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1.
Biomed Res Int ; 2022: 3401566, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35005026

RESUMEN

Early in the COVID-19 pandemic, asymptomatic transmission represented an important challenge for controlling the spread of SARS-CoV-2 through the traditional public health strategies. Further understanding of the contribution of asymptomatic infections to SARS-CoV-2 transmission has been of crucial importance for pandemic control. We conducted a retrospective epidemiological study to characterize asymptomatic COVID-19 cases occurred in the Apulia region, Italy, during the first epidemic wave of COVID-19 outbreak (February 29-July 7, 2020). We analyzed data collected in a regional platform developed to manage surveillance activities, namely, investigation and follow-up of cases and contacts, contact tracing, and laboratory and clinical data collection. We included all asymptomatic cases that were laboratory-confirmed during the appropriate follow-up, defined as persons infected with SARS-CoV-2 who did not develop symptoms/clinical signs of the disease. Between February 29 and July 7, 2020, a total of 4,536 cases were diagnosed with COVID-19 among 193,757 tests performed. The group of persons with asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection consisted of 903 cases; the asymptomatic proportion was 19.9% (95% CI: 18.8-21.1%); this decreased with increasing age (OR: 0.89, 95% CI: 0.83-0.96; p = 0.001), in individuals with underlying comorbidities (OR: 0.55, 95% CI: 0.41-0.73; p < 0.001), and in males (OR: 0.69, 95% CI: 0.54-0.87; p = 0.002). The median asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 RNA positive period was 19 days (IQR: 14-31) and the cumulative proportion of persons with resolution of infection 14 days after the first positive PCR test was 74%. As the public health community is debating the question of whether asymptomatic and late spreaders could sustain virus transmission in the communities, such cases present unique opportunities to gain insight into SARS-CoV-2 adaptation to human host. This has important implications for future COVID-19 surveillance and prevention.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones Asintomáticas/epidemiología , COVID-19/epidemiología , Portador Sano/epidemiología , Adaptación Fisiológica , Adulto , Anciano , COVID-19/transmisión , Trazado de Contacto , Brotes de Enfermedades , Femenino , Humanos , Incidencia , Italia/epidemiología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pandemias , ARN Viral , Estudios Retrospectivos , Factores de Riesgo , SARS-CoV-2/patogenicidad
2.
Ital J Pediatr ; 48(1): 1, 2022 Jan 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34991654

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The role of allergic sensitization seems to be protective against SARS CoV2 infection. The aim of this study was to evaluate, using online surveys, the impact of COVID-19 on Italian allergic children, comparing the prevalence of AR and asthma symptoms between the first and second pandemic wave. METHODS: Both surveys were emailed to Italian pediatricians in April 2020 (first survey) and in March 2021 (second survey). The first one was related to the impact of COVID-19 and the most frequently reported symptoms. The second one was superimposed on the previous one, taking into account some additional aspects in the management of disease. RESULTS: A total of 99 pediatricians participated in the first survey and 267 in the second one. The first survey showed that, asthma and allergic rhinoconjunctivitis prevalence was mostly between 0 and 20% throughout the country. The second survey showed a lower prevalence of both diseases nationwide in comparison to the first one. Comparing the two surveys, statistically significant differences were reported only in the distribution of asthma prevalence in Southern Italy while no differences were highlighted in the North and in the Center. Finally regarding allergic rhinoconjunctivitis prevalence, no differences were noticed nationwide. CONCLUSIONS: Allergic rhinoconjunctivitis and asthma, if under control, did not represent risk factors for the susceptibility to SARS CoV2. Therefore, it is strongly recommended to continue therapies during COVID-19 outbreak, according to the international guidelines. However, being COVID-19 a new disease, actual knowledge will undergo continuous improvements over time.


Asunto(s)
Asma/epidemiología , COVID-19/complicaciones , COVID-19/epidemiología , Conjuntivitis Alérgica/epidemiología , Rinitis Alérgica/epidemiología , Asma/complicaciones , Niño , Conjuntivitis Alérgica/complicaciones , Humanos , Italia , Prevalencia , Rinitis Alérgica/complicaciones , Factores de Riesgo , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
3.
BMJ Open ; 12(1): e054069, 2022 01 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34980623

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: The first COVID-19-19 epidemic wave was over the period of February-May 2020. Since 1 October 2020, Italy, as many other European countries, faced a second wave. The aim of this analysis was to compare the 28-day mortality between the two waves among COVID-19 hospitalised patients. DESIGN: Observational cohort study. Standard survival analysis was performed to compare all-cause mortality within 28 days after hospital admission in the two waves. Kaplan-Meier curves as well as Cox regression model analysis were used. The effect of wave on risk of death was shown by means of HRs with 95% CIs. A sensitivity analysis around the impact of the circulating variant as a potential unmeasured confounder was performed. SETTING: University Hospital of Modena, Italy. Patients admitted to the hospital for severe COVID-19 pneumonia during the first (22 February-31 May 2020) and second (1 October-31 December 2020) waves were included. RESULTS: During the two study periods, a total of 1472 patients with severe COVID-19 pneumonia were admitted to our hospital, 449 during the first wave and 1023 during the second. Median age was 70 years (IQR 56-80), 37% women, 49% with PaO2/FiO2 <250 mm Hg, 82% with ≥1 comorbidity, median duration of symptoms was 6 days. 28-day mortality rate was 20.0% (95% CI 16.3 to 23.7) during the first wave vs 14.2% (95% CI 12.0 to 16.3) in the second (log-rank test p value=0.03). After including key predictors of death in the multivariable Cox regression model, the data still strongly suggested a lower 28-day mortality rate in the second wave (aHR=0.64, 95% CI 0.45 to 0.90, p value=0.01). CONCLUSIONS: In our hospitalised patients with COVID-19 with severe pneumonia, the 28-day mortality appeared to be reduced by 36% during the second as compared with the first wave. Further studies are needed to identify factors that may have contributed to this improved survival.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Anciano , Femenino , Mortalidad Hospitalaria , Humanos , Unidades de Cuidados Intensivos , Italia/epidemiología , Masculino , SARS-CoV-2 , Centros de Atención Terciaria
4.
Schweiz Arch Tierheilkd ; 164(1): 79-88, 2022 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34983742

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: A 5-year retrospective analysis of ascarid infections (Toxocara canis and Toxascaris leonina) in dogs from southern Italy was performed to update the epidemiological scenario of these parasites and to identify the risk factors which may favour these infections in animals in this study area. A total of 8,149 dogs, referred to our labs for copromicroscopic analysis using the FLOTAC technique, was considered. A sub-sample of 500 faecal samples were analysed also with the Mini-FLOTAC technique. Of the overall dog samples analysed, 9,2 % (95 % CI = 8,6-9,8) resulted positive for T. canis while 0,5 % (95 % CI = 0,4-0,7) resulted positive for T. leonina. Co-infections with T. canis and T. leonina were found in 0,1 % of dogs (95 % CI = 0,0-0,1). The results obtained by the FLOTAC and Mini-FLOTAC examinations showed a nearly perfect k agreement (k = 0,99, P < 0,001) between these two techniques. Chi-square test showed positivity to T. canis and T. leonina significantly (P < 0,001) associated with dogs housed outdoor (i.e., that lived in garden or in kennel). Moreover, the positivity for T. canis was significantly associated (P < 0,001) also with age (i.e., puppies), as shown by the logistic regression. The decreasing overall prevalence both for T. canis and T. leonina during the years of monitoring, showed that, as suggested by the European Scientific Counsel Companion Animal Parasites, the regular diagnosis could contribute to an efficient control of these parasites.


INTRODUCTION: Une analyse rétrospective sur 5 ans des infections à ascaris (Toxocara canis et Toxascaris leonina) chez les chiens du sud de l'Italie a été réalisée afin de mettre à jour le scénario épidémiologique de ces parasites et d'identifier les facteurs de risque pouvant favoriser ces infections chez les animaux de cette zone d'étude. Au total, 8149 chiens ont été analysés dans notre laboratoire avec une analyse copromicroscopique en utilisant la technique FLOTAC. De plus, un sous-échantillon de 500 échantillons fécaux a été analysé avec la technique Mini-FLOTAC. Sur l'ensemble des échantillons fécaux canins analysés, 9,2 % (IC à 95 % = 8,6 à 9,8) se sont révélés positifs pour T. canis tandis que 0,5 % (IC à 95 % = 0,4 à 0,7) ont été positifs pour T. leonina. Des co-infections avec T. canis et T. leonina ont été trouvées chez 0,1 % des chiens (IC à 95 % = 0,0­0,1). Les résultats obtenus par les examens FLOTAC et Mini-FLOTAC ont montré un coefficient Kappa presque parfait (k = 0,99, p < 0,001) entre ces deux techniques. Le test du chi carré a montré une positivité significative quant aux infections à T. canis et T. leonina (P < 0,001) associées à des chiens hébergés à l'extérieur (jardin ou chenil). De plus, la positivité pour T. canis était également significativement associée (P < 0,001) à l'âge (c'est-à-dire aux chiots), comme le montre la régression logistique. La diminution de la prévalence globale au cours de la période de surveillance a montré que le diagnostic régulier pourrait contribuer à un contrôle efficace de ces parasites à la fois pour T. canis et T. leonina, comme suggéré par le the European Scientific Counsel Companion Animal Parasites.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades de los Perros , Toxascariasis/veterinaria , Toxocariasis/epidemiología , Animales , Enfermedades de los Perros/epidemiología , Enfermedades de los Perros/parasitología , Perros , Heces , Italia/epidemiología , Estudios Retrospectivos , Toxascariasis/epidemiología , Toxascaris , Toxocara canis
5.
G Ital Cardiol (Rome) ; 23(1): 29-39, 2022 Jan.
Artículo en Italiano | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34985460

RESUMEN

Cardiac arrest (CA) is the third cause of death in Europe. This paper highlights the various treatments for the prevention and early management of CA and provides an overview of available evidence on the CA center concept. The experience of Maggiore Hospital of Bologna, Italy over the last 11 years is also outlined along with the treatments applied to patients with CA and their impact on improving outcomes. The new concept of the "Systems Saving Lives" approach is presented as a potential way for implementing Italian healthcare systems involved in the management of CA patients. Finally, the future perspective of implementation of CA centers in Italy is also described encouraging the healthcare professionals involved in the treatment of CA patients to consider a multidisciplinary approach (including a cardiologist, emergency physician, neurologist, physiatrist, radiologist, and intensivist).


Asunto(s)
Paro Cardíaco , Europa (Continente) , Predicción , Paro Cardíaco/terapia , Hospitales , Humanos , Italia
6.
PLoS One ; 17(1): e0262319, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34986209

RESUMEN

The COVID-19 pandemic and the measures to counteract it have highlighted the role of individual differences in evaluating and reacting to emergencies, and the challenges inherent in promoting precautionary behaviours. We aimed to explore the psychological and cognitive factors modulating behaviour and intentions during the national lockdown in Italy. We administered an online questionnaire (N = 244) that included tests for assessing personality traits (Temperament and Character Inventory; Locus of Control of Behaviour) and moral judgment (Moral Foundations Questionnaire), alongside behavioural economics tasks addressing different facets of risk attitude (loss aversion, risk aversion and delay discounting). We then assessed the extent to which individual variations in these dimensions modulated participants' compliance with the lockdown norms. When assessing their joint contribution via multiple regressions, lockdown adherence was mostly predicted by internal locus of control, psycho-economic dimensions suggestive of long-sighted and loss-averse attitudes, as well as personality traits related to cautionary behaviour, such as harm avoidance, and the authority moral concern. These findings show that a multi-domain assessment of the factors underlying personal intentions, and thus driving compliance with government measures, can help predict individuals' actions during health emergencies. This evidence points to factors that should be considered when developing interventions and communication strategies to promote precautionary behaviours.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19/epidemiología , COVID-19/psicología , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles , Adulto , Femenino , Humanos , Italia/epidemiología , Masculino , Pandemias , Personalidad , Riesgo , Medición de Riesgo , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
7.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35010756

RESUMEN

Following the pandemic scenario, researchers from all over the world, including Italians, have undertaken fervent research activity using the epidemiological data available on the sites of government and national and international research institutes. The objectives of our study were: (1) to analyze the load and trend of the COVID-19 pandemic in Italy, from the beginning to October 2021; (2) to analyze vaccination coverage by age groups and types of vaccines administered and check how the vaccination campaign has influenced the course of the disease and deaths; (3) to evaluate the Italian situation in the European context, comparing the incidence and mortality of Italy with respect to European countries; (4) finally, to evaluate how much vaccination coverage may have had an effect on mortality in the various European countries. Databases were structured to archive Italian and European COVID-19 data provided by Our World in Data, and data came from the Ministry of Health, to evaluate percentage of vaccines administered. The monthly trend of the cumulative incidence per 100,000 inhabitants in the period January 2020-October 2021 was evaluated. It is important to underline 3 peaks of incidence and mortality rates that occurred during the three waves of COVID-19: March-April-May 2020, October-November-December 2020, and March-April-May 2021. There is a slight increase in incidence in August 2021 and in mortality in September 2021. The three mortality rate peaks, related to the three waves of COVID-19, are always higher in Italy than in Europe, particularly in April 2020, December 2020, and March 2021. From May 2021 to October 2021, the mortality trend reversed, and it turned out to be higher in Europe than in Italy. Regarding vaccination, Italy currently has an important coverage, not only in the most fragile population, where it exceeds 90%, but also in the 12-19 age group, with percentages above 65%. The Pfizer/BioNTech vaccine was used widely in all age groups (first and second dose), with highest administration in 12-19 age groups and 80+, while the lowest was recorded in the 70-79 age group. In conclusion, these data confirm the importance of vaccination in the management of the COVID-19 pandemic.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Humanos , Italia/epidemiología , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Vacunación , Cobertura de Vacunación
8.
Ann Ig ; 34(1): 97-106, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33779674

RESUMEN

Background: Cockroaches are the pest of major concern for the disinfestation programs of the sanitary system in Italy. Hygienic-sanitary interest is linked to the role of mechanical vectors of pathogens and to their allergological potential. Sticky traps are the best tool to monitor the presence of these insects and several types of them are available on the market. In most of the cases the traps are not indicated for a given species, but, instead, generically for cockroaches. Domestic cockroaches differ in morphology, size and habits. Consequently, the effectiveness of the trap can change in relation to the target species. Materials and methods: In this study three of the most employed traps in Italy were compared: the INDIA trap with and without its attractant tablet (hereafter mentioned as INDIA-A and INDIA-E, respectively), the ZAPI Simply trap and the CATCHMASTER Spider & Insect Glue trap. We chose the four most common species of cockroach (Blattodea) in Italy, Blatta orientalis (L.), Periplaneta americana (L.) (Blattidae), Blattella germanica (L.) and Supella longipalpa (F.) (Blattellidae). Each species of cockroach was tested separately inside arenas containing one of the traps. Each test (one species with one kind of trap) was replicated five times. Results and discussion: The INDIA-A trap collected more cockroaches of every species, followed by the INDIA-E. The ZAPI trap caught less specimens of each species in respect to the INDIA traps, with the only exception of B. orientalis, for which the ZAPI trap caught more than the INDIA-E. The CATCHMASTER trap performed significantly less for all the species. B. orientalis was the species most abundantly caught by all traps, followed by B. germanica, S. longipalpa and P. americana. No significant difference was observed in the catch according to the developmental stage. In general, there was no particular predisposition of any trap to catch a particular species. Conclusions: It is not possible to indicate a model of trap for each species of cockroach, but it is clear that different traps have different performances in terms of attractiveness and capture. Therefore, the choice of the trap affects the results of the monitoring, and as consequence, the evaluation of the infesting population of the pest.


Asunto(s)
Blattellidae , Periplaneta , Animales , Italia
9.
Ann Ig ; 34(1): 13-26, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34113955

RESUMEN

Background: Understanding the level of awareness in adolescents on the value of vaccination is kay to developing a proper culture of prevention to counter vaccine hesitancy and the decrease in vaccination coverages. Study design: The aim of the survey was to evaluate awareness, attitudes, opinions, skills and knowledge about vaccines in a group of Italian adolescents through a paper-and-pencil questionnaire. Methods: The questionnaire was administered to adolescents who had appointments in two vaccination centers of the Public Health Authority of Latina (Latium, Italy), between August 2018 and January 2019. Results: In total, 391 forms were completed by teenagers (median age 16 years, 52% females), Results showed that 53% of participants were not aware of their vaccination status. Knowledge, assessed through questions about vaccines and preventable diseases, was generally poor. However, 89% of adolescents had a positive opinion about vaccinations. Spontaneous searches for vaccine information was low (28.7% had looked for information), despite the medium to high interest expressed. The participants usually sought information on vaccines on generic websites (52.8%) compared to getting information from paediatricians (20.4%) or other physicians (3.7%). However, participants recognized paediatricians/GPs (47%) and schools (46.2%) as the most reliable sources of information. Conclusions: Findings are in agreement with previous published data and can be useful to school and health educators in order to teach adolescents about the value of prevention, providing them with the support necessary to improve their abilities and knowledge.


Asunto(s)
Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Vacunas , Adolescente , Femenino , Humanos , Italia , Masculino , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Vacunación
10.
Environ Res ; 203: 111803, 2022 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34363800

RESUMEN

The present study relies on the air quality evaluation during COVID-19 pandemic in Avellino, described in the last years and for several consecutive years, among the worst Italian cities in this context. The main purpose of this manuscript was to investigate the effects of quarantine and lockdown measures on air pollution. The concentrations of the main atmospheric pollutants (Carbon monoxide (CO), Ozone (O3), Fine Particulate (PM2.5 and PM10), Benzene (C6H6) and Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) were recorded during the period January-December 2020 using two stationary monitoring stations (AV1 and AV2) of the Regional Environmental Protection Agency (ARPAC). During the lockdown period (March 9-May 18, 2020), results indicated significant reductions only in the levels of CO, benzene and NO2, while for PM10 the limit of 50 µg m-3 was passed 8 times for AV1 and 13 times for AV2. The results showed the not predominant role of traffic on air quality in Avellino regards to PM levels and make it necessary a serious reflection about important and not extendable decisions to improve the air quality.


Asunto(s)
Contaminación del Aire , COVID-19 , Ciudades , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Humanos , Italia , Pandemias , Material Particulado/análisis , SARS-CoV-2 , Estados Unidos
11.
J Med Virol ; 94(1): 110-118, 2022 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34387886

RESUMEN

The COVID-19 pandemic has had a strong impact on healthcare workers (HCWs), affecting their physical and mental health. In Italy, HCWs have been among the first exposed to unprecedented pressure, dealing with large numbers of infections during the first pandemic wave. However, the severe psychological consequences on HCWs find little evidence in the literature, especially in terms of comparison to the status quo ante pandemic. The aim of this study was to provide an assessment of the mental health burden in a cohort of Italian HCWs during the COVID-19 pandemic, comparing their condition with that before the emergency, to direct the promotion of mental well-being among HCWs worldwide. In this retrospective study, we included physicians, physical therapists, and nurses working in the Respiratory Intensive Care Unit, Neurology Unit, and Rehabilitation Unit from a Southern Italy University Hospital. All study participants underwent a battery of psychological tests, aimed at verifying their state of mental health during the COVID-19 emergency and before it. Depressive, anxiety, and burnout symptoms were assessed using the following questionnaires: Maslach Burnout Inventory, Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9), and General Anxiety Disorder-7. Depressive, anxiety, and burnout clinical relevance symptoms were present in HCWs during the COVID-19 pandemic more than those before the emergency. Fifty percent of the HCWs obtained a score clinically significant during the emergency. Moreover, a depersonalization factor showed a statistically significant increase in average scores (p < 0.0001). The PHQ-9 scale showed that 47.1% of the operators reported depressive state presence. The number of operators scoring above the cut-off for the anxiety scale tripled during the emergency (p < 0.0001). The female gender conferred greater risks for depression. Taken together, the findings of this study showed that our sample of Italian HCWs showed a greater risk for depression, anxiety, and stress during the COVID-19 pandemic. These data might be a starting point to plan mental health monitoring and prevention programs for HCWs, thus ensuring patients receive the best possible care performances even during healthcare crises such as the current pandemic.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19/psicología , Personal de Salud/psicología , Salud Mental , Adulto , Ansiedad/epidemiología , Depresión/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Italia , Masculino , Estudios Retrospectivos , Estrés Psicológico
12.
Environ Res ; 203: 111901, 2022 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34419466

RESUMEN

The experience gained over the last hundred years clearly indicates that two groups of viruses represent the main risk for the development of highly transmissible epidemics and pandemics in the human species: influenza viruses and coronaviruses (CoV). Although the search for viruses with pandemic potential in the environment may have an important predictive and monitoring role, it is still based on empirical methodologies, mostly resulting from the clinic and not fully validated for environmental matrices. As far as the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, currently underway, is concerned, environmental monitoring activities aiming at checking the presence of SARS-CoV-2 in wastewater can be extremely useful to predict and check the diffusion of the disease. For this reason, the present study aims at evaluating the SARS-CoV-2 diffusion by means of a wastewater-based environmental monitoring developed in Piedmont, N-W Italy, during the second and third pandemic waves. Wastewater sampling strategies, sampling points sample pre-treatments and analytical methods, data processing and standardization, have been developed and discussed to give representative and reliable results. The following outcomes has been highlighted by the present study: i) a strong correlation between SARS-CoV-2 concentration in untreated wastewater and epidemic evolution in the considered areas can be observed as well as a predictive potential that could provide decision-makers with indications to implement effective policies, to mitigate the effects of the ongoing pandemic and to prepare response plans for future pandemics that could certainly arise in the decades to come; ii) moreover, the data at disposal from our monitoring campaign (almost 500 samples analysed in 11 months) confirm that SARS-CoV-2 concentrations in wastewater are strongly variable and site-specific across the region: the highest SARS-CoV-2 concentration values have been found in sewer networks serving the most populated areas of the region; iii) normalization of viral concentrations in wastewater through Pepper Mild Mottle Virus (a specific faecal marker) has been carried out and commented; iv) the study highlights the potential of wastewater treatment plants to degrade the genetic material referable to SARS-CoV-2 as well. In conclusion, the preliminary data reported in the present paper, although they need to be complemented by further studies considering also other geographical regions, are very promising.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Aguas Residuales , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Humanos , Italia/epidemiología , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Environ Res ; 204(Pt A): 111925, 2022 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34437849

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Early life environments may influence children's blood pressure (BP), but evidence on the combined effects of natural and built environment exposures is scarce. The present study investigates the associations of natural and built environment indicators, traffic noise, and air pollution with BP in children living in Alpine valleys. METHODS: In 2004/2005, 1251 school children (8-12 years old) were sampled for a cross-sectional survey in several Austrian and Italian mountain valleys. Children's mothers completed a questionnaire. The outcomes of interest were systolic and diastolic BP measured with a calibrated oscillometric device. Indicators of land cover assigned to the residential and school coordinates within 100 and 1000 m included normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), tree canopy cover, and a broader naturalness indicator titled distance to nature (D2N). The presence of a home garden was also measured via self-report. Imperviousness density served as a proxy for the built environment. Residential air pollution (NO2) and noise (Lden) from traffic were calculated using bespoke modeling. NO2, Lden, physical activity, and body mass index (BMI) were treated as mediating pathways. RESULTS: Higher NDVI and tree cover levels in residential and school surroundings and home gardens were consistently associated with lower BP. The built environment was associated with higher BP. Counterintuitive inverse associations between NO2 and Lden and BP were also found. Structural equation modeling showed that higher levels of greenspace and presence of a home garden were weakly associated with more outdoor play spaces, and in turn with lower BMI, and ultimately with lower BP. CONCLUSIONS: Exposure to natural environments may help maintain normal BP in children, while built environment may increase children's BP. Outdoor play and less adiposity in greener areas may mediate some of these associations. Evidence on air pollution and noise remains controversial and difficult to explain.


Asunto(s)
Contaminación del Aire , Presión Sanguínea , Entorno Construido , Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales , Austria , Niño , Estudios Transversales , Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales/análisis , Humanos , Italia , Ruido
14.
Crit Rev Oncol Hematol ; 169: 103567, 2022 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34896250

RESUMEN

The development of innovative technologies and the advances in the genetics and genomics, have offered new opportunities for personalized treatment in oncology. Although the selection of the patient based on the molecular characteristics of the neoplasm has the potential to revolutionize the therapeutic scenario of oncology, this approach is extremely challenging. The access, homogeneity, and economic sustainability of the required genomic tests should be warranted in the clinical practice, as well as the specific scientific and clinical expertise for the choice of medical therapies. All these elements make essential the collaboration of different specialists within the Molecular Tumor Boards (MTBs). In this position paper, based on experts' opinion, the AIOM-SIAPEC/IAP-SIBioC-SIC-SIF-SIGU-SIRM Italian Scientific Societies critically discuss the available molecular profiling technologies, the proposed criteria for the selection of patients candidate for evaluation by the MTB, the criteria for the selection and analysis of biological samples, and the regulatory and pharmaco-economic issues.


Asunto(s)
Neoplasias , Sociedades Científicas , Genómica , Humanos , Italia , Oncología Médica , Neoplasias/tratamiento farmacológico , Neoplasias/genética
15.
Environ Res ; 203: 111865, 2022 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34390717

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To update the analysis of mortality of a cohort of talc miners and millers in Northern Italy. METHODS: We analyzed overall mortality and mortality from specific causes of death during 1946-2020 of 1749 male workers in a talc mine where asbestos was not detected (1184 miners and 565 millers) employed during 1946-1995. RESULTS: The overall standardized mortality ratio (SMR) was 1.21 (95 % confidence interval [CI] 1.14-1.28); no deaths were observed from pleural cancer. Mortality from lung cancer was not increased (SMR = 1.02 95 % CI 0.82-1.27), while mortality from pneumoconiosis was (SMR 9.55; 95 % CI 7.43-12.08), especially among miners (SMR 12.74; 95 % CI 9.79-16.31). There was a trend in risk of pneumoconiosis with increasing duration of employment in the overall cohort, and the SMR for 25+ years of employment was 15.12 (95 % CI 10.89-20.43). CONCLUSIONS: This uniquely long-term follow up confirms the results of previous analyses, namely the lack of association between exposure to talc with no detectable level of asbestos and lung cancer and mesothelioma. Increased mortality from pneumoconiosis among miners is related to past exposure to silica.


Asunto(s)
Exposición Profesional , Talco , Causas de Muerte , Estudios de Seguimiento , Humanos , Italia/epidemiología , Masculino , Talco/toxicidad
16.
Am J Otolaryngol ; 43(1): 103241, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34555789

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: During the Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic a reduction in the diagnosis of many otorhinolaryngological and audiological disorders has been widely reported. The main aim of this investigation was to evaluate the impact of COVID-19 outbreak on the incidence of acute hearing and vestibular disorders. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective analysis was performed of all patients evaluated in an audiology tertiary referral centre for acute cochleo-vestibular impairment between March 1st 2020 and February 28th 2021 (Pandemic Year Period, PYP). Results were compared to patients presenting with the same disorders during two previous periods (March 1st 2019 to February 29th 2020 and March 1st 2018 to February 28th 2019; First Precedent Year Period, FPYP and Second Precedent Year Period, SPYP, respectively). RESULTS: The annual incidence of total acute audio-vestibular disorders (number of annual diagnoses divided by total number of annual audiological evaluations) was 1.52% during the PYP, 1.31% in FPYP and 1.20% in SPYP. Comparison between the pandemic period and previous periods did not show a significant difference (p > 0.05). The overall incidence of SSNHL and combined acute cochlear-vestibular involvement was significantly higher during the PYP compared to the previous periods (p = 0.022). CONCLUSIONS: There were no differences in the absolute number of acute audio-vestibular disorders during the pandemic compared to previous periods. Although not significant, the SSNHL during the pandemic appeared worse in terms of pure-tone average with a higher incidence of associated vestibular involvement. Further studies are needed to clarify the role of SARS-CoV-2 on audio-vestibular disorders incidence and pathophysiology.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19/epidemiología , Pérdida Auditiva Súbita/epidemiología , Enfermedades Vestibulares/epidemiología , Femenino , Pruebas Auditivas , Humanos , Incidencia , Italia/epidemiología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pandemias , Estudios Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2 , Centros de Atención Terciaria
17.
Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc ; 265: 120398, 2022 Jan 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34563743

RESUMEN

This paper describes a case study of a linen yarn found inside a spiral bronze necklace fragment during an excavation campaign in la Prisgiona, a Nuragic settlement, near Arzachena, in north-east Sardinia. The site is one of the most interesting settlements of the Nuragic period. Abandoned after a fire, it was no longer inhabited, thus allowing the preservation of the Nuragic stratigraphy. The necklace fragments are part of a votive burial and the yarn is the only known textile material belonging to the Bronze Age period from Sardinia. The uniqueness of the finding, in the rare corpus of prehistoric textile materials, and the small amount of it available do not allow conventional analyses and requires a non-invasive/micro-invasive method. The protocol established to preserve as much as possible the entirety of the object, involving polarize light microscopy, portable ATR-FTIR, SEM-EDS, micro X-ray Computer Tomography and XRD, was successfully used to extend knowledge about the materials and techniques of this civilisation.


Asunto(s)
Textiles , Historia Antigua , Italia
18.
Sci Total Environ ; 806(Pt 2): 150574, 2022 Feb 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34592284

RESUMEN

The study of the contamination of plastic mixtures sampled in natural environments is currently focused on their qualitative and quantitative assessment, while the evaluation of their effects on organisms is normally performed by experiments carried out at exposure conditions (size, shape, polymers) often far from the environmental ones. To improve the ecological realism, the aim of this study was to collect different plastic mixtures in 9 sampling stations located in 7 watercourses within the metropolitan city of Milan, one of the most anthropized and industrialized European areas, to evaluate both their qualitative and quantitative characteristics and, at the same time, to assess their ecotoxicological effects by exposing for 7 days some specimens of the freshwater bivalve Dreissena polymorpha to the mixtures collected in the sampling sites. The plastic characterization was performed by a Fourier-Transform Infrared spectrometer coupled with an optical microscope (µFT-IR), after several stages aimed to sample cleaning, separation of plastics and visual sorting. The possible effects caused by the plastic mixtures were carried out by the measurements of a biomarker suite to evaluate many cellular and molecular endpoints in mussel tissues. The main results showed a widespread and heterogeneous contamination of plastics in the entire metropolitan area, with contamination peaks found above all in the only two rivers of natural origin (Olona River and Lambro River) where comparable or higher values were reached than plastic concentrations measured in several European rivers. Despite this worrying contamination, the ecotoxicological data obtained after the exposures to the plastic mixtures collected in the selected water bodies showed only a mild effect on oxidative stress and on the variation of some antioxidant enzymes.


Asunto(s)
Dreissena , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua , Animales , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Italia , Plásticos/toxicidad , Ríos , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/análisis , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/toxicidad
19.
J Med Virol ; 94(1): 413-416, 2022 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34515998

RESUMEN

In December 2020, Italy experienced the first case of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) B.1.1.7 lineage. In January 2021, we identified 21 cases of this variant in Corzano, defining the first outbreak of SARS-CoV-2 B.1.1.7 lineage in Italy. The high transmissibility of the B.1.1.7 variant represented an important benefit for the virus, which became rapidly dominant on the territory. Containment measures induced the epidemic curve onto a decreasing trajectory underlining the importance of appropriate control and surveillance for restraint of virus spread. Highlights The first Italian outbreak of SARS-CoV-2 B.1.1.7 lineage occurred in Lombardy in January 2021. The outbreak originated by a single introduction of the B.1.1.7 lineage. The genomic sequencing revealed, for the first time, the presence of the V551F mutation in the B.1.1.7 lineage in Italy. Surveillance, prompt sequencing and tracing efforts were fundamental to identify and to quickly contain the outbreak.


Asunto(s)
Prueba de Ácido Nucleico para COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiología , SARS-CoV-2/genética , SARS-CoV-2/aislamiento & purificación , Adolescente , Adulto , COVID-19/transmisión , Niño , Preescolar , Brotes de Enfermedades/estadística & datos numéricos , Femenino , Genoma Viral/genética , Secuenciación de Nucleótidos de Alto Rendimiento , Humanos , Control de Infecciones/métodos , Italia/epidemiología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Filogenia , Análisis de Secuencia de ARN , Secuenciación Completa del Genoma , Adulto Joven
20.
Sci Total Environ ; 806(Pt 1): 150345, 2022 Feb 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34563913

RESUMEN

The concept of natural background level (NBL) aims at distinguishing the natural and anthropogenic contributions to concentrations of specific contaminants, as groundwater management and protection tools. This is usually defined as a unique value at a regional scale, even when the hydrogeological and geochemical features of a certain territory are far from homogeneous. The concentration of target contaminants is affected by multiple hydrogeochemical processes. This is the case of arsenic in the Calabria region, where concentrations are definitely variable in groundwater. To overcome the limitation of a traditional approach and to include the intrinsic hydrogeological and geochemical heterogeneity into the definition of the natural contribution to As content in groundwater, an integrated probabilistic approach to the NBL assessment combining aquifer-based preselection criteria and multivariate non-parametric geostatistics was proposed. In detail, different NBL values were selected, based on the aquifer type and/or hydrogeochemical features. Then, these aquifer-based NBL values of arsenic were used in the Probability Kriging method to map the probability of exceedance and to provide contamination risk management tools. This multivariate geostatistical approach that takes advantage of the physico-chemical variables used in the aquifer-based NBL values definition allowed mapping the probability of exceedance of As in a physically-based way. The hydrogeochemical diversity of the study area and all the processes affecting As concentrations in the aquifers have been considered too. As a result, the obtained map was characterized by a short-range and long-range variability due to local hydrogeochemical anomalies and water-rock interaction and/or atmospheric precipitation. By this approach, the NBL exceedance probability maps proved to be less "noisy", because the local hydrogeochemical conditions were filtered, and more capable of pointing out anthropogenic inputs or very anomalous natural contributions, which need to be investigated more in detail and properly managed.


Asunto(s)
Arsénico , Agua Subterránea , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua , Arsénico/análisis , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Italia , Probabilidad , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/análisis
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