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1.
Zootaxa ; 5138(3): 339-346, 2022 May 18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36095832

RESUMEN

The genus Thirumalaia Zettel Laciny, 2021 (Veliidae: Microveliinae) was recently established with one Indian species. Here, a new species, T. kaara sp. nov., from Ishigaki-jima Island and Iriomote-jima Island, Ryukyu, Japan is described. Additionally, the distribution of the genus is updated and laboratory rearing information of the immature stages of T. kaara sp. nov. are provided.


Asunto(s)
Heterópteros , Animales , Islas , Japón , Laboratorios
2.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(37): e2208629119, 2022 Sep 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36067289

RESUMEN

Insular woodiness (IW)-the evolutionary transition from herbaceousness toward woodiness on islands-is one of the most iconic features of island floras. Since pioneering work by Darwin and Wallace, a number of drivers of IW have been proposed, such as 1) competition for sunlight requiring plants with taller and stronger woody stems and 2) drought favoring woodiness to safeguard root-to-shoot water transport. Alternatively, IW may be the indirect result of increased lifespan related to 3) a favorable aseasonal climate and/or 4) a lack of large native herbivores. However, information on the occurrence of IW is fragmented, hampering tests of these potential drivers. Here, we identify 1,097 insular woody species on 375 islands and infer at least 175 evolutionary transitions on 31 archipelagos, concentrated in six angiosperm families. Structural equation models reveal that the insular woody species richness on oceanic islands correlates with a favorable aseasonal climate, followed by increased drought and island isolation (approximating competition). When continental islands are also included, reduced herbivory pressure by large native mammals, increased drought, and island isolation are most relevant. Our results illustrate different trajectories leading to rampant convergent evolution toward IW and further emphasize archipelagos as natural laboratories of evolution, where similar abiotic or biotic conditions replicated evolution of similar traits.


Asunto(s)
Islas , Madera , Evolución Biológica , Clima , Océanos y Mares , Plantas
3.
Zootaxa ; 5165(2): 274-286, 2022 Jul 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36095468

RESUMEN

A few samples of benthic hydroids from the remote Kerguelen Islands have been studied. The material was collected within the French research program ProteKer in 2013 and 2014. Six species were found in the material, four anthoathecates and two leptothecates; two of the species were identified only to genus level. All species, including Candelabrum bitentaculatum sp. nov., are described and discussed.


Asunto(s)
Hidrozoos , Distribución Animal , Animales , Océano Índico , Islas
4.
Zootaxa ; 5155(1): 124-132, 2022 Jun 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36095592

RESUMEN

The Philippine species of the genus Calligaster de Saussure, 1852 are reviewed. Two species are recorded: C. ilocana Selis, sp. nov. and C. williamsi Bequaert, 1940. Calligaster zetteli Gusenleitner, 2006 is recognized as a synonym of Pseudozumia gracilis van der Vecht, 1963 syn. nov. New distributional records and a key to species are provided.


Asunto(s)
Avispas , Distribución Animal , Animales , Islas , Filipinas
5.
Proc Biol Sci ; 289(1980): 20221105, 2022 08 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35946156

RESUMEN

The presence of migratory birds on islands results in seasonal variation in species richness. These patterns and their geographical correlates within the context of island biogeography theory have not been examined. We used 21 years of bird observations on 690 islands from eBird to determine how seasonal species richness estimates vary as a function of island area, isolation and latitude. Species richness was highest on islands within the northern mid-latitudes during migration and on islands within tropical latitudes during the non-breeding season. Area defined positive, nonlinear relationships with species richness across seasons, with the steepest slopes occurring with islands greater than 1100 km2. Distance to mainland defined negative, nonlinear relationships with species richness across seasons, with the strongest slopes occurring with islands located greater than 150 km from the mainland. Species-area relationships were weakest for the most remote islands and strongest for islands at intermediate distances to the mainland. Intermediate proximity to other islands was a poor predictor of species richness. Our findings emphasize the presence of seasonally dynamic geographical relationships, the enhanced role of evolutionary processes on larger islands, the unique ecology of the world's most remote islands, and the importance of islands as stopover sites and wintering grounds for migratory bird species.


Asunto(s)
Biodiversidad , Aves , Animales , Geografía , Islas , Estaciones del Año
6.
Genome Biol Evol ; 14(9)2022 09 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36017802

RESUMEN

Stony corals often harbor intracellular photosynthetic dinoflagellate algae that receive dissolved inorganic nutrients. However, Dendrophyllia cribrosa is a nonsymbiotic stony coral distributed in the western Pacific. We assembled a chromosome-level D. cribrosa genome using PacBio and Hi-C technologies. The final assembly was 625 Mb, distributed on 14 chromosomes, and contained 30,493 protein-coding genes. The Benchmarking Universal Single-Copy Orthologs analysis revealed a percentage of 96.8 of the metazoan genome. A comparative phylogenetic analysis revealed that D. cribrosa, which lacks symbionts, evolved to acquire cellular energy by expanding genes related to acyl-CoA metabolism and carbohydrate transporters. This species also has expanded immune-related genes involved in the receptor protein tyrosine kinase signaling pathway. In addition, we observed a specific expansion of calcification genes, such as coral acid-rich proteins and carbonic anhydrase, in D. cribrosa. This high-quality reference genome and comparative analysis provides insights into the ecology and evolution of nonsymbiotic stony corals.


Asunto(s)
Antozoos , Animales , Antozoos/genética , Especies en Peligro de Extinción , Genómica , Islas , Filogenia
7.
J Helminthol ; 96: e51, 2022 Jul 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35856271

RESUMEN

The influence of climate on parasite distribution has been demonstrated in different regions worldwide. Despite its small size, Gran Canaria (Canary Islands, Spain) constitutes a 'biodiversity laboratory' due to the huge climatic differences between municipalities. Feral cats may represent a threat to biodiversity due to their predatory behaviour. In addition, they may be a source of pathogens zoonotic to humans. To study the climatic/seasonal influence and prevalence of feral cat parasites throughout the island, a total of 290 stool samples from 29 feral cat colonies were analysed following standard concentration protocols (sodium chloride, formol-ether and zinc sulphate). In total, 13 feline parasitic taxa were found, with the most common species being Ancylostoma spp., which, together with Toxocara spp., Toxoplasma gondii and Giardia spp., are considered a concern for human health. Nematodes were the most common parasites in all areas. Nematodes and protozoans were significantly more prevalent in temperate mild (75.0% and 30.0%) than in dry desert areas (29.3% and 18.7%). In contrast, cestodes were significantly more prevalent in dry desert than in temperate mild areas (26.0% and 13.3%). Only protozoans exhibited statistically significant seasonal patterns, mostly in the wet season. Data reported in this study endorse the usage of small and diverse islands such as Gran Canaria to study the climatic influence on parasitic communities in wild/feral animals. Cat colonies require better management to reduce their threat to endemic wildlife, domestic animals and public health, being invasive species that harbour zoonotic parasites.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades de los Gatos , Parásitos , Animales , Animales Salvajes , Enfermedades de los Gatos/epidemiología , Gatos , Ecosistema , Humanos , Islas , Zoonosis/epidemiología , Zoonosis/parasitología
8.
Environ Monit Assess ; 194(7): 479, 2022 Jun 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35666327

RESUMEN

The rapid coastal development in the Andaman Islands has resulted in littoral habitat degradation. Understanding the performances of marine biotic indices and the interpretation and translation of those results into coastal health assessment could become an integral tool in future monitoring and management policies. In this line of efforts, the ecological quality status of three sandy beaches, two urban and one nonurban, was evaluated by using three marine biotic indices. The faunal community belonged to moderately well-sorted fine sand biocenosis. The relatively high species richness (15.9 ± 0.80 taxa sample-1) and moderate abundance (563 ± 38.8 ind.m-2) were features of the benthic fauna. The urban beaches (Aberdeen Bay and Carbyn's Cove) corresponded to tolerant benthic communities. Malacoceros indicus, Grandidierella megnae and Scolelepis squamata (tolerant species), and Ampelisca diadema (indifferent species) were the major constituents of urban beaches, while Scoloplos capensis, Urothoe grimaldii, and Urothoe platydactyla (sensitive species) were important at the nonurban beach (Wandoor). The high-good quality status prevailed across the spatial and temporal scales except for Carbyn's cove beach, where good-poor status was noticed. The M-AMBI appeared to be the most robust measure in distinguishing the impact between the urban and nonurban beaches. The constrained ordinations revealed a gradient of disturbance across the beaches. The distinct patterns of sample segregation were the result of the ecological response. This attempt should be considered a comprehensive measure of quality assessment of beaches under human pressure and draw a parallel line of evidence to global studies on sandy beaches.


Asunto(s)
Poliquetos , Arena , Animales , Playas , Ecosistema , Monitoreo del Ambiente/métodos , Humanos , Islas
9.
Nature ; 606(7913): 329-334, 2022 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35650439

RESUMEN

The sexual strain of the planarian Schmidtea mediterranea, indigenous to Tunisia and several Mediterranean islands, is a hermaphrodite1,2. Here we isolate individual chromosomes and use sequencing, Hi-C3,4 and linkage mapping to assemble a chromosome-scale genome reference. The linkage map reveals an extremely low rate of recombination on chromosome 1. We confirm suppression of recombination on chromosome 1 by genotyping individual sperm cells and oocytes. We show that previously identified genomic regions that maintain heterozygosity even after prolonged inbreeding make up essentially all of chromosome 1. Genome sequencing of individuals isolated in the wild indicates that this phenomenon has evolved specifically in populations from Sardinia and Corsica. We find that most known master regulators5-13 of the reproductive system are located on chromosome 1. We used RNA interference14,15 to knock down a gene with haplotype-biased expression, which led to the formation of a more pronounced female mating organ. On the basis of these observations, we propose that chromosome 1 is a sex-primed autosome primed for evolution into a sex chromosome.


Asunto(s)
Evolución Molecular , Islas , Planarias , Reproducción , Cromosomas Sexuales , Animales , Mapeo Cromosómico , Femenino , Genoma/genética , Endogamia , Masculino , Planarias/genética , Cromosomas Sexuales/genética
10.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(12)2022 Jun 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35742848

RESUMEN

Heat shock protein 20 (Hsp20) is a major family of heat shock proteins that mainly function as molecular chaperones and are markedly accumulated in cells when organisms are subjected to environmental stress, particularly heat. Canavalia rosea is an extremophile halophyte with good adaptability to environmental high temperature and is widely distributed in coastal areas or islands in tropical and subtropical regions. In this study, we identified a total of 41 CrHsp20 genes in the C. rosea genome. The gene structures, phylogenetic relationships, chromosome locations, and conserved motifs of each CrHsp20 or encoding protein were analyzed. The promoters of CrHsp20s contained a series of predicted cis-acting elements, which indicates that the expression of different CrHsp20 members is regulated precisely. The expression patterns of the CrHsp20 family were analyzed by RNA sequencing both at the tissue-specific level and under different abiotic stresses, and were further validated by quantitative reverse transcription PCR. The integrated expression profiles of the CrHsp20s indicated that most CrHsp20 genes were greatly upregulated (up to dozens to thousands of times) after 2 h of heat stress. However, some of the heat-upregulated CrHsp20 genes showed completely different expression patterns in response to salt, alkaline, or high osmotic stresses, which indicates their potential specific function in mediating the response of C. rosea to abiotic stresses. In addition, some of CrHsp20s were cloned and functionally characterized for their roles in abiotic stress tolerance in yeast. Taken together, these findings provide a foundation for functionally characterizing Hsp20s to unravel their possible roles in the adaptation of this species to tropical coral reefs. Our results also contribute to the understanding of the complexity of the response of CrHsp20 genes to other abiotic stresses and may help in future studies evaluating the functional characteristics of CrHsp20s for crop genetic improvement.


Asunto(s)
Antozoos , Proteínas de Choque Térmico , Animales , Antozoos/genética , Antozoos/metabolismo , Canavalia/metabolismo , Regulación de la Expresión Génica de las Plantas , Proteínas de Choque Térmico/genética , Proteínas de Choque Térmico/metabolismo , Islas , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Estrés Fisiológico/genética
11.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 180: 113751, 2022 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35597002

RESUMEN

Molecular genetic studies of stools were performed to assess the spread of some clinically relevant antimicrobial resistance determinants (ARD) in a gentoo penguin (Pygoscelis papua) and an Antarctic fur seal (Arctocephalus gazella) on Livingston Island. Glycopeptide resistance genes (vanA/vanD and vanB) were detected in both fecal samples, while the penguin's one was also mecA-positive and blaNDM-positive. Because of the remoteness and the isolation of the sampling locations, the carriage of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus spp., methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, and NDM-producing Enterobacterales or other gram-negative bacilli suggested an ocean pollution with antibiotic resistant bacteria (ARB). Additionally, due to the type of ARD we detected, our results are alarming, and they cannot be explained only with agricultural and/or aquacultural pollution. Even though the current study is a preliminary one, it also demonstrates the potential of the field genetics analyses carried out with minimal equipment as a reliable monitoring tool for pollution with ARB.


Asunto(s)
Lobos Marinos , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente a Meticilina , Spheniscidae , Antagonistas de Receptores de Angiotensina , Inhibidores de la Enzima Convertidora de Angiotensina , Animales , Regiones Antárticas , Antibacterianos/farmacología , Farmacorresistencia Bacteriana/genética , Islas , Biología Molecular
12.
PLoS One ; 17(5): e0263866, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35584085

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: It is critical to capture data and modeling from the COVID-19 pandemic to understand as much as possible and prepare for future epidemics and possible pandemics. The Hawaiian Islands provide a unique opportunity to study heterogeneity and demographics in a controlled environment due to the geographically closed borders and mostly uniform pandemic-induced governmental controls and restrictions. OBJECTIVE: The goal of the paper is to quantify the differences and similarities in the spread of COVID-19 among different Hawaiian islands as well as several other archipelago and islands, which could potentially help us better understand the effect of differences in social behavior and various mitigation measures. The approach should be robust with respect to the unavoidable differences in time, as the arrival of the virus and promptness of mitigation measures may vary significantly among the chosen locations. At the same time, the comparison should be able to capture differences in the overall pandemic experience. METHODS: We examine available data on the daily cases, positivity rates, mobility, and employ a compartmentalized model fitted to the daily cases to develop appropriate comparison approaches. In particular, we focus on merge trees for the daily cases, normalized positivity rates, and baseline transmission rates of the models. RESULTS: We observe noticeable differences among different Hawaiian counties and interesting similarities between some Hawaiian counties and other geographic locations. The results suggest that mitigation measures should be more localized, that is, targeting the county level rather than the state level if the counties are reasonably insulated from one another. We also notice that the spread of the disease is very sensitive to unexpected events and certain changes in mitigation measures. CONCLUSIONS: Despite being a part of the same archipelago and having similar protocols for mitigation measures, different Hawaiian counties exhibit quantifiably different dynamics of the spread of the disease. One potential explanation is that not sufficiently targeted mitigation measures are incapable of handling unexpected, localized outbreak events. At a larger-scale view of the general spread of the disease on the Hawaiian island counties, we find very interesting similarities between individual Hawaiian islands and other archipelago and islands.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiología , Hawaii/epidemiología , Humanos , Islas , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2
13.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 94(suppl 1): e20210683, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35544839

RESUMEN

Monitoring and inventorying proglacial lakes in the Maritime Antarctica region is essential for understanding the effects of climate change on these environments. This study uses Landsat images to create a map of lakes in ice-free areas of the South Shetlands Islands (SSI) for 1986/89, 2000/03 and 2020, and verification of patterns of change in lake areas and numbers. Normalized water difference index (NDWI) products, image segmentation, field records, and cartographic products from other studies were used to validate the results. Results show a 60% increase in the number of lakes from 1986/89 to 2000/03; and a 55% increase from 2000/03 to 2020. There was a 52% increase in lake areas from 1986/89 to 2000/03; a 79% increase from 2000/03 to 2020; and a 173% increase from 1986 to 2020. From 1986 to 2020, the most significant changes were a decrease in the average elevation and distance from glaciers and an increase in distance from the sea. In 2020, SSI lakes were predominantly coastal and ice-marginal, with an E and S orientations, flat surfaces, and a low declivity.


Asunto(s)
Cubierta de Hielo , Lagos , Regiones Antárticas , Cambio Climático , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Islas
14.
Syst Parasitol ; 99(4): 491-523, 2022 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35553301

RESUMEN

In 2014-2015 and 2019-2021, teleost fishes off Galindez Island (Antarctic Peninsula) were examined for trematodes. Combined morphological and molecular analyses revealed the presence of eight trematode species of four families (Hemiuridae, Lecithasteridae, Opecoelidae, Lepidapedidae) from five fish species. Only adult trematodes were found and all of them are Antarctic endemics with their congeners occurring on other continents. The hemiuroids, Elytrophalloides oatesi (Leiper & Atkinson, 1914), Genolinea bowersi (Leiper & Atkinson, 1914), and Lecithaster macrocotyle Szidat & Graefe, 1967 belong to the most common Antarctic species and together with Lepidapedon garrardi (Leiper & Atkinson, 1914) and Neolebouria georgiensis Gibson, 1976 they were recorded as the least host-specific parasites. The originally sub-Antarctic Neolepidapedon macquariensis Zdzitowiecki, 1993 is a new record for the Antarctic Peninsula and Parachaenichthys charcoti (Vaillant), is a new host record. Neolebouria terranovaensis Zdzitowiecki, Pisano & Vacchi, 1993 is considered a synonym of N. georgiensis because of identical morphology and dimensions. The currently known phylogenetic relationships within the studied families are supported, including the polyphyly of Macvicaria Gibson & Bray, 1982 with the future need to accommodate its Antarctic species in a new genus. The validity of M. georgiana (Kovaleva & Gaevskaja, 1974) and M. magellanica Laskowski, Jezewski & Zdzitowiecki, 2013 needs to be confirmed by further analyses. Genetic sequence data are still scarce from Antarctica, and more studies applying integrative taxonomic approaches and large-scale parasitological examinations of benthic invertebrates are needed to match sequences of larval stages to those of well-characterised adults and to elucidate trematode life-cycles.


Asunto(s)
Trematodos , Animales , Regiones Antárticas , Peces/parasitología , Islas , Filogenia , Especificidad de la Especie
15.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(22): e2112737119, 2022 05 31.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35617436

RESUMEN

Tropical alpine floras are renowned for high endemism, spectacular giant rosette plants testifying to convergent adaptation to harsh climates with nightly frosts, and recruitment dominated by long-distance dispersal from remote areas. In contrast to the larger, more recent (late Miocene onward) and contiguous expanses of tropical alpine habitat in South America, the tropical alpine flora in Africa is extremely fragmented across small patches on distant mountains of variable age (Oligocene onward). How this has affected the colonization and diversification history of the highly endemic but species-poor afroalpine flora is not well known. Here we infer phylogenetic relationships of ∼20% of its species using novel genome skimming data and published matrices and infer a timeframe for species origins in the afroalpine region using fossil-calibrated molecular clocks. Although some of the mountains are old, and although stem node ages may substantially predate colonization, most lineages appear to have colonized the afroalpine during the last 5 or 10 My. The accumulation of species increased exponentially toward the present. Taken together with recent reports of extremely low intrapopulation genetic diversity and recent intermountain population divergence, this points to a young, unsaturated, and dynamic island scenario. Habitat disturbance caused by the Pleistocene climate oscillations likely induced cycles of colonization, speciation, extinction, and recolonization. This study contributes to our understanding of differences in the histories of recruitment on different tropical sky islands and on oceanic islands, providing insight into the general processes shaping their remarkable floras.


Asunto(s)
Cambio Climático , Plantas , África Oriental , Ecosistema , Variación Genética , Humanos , Islas , Plantas/anatomía & histología , Plantas/genética , Población
16.
PLoS One ; 17(4): e0266424, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35413068

RESUMEN

Passive acoustic monitoring (PAM) has proven a powerful tool for the study of marine mammals, allowing for documentation of biologically relevant factors such as movement patterns or animal behaviors while remaining largely non-invasive and cost effective. From 2008-2019, a set of PAM recordings covering the frequency band of most toothed whale (odontocete) echolocation clicks were collected at sites off the islands of Hawai'i, Kaua'i, and Pearl and Hermes Reef. However, due to the size of this dataset and the complexity of species-level acoustic classification, multi-year, multi-species analyses had not yet been completed. This study shows how a machine learning toolkit can effectively mitigate this problem by detecting and classifying echolocation clicks using a combination of unsupervised clustering methods and human-mediated analyses. Using these methods, it was possible to distill ten unique echolocation click 'types' attributable to regional odontocetes at the genus or species level. In one case, auxiliary sightings and recordings were used to attribute a new click type to the rough-toothed dolphin, Steno bredanensis. Types defined by clustering were then used as input classes in a neural-network based classifier, which was trained, tested, and evaluated on 5-minute binned data segments. Network precision was variable, with lower precision occurring most notably for false killer whales, Pseudorca crassidens, across all sites (35-76%). However, accuracy and recall were high (>96% and >75%, respectively) in all cases except for one type of short-finned pilot whale, Globicephala macrorhynchus, call class at Kaua'i and Pearl and Hermes Reef (recall >66%). These results emphasize the utility of machine learning in analysis of large PAM datasets. The classifier and timeseries developed here will facilitate further analyses of spatiotemporal patterns of included toothed whales. Broader application of these methods may improve the efficiency of global multi-species PAM data processing for echolocation clicks, which is needed as these datasets continue to grow.


Asunto(s)
Delfines , Ecolocación , Ballena de Aleta , Acústica , Animales , Cetáceos , Hawaii , Islas , Aprendizaje Automático , Espectrografía del Sonido , Vocalización Animal
17.
Commun Biol ; 5(1): 347, 2022 04 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35411020

RESUMEN

Large diversifications of species are known to occur unevenly across space and evolutionary lineages, but the relative importance of their driving mechanisms, such as climate, ecological opportunity and key evolutionary innovations (KEI), remains poorly understood. Here, we explore the remarkable diversification of rhacophorid frogs, which represent six percent of global amphibian diversity, utilize four distinct reproductive modes, and span a climatically variable area across mainland Asia, associated continental islands, and Africa. Using a complete species-level phylogeny, we find near-constant diversification rates but a highly uneven distribution of species richness. Montane regions on islands and some mainland regions have higher phylogenetic diversity and unique assemblages of taxa; we identify these as cool-wet refugia. Starting from a centre of origin, rhacophorids reached these distant refugia by adapting to new climatic conditions ('niche evolution'-dominant), especially following the origin of KEIs such as terrestrial reproduction (in the Late Eocene) or by dispersal during periods of favourable climate ('niche conservatism'-dominant).


Asunto(s)
Anuros , Reproducción , Animales , Anuros/genética , Islas , Filogenia , Filogeografía
18.
Environ Pollut ; 304: 119219, 2022 Jul 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35378202

RESUMEN

Whalers Bay, in Deception Island, has one of the most anthropogenically impacted areas in Maritime Antarctica. However, considering the volcanic nature (high concentrations of heavy metals) of Deception Island's soils, this putative anthropogenic impact should be carefully investigated. In this context, the objective of this study was to compare resistome profiles of impacted and non-impacted areas in Deception Island (Whalers Bay, Crater Lake, and Fumarole Bay) and Livingston Island (Hannah Point) in order to investigate the microbiome tolerance/resistance mechanisms selected as a function of environmental drivers. Metagenomics was used to search for genes conferring resistance/tolerance to antibiotics, biocides, and heavy metals. Whalers Bay has a greater diversity of antibiotic, biocide, and heavy metal resistance classes found in its microbiomes. However, Hannah Point, at Livingston Island, has a greater abundance of antibiotic and biocide resistance/tolerance genes. The microbiome of Deception Island's non-impacted areas (Crater Lake and Fumarole Bay) showed resistance/tolerance genes almost entirely to heavy metals. Pb was found in higher concentrations in Whalers Bay soil in comparison to the other areas, indicating human contamination. The non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) analysis revealed that Pb concentrations influenced resistome profiles in Whalers Bay soil. Despite the effect of Pb on the microbial communities of Whalers Bay, most heavy metal concentrations did not have a significant impact on resistome genes, suggesting that the volcanic soil heavy metal concentration of Deception Island has little biological influence.


Asunto(s)
Desinfectantes , Metales Pesados , Regiones Antárticas , Antibacterianos/análisis , Desinfectantes/análisis , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Humanos , Islas , Plomo/análisis , Metales Pesados/análisis , Metales Pesados/toxicidad , Suelo
19.
Zootaxa ; 5093(2): 241-246, 2022 Jan 26.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35390808

RESUMEN

A cross-sectional survey was carried out to determine sand fly fauna of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands that are known for tourist attraction from different countries, due to their scenic beauty. The study area includes 40 localities, stretching from south and middle to north Andaman Islands. Sand fly collections were made from day time resting shelters such as human dwellings, cattle-shed, and bushes in fringe of villages. A total of 1055 sand flies, comprising of six species were collected. Se. (Neo.) barraudi was found to be the predominant species, comprising of 57.7% of the total. Other species found to occur were Se. (Par.) babu (27. 4%), Se. (bailyi) 8. 1%, Se. (Neo.) gemmea (4. 9%), Se. (Neo.) quatei (2. 1%) and Phlebotomus (Ana.) stantoni (0.3%). Se. (Neo.) gemmea is reported to be a vector transmitting visceral leishmaniasis and dermal leishmaniasis in southern Thailand. Se. (Neo.) gemmea and Se (Neo.) quatei are new country records adding to the existing list of sand fly fauna of India. This is the first report on sand flies from Andaman and Nicobar Islands.


Asunto(s)
Phlebotomus , Psychodidae , Animales , Bovinos , Estudios Transversales , Insectos Vectores , Islas
20.
Zootaxa ; 5087(2): 357-371, 2022 Jan 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35390913

RESUMEN

Corallana mishrai sp. nov. collected from dead mangrove roots at Kodiyaghat, South Andaman, Andaman Islands, India is described and illustrated in detail. Corallana mishrai sp. nov. the first definitive record of the genus from India, is characterized by: frontal lamina with short straight (or very weakly convex) lateral margins and the anterior margin forming a strong acute median point; pleotelson length 0.76 greatest width, posterior margin with 5 robust setae; uropodal exopod 7 times longer than greatest width, extending beyond endopod by one fourth of its length; endopod lateral margin slightly convex with 4 RS and PMS, apex forms a slightly obtuse angle with long simple setae, mesial margin weakly convex with 2 RS and PMS; mandible bidentate; transverse row of 6 tubercles present on pereonite 1 and pleonites 2, 3 and 4 lacking lateral tubercles. The status of the genus and its species are reviewed, and two species are transferred to new combinations: Argathona kulai (Bruce, 1982) comb. nov. and Tachaea bidentata (Jones et al. 1983) comb. nov.


Asunto(s)
Escarabajos , Isópodos , Animales , Océano Índico , Islas
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