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1.
Nihon Yakurigaku Zasshi ; 156(1): 31-36, 2021.
Artículo en Japonés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33390478

RESUMEN

In recent years, the success rate of drug development has declined, and along with it, R&D costs have continued to rise. The rate of discontinuation of drug development due to safety reasons remains unchanged from 20 years ago. Therefore, it is important to check the safety of candidate compounds early in drug discovery in order to improve drug discovery efficiency. Under such circumstances, each company is focusing on establishing a low-cost, high-precision, and high-throughput safety screening system. The zebrafish is expected as a new experimental animal that serves as a bridge between in vitro and in vivo, and the progress of research in the last 15 years has been remarkable. At present, zebrafish are becoming a major experimental animal in Japan. At the same time, the gap between ideal and reality began to be seen, and it was time to once again understand the characteristics of zebrafish and think about its usage. This paper summarizes the points to be noted in the screening using zebrafish and introduces the use for actual safety evaluation.


Asunto(s)
Preparaciones Farmacéuticas , Pez Cebra , Animales , Evaluación de Medicamentos , Evaluación Preclínica de Medicamentos , Japón
2.
Nihon Yakurigaku Zasshi ; 156(1): 37-46, 2021.
Artículo en Japonés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33390479

RESUMEN

Gilteritinib fumarate (Xospata® tablets 40 mg) is a novel, highly selective, oral FMS-like tyrosine kinase 3 (FLT3) inhibitor used for the treatment of patients with relapsed or refractory FLT3-mutated acute myeloid leukemia (AML), and it was approved in Japan in September 2018. Preclinical studies demonstrated that gilteritinib inhibited FLT3 and showed antiproliferative activity against Ba/F3 cells expressing mutated FLT3. In addition, gilteritinib inhibited tumor growth, induced tumor regression, and prolonged survival in mice xenografted with MV4-11 cells endogenously expressing FLT3-internal tandem duplication. In clinical trials conducted in the United States, Europe, and Japan, plasma concentrations after administration of gilteritinib 20 to 450 mg/day were generally dose proportional, and gilteritinib was well tolerated. Multiple clinical trials, including a global Phase III study, in patients with relapsed or refractory FLT3-mutated AML treated with gilteritinib demonstrated higher response rates of complete remission or complete remission with partial hematologic recovery and longer overall survival compared with patients treated with salvage chemotherapy. Some clinical trials are ongoing in patients with FLT3-mutated AML at various treatment stages, such as induction therapy, maintenance therapy, and treatment after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. In conclusion, in vitro, in vivo, and clinical data indicate that gilteritinib fumarate is an effective treatment option in adult patients with relapsed or refractory FLT3-mutated AML in Japan.


Asunto(s)
Leucemia Mieloide Aguda , Tirosina Quinasa 3 Similar a fms , Adulto , Compuestos de Anilina , Animales , Humanos , Japón , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/tratamiento farmacológico , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/genética , Ratones , Mutación , Pirazinas , Comprimidos , Estados Unidos , Tirosina Quinasa 3 Similar a fms/genética
3.
Nihon Yakurigaku Zasshi ; 156(1): 47-51, 2021.
Artículo en Japonés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33390481

RESUMEN

Antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs) combine the specific antibody and cytotoxic agent by a linker and represent a promising drug class with a wider therapeutic window than conventional chemotherapeutic agents by substantiating efficient and specific drug delivery to antigen-expressing tumor cells. However, there are rooms for improvement in terms of efficacy, safety, physicochemical property; therefore, the development of promising ADC drugs across multiple indications are eagerly awaited. In 2015, Daiichi Sankyo initiated the first-in-human study of HER2 ADC, trastuzumab deruxtecan (T-DXd, ENHERTU®) which possesses DNA topoisomerase I inhibitor, exatecan derivative and proprietary linker, in Japan. Based on the provocative results in phase 1 study, the global development program has been accelerated to show the high and durable efficacy in patients with HER2 positive breast cancer pretreated with trastuzumab emtansine. As a result, T-DXd was approved based on single arm phase 2 study in the US (Dec 2019) and Japan (March 2020) by leveraging the breakthrough designation and conditional early approval system, respectively, at the first time for the HER2 positive breast cancer. In addition, T-DXd was recently approved in gastric cancer through Sakigake designation in Japan based on a randomized phase 2 study. T-DXd is also being developed in the earlier lines or other indications where no anti-HER2 therapies were approved to date. Combination studies with other agents, such as immune checkpoint inhibitors are underway. In the near future, we hope that more patients worldwide can enjoy the therapeutic benefits of T-DXd through our continuous efforts to expand its indications.


Asunto(s)
Antineoplásicos , Neoplasias de la Mama , Anticuerpos Monoclonales Humanizados/uso terapéutico , Antineoplásicos/uso terapéutico , Neoplasias de la Mama/tratamiento farmacológico , Camptotecina/análogos & derivados , Humanos , Inmunoconjugados , Japón , Receptor ErbB-2/uso terapéutico , Trastuzumab/uso terapéutico
4.
Trials ; 22(1): 23, 2021 Jan 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33407828

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: We aimed to test our hypothesis that traditional Japanese (Kampo) medicine, hochuekkito (Hochu-ekki-to: HET) has a preventive effect for the symptoms on COVID-19. TRIAL DESIGN: The study is designed as a multi-center, interventional, parallel-group, randomized (1:1 ratio), investigator sponsored, two-arm study. PARTICIPANTS: Six thousand participants will be recruited from healthy hospital workers in 7 Japanese University Hospitals. INCLUSION CRITERIA: 1. Age from 20 to 75 years old at the time of registration 2. Asymptomatic and body temperature below 37°C at the time of registration 3. Capable of eating orally Exclusion criteria: 1. Previous upper respiratory inflammation due to viral infection (including suspected COVID-19) 2. Taking immunosuppressants 3. Allergic to the Kampo medicines used in this study 4. History of hypokalaemia, severe hypertension, severe liver dysfunction, and interstitial pneumonia 5. Regularly taking other Kampo medicines 6. Pregnant or possibly pregnant 7. Participating in other research 8. Judged to be unsuitable for this study by the doctor in charge INTERVENTION AND COMPARATOR: Kampo group: participants receive HET in 9 tablets 2 times per day for 8 weeks. CONTROL GROUP: participants receive placebo in the same dosage as the Intervention group - 9 tablets 2 times per day for 8 weeks. Placebo tablets are identical in appearance and package to HET. Taste of placebo is different from that of HET. The Ohsugi Pharmaceutical Co. Ltd, Osaka, Japan manufactured the placebo and HET. MAIN OUTCOMES: Primary outcome: Number of patients with a SARS-CoV-2 RNA by ploymerase chain reaction (PCR) positive result with at least one symptom (fever, cough, sputum, malaise, shortness of breath) during the 12-week study period (including the 4-week observation period after oral administration). SECONDARY OUTCOMES: 1. Period from infection to onset 2. Period from the appearance of symptoms to the disappearance of PCR positive 3. Number of days until the appearance or improvement of symptoms 4. Severe stage: presence of hospitalization 5. Shock stage: ICU management required for mechanical ventilation, shock vitals or failure of organ(s) other than lungs Safety endpoints include numbness in the hands and/or feet, edema, skin rash or other allergic symptoms, and gastric discomfort. RANDOMISATION: Patients are randomized (1:1 ratio) to each group using minimization implemented with the Electric data capture system (DATATRAK Enterprise Cloud), with balancing of the arms with age range (under 50 years of age or not) and having a history of risk factors for COVID-19 (cardiovascular disease, hypertension, diabetes, respiratory diseases). BLINDING (MASKING): Only participants will be randomized. NUMBERS TO BE RANDOMISED (SAMPLE SIZE): The main research hypothesis of this study is that Kampo medicines significantly prevent the onset of COVID-19. It is assumed that the infection rate before the administration of the drug under consideration will be 0% and that the incidence of COVID-19 thereafter will be 2- 3%, of which 70%-80% will show symptoms of COVID-19. Assuming that the pharmaceutical effect of the drug will be effective in 50% of patients and that the incidence rates in the placebo and drug groups will be 1.4%-2.4% and 0.7%-1.2%, respectively, the placebo is calculated at 2%, and the study drug at 1%. Since the frequency of verification is low and the number of cases will be large, we set a total of 10 analyses (9 interim analyses and a final analysis). Since the number of cases at the time of the final analysis will be 4,986 under the conditions of α = 0.05 and a power of 80% by the Peto method. We set at 600 cases in each interim analysis with an estimated dropout rate of 16.9%. Finally, the total number of cases is set to 6,000 with 3,000 in the placebo group and 3,000 in the HET group. TRIAL STATUS: Protocol version 1.3 of October 23rd , 2020. Recruitment start (expected): December 1st, 2020. Recruitment finish (expected): December 31st, 2022. TRIAL REGISTRATION: This trial is registered in the Japan Registry of Clinical Trials (jRCT) ( jRCTs031200150 ) on 14 October 2020. FULL PROTOCOL: The full protocol is attached as an additional file, accessible from the Trials website (Additional file 1). In the interest of expediting dissemination of this material, the familiar formatting has been eliminated; this Letter serves as a summary of the key elements of the full protocol.


Asunto(s)
/prevención & control , Medicamentos Herbarios Chinos/administración & dosificación , Medicina Kampo/métodos , Pandemias/prevención & control , /aislamiento & purificación , Administración Oral , Adulto , Anciano , /epidemiología , Esquema de Medicación , Medicamentos Herbarios Chinos/efectos adversos , Femenino , Humanos , Japón/epidemiología , Masculino , Medicina Kampo/efectos adversos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estudios Multicéntricos como Asunto , Ensayos Clínicos Controlados Aleatorios como Asunto , Factores de Riesgo , Índice de Severidad de la Enfermedad , Resultado del Tratamiento , Adulto Joven
5.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(Suppl 1): 6, 2021 Jan 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33446118

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The high incidence, seasonal pattern and frequent outbreaks of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) represent a threat for billions of children around the world. Detecting pre-outbreak signals of HFMD facilitates the timely implementation of appropriate control measures. However, real-time prediction of HFMD outbreaks is usually challenging because of its complexity intertwining both biological systems and social systems. RESULTS: By mining the dynamical information from city networks and horizontal high-dimensional data, we developed the landscape dynamic network marker (L-DNM) method to detect pre-outbreak signals prior to the catastrophic transition into HFMD outbreaks. In addition, we set up multi-level early warnings to achieve the purpose of distinguishing the outbreak scale. Specifically, we collected the historical information of clinic visits caused by HFMD infection between years 2009 and 2018 respectively from public records of Tokyo, Hokkaido, and Osaka, Japan. When applied to the city networks we modelled, our method successfully identified pre-outbreak signals in an average 5 weeks ahead of the HFMD outbreak. Moreover, from the performance comparisons with other methods, it is seen that the L-DNM based system performs better when given only the records of clinic visits. CONCLUSIONS: The study on the dynamical changes of clinic visits in local district networks reveals the dynamic or landscapes of HFMD spread at the network level. Moreover, the results of this study can be used as quantitative references for disease control during the HFMD outbreak seasons.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedad de Boca, Mano y Pie/epidemiología , Modelos Teóricos , Algoritmos , Niño , Ciudades , Brotes de Enfermedades/prevención & control , Enfermedad de Boca, Mano y Pie/transmisión , Hospitalización/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Incidencia , Japón/epidemiología , Estaciones del Año , Análisis Espacio-Temporal , Tokio/epidemiología
7.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 11, 2021 Jan 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33407188

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Combined with cancer screening programs, vaccination against human papillomavirus (HPV) can significantly reduce the high health and economic burden of HPV-related disease in Japan. The objective of this study was to assess the health impact and cost effectiveness of routine and catch-up vaccination of girls and women aged 11-26 years with a 4-valent (4vHPV) or 9-valent HPV (9vHPV) vaccine in Japan compared with no vaccination. METHODS: We used a mathematical model adapted to the population and healthcare settings in Japan. We compared no vaccination and routine vaccination of 12-16-year old girls with 1) 4vHPV vaccine, 2) 9vHPV vaccine, and 3) 9vHPV vaccine in addition to a temporary catch-up vaccination of 17-26 years old girls and women with 9vHPV. We estimated the expected number of disease cases and deaths, discounted (at 2% per year) future costs (in 2020 ¥) and discounted quality-adjusted life years (QALY), and incremental cost effectiveness ratios (ICER) of each strategy over a time horizon of 100 years. To test the robustness of the conclusions, we conducted scenario and sensitivity analyses. RESULTS: Over 100 years, compared with no vaccination, 9vHPV vaccination was projected to reduce the incidence of 9vHPV-related cervical cancer by 86% (from 15.24 new cases per 100,000 women in 2021 to 2.02 in 2121). A greater number of cervical cancer cases (484,248) and cancer-related deaths (50,102) were avoided through the described catch-up vaccination program. Routine HPV vaccination with 4vHPV or 9vHPV vaccine prevented 5,521,000 cases of anogenital warts among women and men. Around 23,520 and 21,400 diagnosed non-cervical cancers are prevented by catch-up vaccination among women and men, respectively. Compared with no vaccination, the ICER of 4vHPV vaccination was ¥975,364/QALY. Compared to 4vHPV, 9vHPV + Catch-up had an ICER of ¥1,534,493/QALY. CONCLUSIONS: A vaccination program with a 9-valent vaccine targeting 12 to 16 year-old girls together with a temporary catchup program will avert significant numbers of cases of HPV-related diseases among both men and women. Furthermore, such a program was the most cost effective among the vaccination strategies we considered, with an ICER well below a threshold of ¥5000,000/QALY.


Asunto(s)
Alphapapillomavirus/inmunología , Vacuna Tetravalente Recombinante contra el Virus del Papiloma Humano Tipos 6, 11 , 16, 18/inmunología , Programas de Inmunización/economía , Infecciones por Papillomavirus/prevención & control , Salud Pública , Neoplasias del Cuello Uterino/prevención & control , Vacunación/economía , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Niño , Preescolar , Análisis Costo-Beneficio , Femenino , Vacuna Tetravalente Recombinante contra el Virus del Papiloma Humano Tipos 6, 11 , 16, 18/administración & dosificación , Humanos , Incidencia , Lactante , Japón/epidemiología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Modelos Teóricos , Infecciones por Papillomavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Papillomavirus/transmisión , Infecciones por Papillomavirus/virología , Años de Vida Ajustados por Calidad de Vida , Neoplasias del Cuello Uterino/virología , Vacunación/métodos , Adulto Joven
8.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33431724

RESUMEN

Search and find methods*) such as cluster tracing1)-6) or large-scale PCR testing**) of those who exhibit no symptoms or only mild symptoms of COVID-19 is shown by data analysis to be a powerful means to suppress the spread of COVID-19 instead of, or in addition to, lockdown of the entire population. Here we investigate this issue by analyzing the data from some cities and countries and we establish that search and find method is as powerful as lockdown of a city or a country. Moreover, in contrast to lockdown, it neither causes inconvenience to citizens nor does it disrupt the economy. Generally speaking, it is advisable that both social distancing and increased test numbers be employed to suppress spread of the virus. The product of the total test number with the rate of positive cases is the crucial index.


Asunto(s)
/prevención & control , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles/métodos , África/epidemiología , Infecciones Asintomáticas/epidemiología , Brasil/epidemiología , /transmisión , China/epidemiología , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles/estadística & datos numéricos , Política de Salud , Humanos , Inmunidad Colectiva , Japón/epidemiología , Los Angeles/epidemiología , Modelos Biológicos , Modelos Estadísticos , New York/epidemiología , Pandemias/prevención & control , Pandemias/estadística & datos numéricos , Cuarentena , Sensibilidad y Especificidad , Suecia/epidemiología , Tokio/epidemiología , Estados Unidos/epidemiología
9.
Nihon Shokakibyo Gakkai Zasshi ; 118(1): 93-100, 2021.
Artículo en Japonés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33431755

RESUMEN

Traditionally, abstinence has been regarded as the only appropriate goal in the treatment of alcohol dependence in Japan. Recently, harm reduction by reducing alcohol consumption, which has been used as a treatment approach in Europe, has gained recognition in Japan. The 2018 guideline for the treatment of alcohol dependence in Japan recommends abstinence as the primary goal, but reduction of alcohol consumption is described as an appropriate treatment goal in some patients. Nalmefene is an opioid modulator that is used to reduce alcohol consumption in patients with alcohol dependence. Here, we report the clinical course of alcoholic liver cirrhosis in alcohol-dependent patients who were treated with nalmefene for three months. Their alcohol consumption was reduced, which led to an improvement in liver function. Nalmefene provides a clinical benefit, constitutes a potential pharmacological treatment paradigm in terms of the treatment goal and dosing regimen, and addresses an unmet medical need in patients with alcohol dependence who need to reduce their alcohol consumption.


Asunto(s)
Alcoholismo , Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas , Alcoholismo/complicaciones , Alcoholismo/tratamiento farmacológico , Europa (Continente) , Humanos , Japón , Cirrosis Hepática Alcohólica/tratamiento farmacológico , Naltrexona/análogos & derivados
10.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 57(1)2021 Jan 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33429930

RESUMEN

Background and objectives: To explore the ethical and legal complexities arising from the controversial issue of surrogacy, particularly in terms of how they affect fundamental rights of children and parents. Surrogacy is a form of medically-assisted procreation (MAP) in which a woman "lends" her uterus to carry out a pregnancy on behalf of a third party. There are pathological conditions, such as uterine agenesis or hysterectomy outcomes, that may prevent prospective mothers from becoming pregnant or carry a pregnancy to term; such patients may consider finding a surrogate mother. Many issues relating to surrogacy remain unresolved, with significant disagreements and controversy within the scientific community and public opinion. There are several factors called into play and multiple parties and stakeholders whose objectives and interests need to somehow be reconciled. First and foremost, the authors contend, it is essential to prioritize and uphold the rights of children born through surrogacy and heterologous MAP. Materials and methods: To draw a parallel between Italy and the rest of the world, the legislation in force in twelve European countries was analyzed, eleven of which are part of the European Union (France, Germany, Italy, Spain, Greece, Netherlands, Belgium, Denmark, Lithuania, Czech Republic and Portugal) and three non-members of the same (United Kingdom, Ukraine and Russia), as well as that of twelve non-European countries considered exemplary (United States, Canada, Australia, India, China, Thailand, Israel, Nigeria and South Africa); in particular, legislative sources and legal databases were drawn upon, in order to draw a comparison with the Italian legislation currently in force and map out the evolution of the Italian case law on the basis of the judgments issued by Italian courts, including the Constitutional and Supreme Courts and the European Court of Human Rights (ECHR); search engines such as PubMed and Google Scholar were also used, by entering the keywords "surrogacy" and "surrogate motherhood", to find scientific articles concerning assisted reproduction techniques with a close focus on surrogacy. Results: SM is a prohibited and sanctioned practice in Italy; on the other hand, it is allowed in other countries of the world, which leads Italian couples, or couples from other countries where it is banned, to often contact foreign centers in order to undertake a MAP pathway which includes surrogacy; in addition, challenges may arise from the legal status of children born through surrogacy abroad: to date, in most countries, there is no specific legislation aimed at regulating their legal registration and parental status. Conclusion: With reference to the Italian context, despite the scientific and legal evolution on the subject, a legislative intervention aimed at filling the regulatory gaps in terms of heterologous MAP and surrogacy has not yet come to fruition. Considering the possibility of "fertility tourism", i.e., traveling to countries where the practice is legal, as indeed already happens in a relatively significant number of cases, the current legislation, although integrated by the legal interpretation, does not appear to be effective in avoiding the phenomenon of procreative tourism. Moreover, to overcome some contradictions currently present between law 40 and law 194, it would be appropriate to outline an organic and exhaustive framework of rules, which should take into account the multiplicity of interests at stake, in keeping with a fair and sustainable balance when regulating such practices.


Asunto(s)
Política Pública/legislación & jurisprudencia , Técnicas Reproductivas Asistidas/legislación & jurisprudencia , Madres Sustitutas/legislación & jurisprudencia , Altruismo , Australia , Niño , Bienestar del Niño/ética , Bienestar del Niño/legislación & jurisprudencia , Comercio , Europa (Continente) , Femenino , Humanos , Israel , Italia , Japón , Turismo Médico/ética , Turismo Médico/legislación & jurisprudencia , Embarazo , Técnicas Reproductivas Asistidas/ética , Federación de Rusia , Problemas Sociales , Tailandia , Ucrania , Estados Unidos
11.
J Plant Res ; 134(1): 77-89, 2021 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33387091

RESUMEN

Some algae are known to grow on shellfish shells. Most of these have been reported in aquatic environments. The species specificity for substrate shells varies, and some algae grow only on the shells of a certain species of shellfish, such as Pseudocladophora conchopheria (Cladophorales, Ulvophyceae) on Lunella coreensis (Trochida, Gastropoda). There are very few reports of algae that grow on land snails. In this study, we discovered green algae growing on the shells of six species of door snails (Clausiliidae) from nine localities in Japan. These green algae formed a green mat composed of thalli embedded in the extracellular matrix. The thallus was composed of aggregated oval cells and peripheral branched filaments. The cells possessed a single parietal chloroplast with a pyrenoid surrounded by two starch sheaths and transversed by a thylakoid. Oil droplets in the cell and ring-like structures on the cell wall surface were frequently observed. The 18S rDNA sequences of all shell-attached algae on different clausiliid species from different localities were almost identical and formed a new clade in the family Kornmanniaceae (Ulvales, Ulvophyceae). No other algae forming visible colonies on the clausiliid shell were found. These findings indicate the presence of specificity between the alga and clausiliid shells. Based on the results of morphological observation and molecular phylogenetic analysis, we propose a new genus and new species of shell-attached green alga, Annulotesta cochlephila.


Asunto(s)
Chlorophyta , Animales , Chlorophyta/genética , ADN Ribosómico/genética , Japón , Filogenia , Caracoles
12.
J Plant Res ; 134(1): 91-104, 2021 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33398441

RESUMEN

The vast territory of East Asia, including southwestern Beringia, is considered to have been almost ice free during the Pleistocene. Cold-resistant flora may have persisted in this region expanding or contracting its range during the climate cooling. Only a few plant genera have been studied with a sampling area across their entire geographic range in East Asia; therefore, the understanding of the biogeographic history of alpine flora in this region remains limited. In the present study, genetic variation and population structure in 21 populations of the alpine shrub Rhododendron aureum across its range in East Asia were assessed using 18 microsatellite loci. Phylogenetic analyses revealed three main genetic groups: Siberia, Northeast, and North Pacific. According to the geographical pattern of genetic diversity, the North Pacific group includes populations from Kamchatka, south of Russian Far East, and territories close to central Japan. This group is the most diverse and likely diverged earlier than the Siberia and Northeast groups. Ecological niche modeling predicts range expansion of this species during the period of cooling and, together with demographic history, suggests that the divergence between the three main genetic groups predated the Last Glacial Maximum. Similar to other cold-resistant species such as Larix sibirica and Juniperus communis, the pattern of genetic diversity of R. aureum supports the survival of the species at high latitudes during the Pleistocene with limited contribution of the southern populations to expansion of the species range to the Northeast region and Siberia.


Asunto(s)
Ericaceae , Rhododendron , Lejano Oriente , Variación Genética , Japón , Filogenia , Filogeografía , Rhododendron/genética , Federación de Rusia , Siberia
13.
BMC Psychiatry ; 21(1): 33, 2021 01 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33435930

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Social dislocations resulting from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic have been prolonged, which has led to general population social suppression. The present study aimed to reveal risk factors associated with mental health problems and suggest concrete coping strategies in the context of COVID-19. METHODS: A web-based survey was conducted in July when Japan was experiencing a second wave of COVID-19. Demographics, Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9), state anger, anger control, and the Brief Coping Orientation to Problems Experienced were measured. Multivariate logistic regression analysis on PHQ-9 scores by set variables was conducted. RESULTS: The participants were 2708 individuals, and 18.35% of them were depressed. Logistic regression analysis showed that in the order of odds ratios (ORs), underlying disease (OR = 1.96, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.32-2.92), not working (OR = 1.85, CI = 1.22-2.80), negative economic impact (OR = 1.33, CI = 1.01-1.77), state anger (OR = 1.17, CI = 1.14-1.21), anger control (OR = 1.08, CI = 1.04-1.13), age (OR = 0.97, CI = 0.96-0.98), high income (OR = 0.45, CI = 0.25-0.80), and being married (OR = 0.53, CI = 0.38-0.74) were predictors of depressive symptoms. Regarding coping strategies, planning (OR = 0.84, CI = 0.74-0.94), use of instrumental support (OR = 0.85, CI = 0.76-0.95), denial (OR = 0.88, CI = 0.77-0.99), behavioural disengagement (OR = 1.28, CI = 1.13-1.44), and self-blame (OR = 1.47, CI = 1.31-1.65) were associated with probable depression. CONCLUSIONS: During prolonged psychological distress caused by COVID-19 pandemic, the prevalence of depressive symptoms in Japan was two to nine times as high as before the COVID-19 pandemic, even though Japan was not a lockdown country. Although some coping strategies were useful for maintaining mental health, such as developing ways, alone or with others, to address or avoid social dislocations, the influence of demographics was more powerful than these coping strategies, and medical treatments are needed for high-risk individuals.


Asunto(s)
Pandemias , Adaptación Psicológica , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles , Estudios Transversales , Depresión/epidemiología , Humanos , Japón/epidemiología , Factores de Riesgo , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
14.
Gan To Kagaku Ryoho ; 48(1): 1-6, 2021 Jan.
Artículo en Japonés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33468713

RESUMEN

Recent progress in cancer therapy has decreased all-cancer mortality, but cardiovascular adverse events owing to chemotherapy and radiotherapy have greater impact on clinical outcome and quality of life in cancer patients and survivors. There are a wide variety of cardiovascular adverse events related to cancer therapy, and the opportunities requiring specialized care by cardiovascular experts are increasing in clinical practice. Under such circumstances, onco-cardiology is becoming very important as a new discipline and attracting much attention in Japan. The Japanese Onco-Cardiology Society was established in 2017, and continues integration of academic activities to solve challenging problems in this field. Interdisciplinary collaborations between cardiologists and oncologists will be further progressed in medical care, clinical and basic research, and education.


Asunto(s)
Cardiología , Neoplasias , Humanos , Japón , Neoplasias/terapia , Calidad de Vida , Sobrevivientes
15.
J Plant Res ; 134(1): 115-126, 2021 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33433707

RESUMEN

Pioneer mosses are among the dominant vegetation in the early stages of xeric successions. Recent climate warming may have a significant effect on the productivity of these mosses, thereby affecting successional processes. In this study, we investigated the effects of temperature changes on the productivity of Racomitrium japonicum, a pioneer moss species commonly found on open ground in Japan. We examined the microclimate (moss temperature and water content) of a natural R. japonicum stand in Higashi-Hiroshima City, western Japan, and related them to the climate records of the weather station to create a model for estimating microclimate from past climatic data. We also examined the effects of environmental factors (light, temperature, and water) on photosynthesis in the laboratory to construct a production model. Using these models, we estimated the net primary production (NPP) over the last 10 years (2009-2018) based on the climatic data (air temperature and precipitation) recorded at the weather station of Higashi-Hiroshima City. The estimated NPP showed negative values in summer, which indicated that respiratory carbon loss exceeded photosynthetic carbon gain. In contrast, NPP was positive in the spring and winter seasons throughout the 10 years. Autumn NPP varied widely, showing both positive and negative values. The annual NPP also showed considerable year-to-year variations. Additionally, we examined the effects of temperature conditions on NPP assuming annual temperature changes of 0 °C (present temperature), + 1 °C, and + 2 °C. The results indicated that NPP decreased with increasing temperature, except in the winter season. The findings of this study suggest that climate warming has a large impact on the NPP of R. japonicum; however, the impact can be both positive and negative depending on the season. The results also suggest that future climate warming is likely to decrease NPP on an annual basis.


Asunto(s)
Briófitas , Ecosistema , Cambio Climático , Japón , Estaciones del Año , Temperatura
16.
Gan To Kagaku Ryoho ; 48(1): 12-16, 2021 Jan.
Artículo en Japonés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33468715

RESUMEN

Based on the results of comprehensive cancer genomic profiling(CGP), only about 10% of cancer patients can be candidates for anticancer drugs that match genetic abnormalities. In the current situation in Japan, clinical trial(BELIEVE trial)is on-going to provide patients with medical treatment opportunities based on the results of CGP test. In this study, patients can try an off-label drug under the Patient-Proposed Healthcare Services who are not eligible for clinical trials such as trials for drug approval, or Advanced Medical Treatment B. More than 40 patients have already participated in the BELIEVE trial. In this section, I will discuss the current status of the BELIEVE trial, challenges in multidisciplinary collaboration, and future prospects.


Asunto(s)
Terapia Molecular Dirigida , Uso Fuera de lo Indicado , Prestación de Atención de Salud , Genómica , Humanos , Japón , Estudios Prospectivos
17.
J Occup Health ; 63(1): e12196, 2021 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33470006

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: Maternity harassment, known in English as pregnancy discrimination, remains prevalent in developed countries. However, research examining the mental health effects of maternity harassment is lacking. We aimed to examine the association between maternity harassment and depression during pregnancy in Japan. METHODS: A cross-sectional Internet survey was conducted on 359 pregnant employees (including women who were working at the time their pregnancy was confirmed) from May 22 to May 31, 2020, during which time a COVID-19 state of emergency was declared. Maternity harassment was defined as being subjected to any of the 16 adverse treatments prohibited by national guidelines. Depression was defined as a score of ≥9 on the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (Japanese version). Logistic regression analysis was performed. RESULTS: Overall, 24.8% of the pregnant employees had experienced maternity harassment by supervisors and/or colleagues. After adjusting for demographics, pregnancy status, work status, and fear of COVID-19, pregnant employees who experienced maternity harassment were more likely to have depression than those who did not (odds ratio 2.48, 95% confidential interval 1.34-4.60). This association was not influenced by whether they were teleworking or not as a COVID-19 measure. CONCLUSIONS: One quarter of pregnant employees experienced maternity harassment and had a higher prevalence of depression than those who did not. Being physically away from the office through teleworking may not reduce the effect of maternal harassment on depression. To protect the mental health and employment of pregnant women, employers should comply with the laws and take measures to prevent maternity harassment.


Asunto(s)
/complicaciones , Depresión/complicaciones , Complicaciones del Embarazo/psicología , Embarazo/psicología , Prejuicio/psicología , Adulto , Estudios Transversales , Depresión/etiología , Empleo/psicología , Empleo/estadística & datos numéricos , Femenino , Humanos , Japón/epidemiología , Complicaciones del Embarazo/epidemiología , Prejuicio/estadística & datos numéricos , Escalas de Valoración Psiquiátrica , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
18.
Environ Pollut ; 269: 116153, 2021 Jan 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33309406

RESUMEN

Elevated toxins in soybeans extensively threaten Asian residents and over one billion vegetarians worldwide. An integrated dataset of toxic trace metal(loid)s especially cadmium (Cd) analysis in soybean grain samples (n = 5217) from 12 countries/regions of origin was compiled for risk analysis. Worldwide grain Cd averaged 0.093 mg kg-1, but mean values varied 16-fold between regions, with South China (0.32 mg kg-1) > Argentina (0.15 mg kg-1) = German (0.13 mg kg-1) > Japan (0.11 mg kg-1) > the United States (0.064 mg kg-1) > Central-North China (0.020-0.60 mg kg-1) ≥ Iran (0.042 mg kg-1) = Brazil (0.023 mg kg-1) = South Korea (0.020 mg kg-1). Regression analysis suggested widespread contamination and acidic soil features significantly contributed the elevated food Cd contamination worldwide. Arsenic (As) and lead (Pb) are also of concern because excessive levels were often observed in grains. Given that soil Cd bioavailability is generally low in alkaline pH ranges, the feasibility of producing safe food from contaminated land was investigated by greenhouse experiments with one low-Cd soybean cultivar grown on 20 contaminated calcareous soils. Equilibrium-based approaches i.e., 0.01 M CaCl2 and in-situ porewater extractions, and diffusion-based diffusive gradients in thin-films technique were used to determine the plant-available fractions of soil metal(loid)s to explain the bioaccumulation variation. The results suggested that soybean grains bioaccumulated mean 0.76 mg Cd kg-1, ranging from 0.16 to 2.1 mg kg-1, whereas As and Pb bioaccumulation was low. Cadmium accumulation was closely correlated with plant-available Cd fractions especially the 0.01 M CaCl2-extractable Cd, but negatively correlated with soil pH. Even in the alkaline pH range, a slight decrease of soil pH would increase grain Cd significantly. Study region and those arable lands that have similar soil conditions are not recommended for growing soybean unless novel remediation strategies are developed.


Asunto(s)
Oryza , Contaminantes del Suelo , Argentina , Cadmio/análisis , China , Estudios de Factibilidad , Japón , Suelo , Contaminantes del Suelo/análisis , Soja
19.
Waste Manag ; 119: 242-253, 2021 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33091837

RESUMEN

It is well known that Asia generates and receives large quantities of plastic waste. Through a detailed study of plastic waste generation and trade, the management and treatment of plastic waste in Asia were analyzed from the regional perspective. The amounts of plastic waste in municipal solid waste and in industrial solid waste were estimated to be 79 Mt and 42 Mt, respectively, in Asia. The overall treatment and recycling status in Asia are unsatisfactory. Asia imported 74% of the plastic waste in the world in 2016, and China (mainland) imported the most plastic waste until 2017, with 5.8 to 8.3 Mt. In 2017, about half the plastic waste imported by Asia came from other regions, and after subtracting the exported quantity, 98% of the plastic waste was left in Asia for treatment and disposal. The plastic waste imported by Asia declined about 72% in monetary value in 2018. There is still a large gap between the plastic waste quantity imported to Asia and that exported from Asia. China's ban of plastic waste imports caused import quantities to drop to 52 kt in 2018, simultaneously, exports from the largest exporting countries or regions such as Hong Kong (China), the USA, Japan, and Germany decreased. While Vietnam, Malaysia and some other Asian countries and regions saw significant increases in plastic waste imports from 2016 to 2018. Considering this situation, countries in Asia are starting to strictly limit plastic waste imports from other countries.


Asunto(s)
Eliminación de Residuos , Administración de Residuos , China , Alemania , Hong Kong , Japón , Malasia , Plásticos , Residuos Sólidos , Vietnam
20.
J Environ Manage ; 278(Pt 2): 111641, 2021 Jan 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33221673

RESUMEN

Chlorine is the commonest and cheapest disinfectant used in drinking water and wastewater treatment at household, municipal and industrial levels. However, the uprising of microbial chlorine resistance (MCR) pose critical public health hazard concerns; because, its potentiate exposure to difficult-to-treat resistant pathogens. Therefore, this study aimed at evaluating the burden of MCR in drinking water/wastewater treatment and distribution systems (DWWTDS) via science mapping of research productivity (authors, countries, institutions), thematic conceptual framework, disciplines, research networks and associated intellectual landscape. MCR data were mined from Scopus and Web of Science based on optimized algorithms with the root key term "chlorine* resistant*'' and analysed for pre-set indicator variables. Results revealed 1127 documents from 442 journals and 1430% average growth rate (AGR) of research articles from 2017 to 2019 on MCR. Country-wise, the USA (n = 299), China (n = 119), and Japan (n = 43) ranked in the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd positions respectively, among the top participating countries in MCR research. MCR research had considerable performance in public health and sustainable concern subjects namely, Environmental Sciences & Ecology, Engineering, Microbiology, Water Resources, Biotechnology & Applied Microbiology, Food Science & Technology, Public, Environ & Occupational Health, Chemistry, Infectious Diseases, and Marine & Freshwater Biology; and with noticeable AGR in Environmental Sciences & Ecology (330%) and Infectious Diseases (130%). The study found biofilm-related thrusts (n = 90, 270% AGR) as main research hotspots on MCR. Overall, the study identified and discussed four important thematic areas of public health challenges in MCR that could promote increasing waterborne diseases due to (re)emerging pathogens, enteric viruses and dissemination in DWWTDS. In conclusion, this study provides comprehensive overview of the growing burden of MCR in DWWTDS and standout as a primer of information for researchers on MCR. It recommends direct, intentional and integrated research priorities on MCR to overcome accompanying public health and environmental threats. In addition, chlorine resistance in waterborne fungi have not received research attention. Research activities related to fungal chlorine resistance will be an invaluable future direction in DWWTDS and guide against exposure to waterborne pathogenic fungi and mycotoxins. It is unknown whether chlorine resistance can be acquired by horizontal gene transfer in microorganisms and future research should elucidate this important thrust.


Asunto(s)
Agua Potable , Purificación del Agua , Bibliometría , China , Cloro , Humanos , Japón
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