Fewer than ten small to medium triangular gular spikes; Medium sized dewlap; Low number of small to medium dispersed nuchal tubercles; Dark brown iris, with the white of the eye visible; Oval, prominent nostril; Short and relatively flat head; High dorsal spines; No swelling of the jowls in reproductively active males.                Iguana iguana sanctaluciae has in adults vertical black stripes on body and tail and a black dewlap whereas Iguana iguana insularis is pale grey or creamy white in adults.                Both subspecies are globally threatened by unsustainable hunting (including the pet trade) and by invasive alien species,     including hybridization from invasive iguanas from South and Central America (I. iguana iguana and I. rhinolopha, considered here as full species) that have become established in all three countries. The authors call for stronger measures to conserve the remaining purebred Iguana i. insularis and Iguana i. sanctaluciae ssp. nov. throughout their ranges and for further research to identify other cryptic species and subspecies of Iguana in the Lesser Antilles.


Asunto(s)
Iguanas , Animales , Región del Caribe , Islas , Masculino
18.
Zootaxa ; 4608(1): zootaxa.4608.1.9, 2019 May 17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31717166

RESUMEN

We describe a new species of rock gecko of the genus Cnemaspis from Java, Indonesia, representing the first record of the genus for this Island. The new species was collected from the southern slopes of Gunung Muria, a dormant volcano in Central Java. The new species is easily distinguished from all congeners by having a maximum SVL of 58.1 mm in males and 56.9 mm in females; a pair of sharp conical tubercle clusters on the occiput; a warty bridge on the nuchal loop, extending from the upper tympanum and curving to the nape; dorsal tubercles not linearly arranged; 18-20 paravertebral tubercles; postmentals separated by one scale; gular, pectoral and abdominal scales, ventral scales of fore- and hindlimbs, and subcaudal scales keeled; no tubercles on lower flank; precloacal and femoral pores absent; enlarged submetacarpal scales present on the first digit of the manus; 38-40 ventral scales; 31-35 lamellae under fourth toe; two postcloacal tubercles on each side; enlarged median subcaudal scales row present; caudal tubercles encircling tail; and a sexually dimorphic ventral color pattern, with males having a yellow belly and females white and the ventral surface of the tail in males yellow proximally changing to white at mid-length, whereas in females, alternating black and white rings completely encircle the tail, which is black distally.


Asunto(s)
Lagartos , Distribución Animal , Estructuras Animales , Animales , Tamaño Corporal , Ecosistema , Femenino , Indonesia , Islas , Masculino
19.
Zootaxa ; 4604(3): zootaxa.4604.3.10, 2019 May 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31717184

RESUMEN

The Ryukyu Archipelago of Japan is a recognized global biodiversity hotspot with many endemic species. However, our knowledge of the termite fauna of the Ryukyu Archipelago is insufficient. Here, we report a new species of endemic drywood termite (Kalotermitidae) from the Ryukyu Archipelago. Our systematic study of the genus Neotermes (Isoptera: Kalotermitidae) from the Ryukyu-Taiwan Island arc using molecular and morphological methods found that N. koshunensis had also been composed of a second cryptic species, N. sugioi sp. nov. These two species are distributed allopatrically in the Ryukyu-Taiwan Island arc, with the former only in Taiwan and the latter only in the Ryukyu Archipelago. Our discovery of a new drywood termite species from the Ryukyu Archipelago suggests that both morphological and molecular assessments of the species now considered to be distributed widely in the Ryukyu-Taiwan Island arc are needed to clarify the termite fauna of the Ryukyu Archipelago. [Species Zoobank registration: http://zoobank.org/urn:lsid:zoobank.org:pub:E8C9693A-E24F-445D-8445-320564565964].


Asunto(s)
Isópteros , Animales , Islas , Japón , Taiwán
20.
Zootaxa ; 4603(3): zootaxa.4603.3.4, 2019 May 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31717214

RESUMEN

Based on new material, the new species of the genus Cryptodius is described: C. sakhalinensis sp. nov. from north-east shelf of Sakhalin Island. Keys to the world species of the genus Cryptodius is provided. Cladistic analysis of morphological relationships within genera Cryptodius and Odius are implemented.


Asunto(s)
Anfípodos , Animales , Lejano Oriente , Islas , Federación de Rusia
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