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1.
J Infect Chemother ; 27(1): 62-64, 2021 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32896479

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: As countermeasures against the COVID-19 outbreak, sports and entertainment events were canceled (VEC) in Japan for two weeks from 26 February through 13 March. Moreover, most schools were closed (SC). OBJECTIVE: For this study, we estimated the basic reproduction number (R0) and SC and VEC effects. METHOD: After constructing a susceptible-infected-recovered model with three age classes, we used data of symptomatic patients in Japan for 14 January through 24 March. The SC and VEC effects were incorporated into the model through changes in contact patterns and contact frequencies among age classes. RESULTS: Results suggest R0 as 2.56, with 95% CI of [2.51, 2.96] before SC and VEC. The respective effects of SC and VEC were estimated as 0.4 (95% CI [0.3, 0.5]) and 0.5 (95% CI [0.3, 0.7]). CONCLUSION: The estimated R0 is similar to those found from other studies of China and Japan. Significant reduction of contact frequency has been achieved by SC and VEC. Nevertheless, its magnitude was insufficient to contain the outbreak.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Brotes de Enfermedades/prevención & control , Pandemias/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Instituciones Académicas/organización & administración , Adulto , Anciano , Número Básico de Reproducción , Betacoronavirus , Niño , Brotes de Enfermedades/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Japón/epidemiología , Modelos Estadísticos
2.
J Infect Chemother ; 27(1): 76-82, 2021 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33051144

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: The severity of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) in Japanese patients is unreported. We retrospectively examined significant factors associated with disease severity in symptomatic COVID-19 patients (COVID-Pts) admitted to our institution between February 20 and April 30, 2020. METHODS: All patients were diagnosed based on the genetic detection of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. Information on the initial symptoms, laboratory data, and computed tomography (CT) images at hospitalization were collected from the patients' records. COVID-Pts were categorized as those with critical or severe illness (Pts-CSI) or those with moderate or mild illness (Pt-MMI). All statistical analyses were performed using R software. RESULTS: Data from 61 patients (16 Pt-CSI, 45 Pt-MMI), including 58 Japanese and three East Asians, were analyzed. Pt-CSI were significantly older and had hypertension or diabetes than Pt-MMI (P < 0.001, 0.014 and < 0.001, respectively). Serum albumin levels were significantly lower in Pt-CSI than in Pt-MMI (P < 0.001), whereas the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio and C-reactive protein level were significantly higher in Pt-CSI than in Pt-MMI (P < 0.001 and P < 0.001, respectively). In the CT images of 60 patients, bilateral lung lesions were more frequently observed in Pt-CSI than in Pt-MMI (P = 0.013). Among the 16 Pt-CSI, 15 received antiviral therapy, 12 received tocilizumab, five underwent methylprednisolone treatment, six received mechanical ventilation, and one died. CONCLUSIONS: The illness severity of Japanese COVID-Pts was associated with older age, hypertension and/or diabetes, low serum albumin, high neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio, and C-reactive protein.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Índice de Severidad de la Enfermedad , Adulto , Factores de Edad , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Anticuerpos Monoclonales Humanizados/uso terapéutico , Antivirales/uso terapéutico , Betacoronavirus , Proteína C-Reactiva/análisis , Infecciones por Coronavirus/terapia , Femenino , Humanos , Japón/epidemiología , Pulmón/diagnóstico por imagen , Pulmón/patología , Masculino , Metilprednisolona/uso terapéutico , Persona de Mediana Edad , Neutrófilos , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/terapia , Respiración Artificial , Estudios Retrospectivos , Factores de Riesgo , Albúmina Sérica/análisis , Tomografía Computarizada por Rayos X , Adulto Joven
3.
Kyobu Geka ; 73(10): 775-777, 2020 Sep.
Artículo en Japonés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33130764

RESUMEN

Cardiovascular surgery for renal failure patients with dialysis is challenging. According to the nationwide cardiovascular surgery database in Japan(Japan Cardiovascular Surgery Database;JCVSD), dialysis patients have occupied about 10% of whole surgery of coronary artery bypass grafting( CABG). In CABG, ratio of off-pump surgery did not change between non-dialysis (63%) and dialysis (64%) patients. Operative mortality of dialysis patients (7.8%) was 3 times higher than non-dialysis patients (2.1%). In aortic valve replacement (AVR) dialysis patients occupied about 9% of whole AVR in Japan. In dialysis patients the percentage of bioprostheses was 65% and the choice of bioprostheses steeply increased when the age was over 70, which was similar to the non-dialysis patients. For dialysis before cardiovascular surgery, it is important not to dehydrate too much in order to maintain stable hemodynamics during the surgery. It is also important not to dehydrate too much after surgery in order to prevent non-occlusive mesenteric ischemia(NOMI).


Asunto(s)
Implantación de Prótesis de Válvulas Cardíacas , Prótesis Valvulares Cardíacas , Válvula Aórtica , Puente de Arteria Coronaria , Humanos , Japón/epidemiología , Diálisis Renal , Estudios Retrospectivos , Resultado del Tratamiento
4.
mSphere ; 5(6)2020 11 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33177213

RESUMEN

After the first case of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Japan on 15 January 2020, multiple nationwide COVID-19 clusters were identified by the end of February. The Japanese government focused on mitigating the emerging COVID-19 clusters by conducting active nationwide epidemiological surveillance. However, an increasing number of cases continued to appear until early April 2020, many with unclear infection routes and no recent history of travel outside Japan. We aimed to evaluate the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) genome sequences from the COVID-19 cases that appeared until early April 2020 and to characterize their genealogical networks in order to demonstrate possible routes of spread in Japan. Nasopharyngeal specimens were collected from patients, and reverse transcription-quantitative PCR tests for SARS-CoV-2 were performed. Positive RNA samples were subjected to whole-genome sequencing, and a haplotype network analysis was performed. Some of the primary clusters identified during January and February 2020 in Japan descended directly from the Wuhan-Hu-1-related isolates from China and other distinct clusters. Clusters were almost contained until mid-March; the haplotype network analysis demonstrated that the COVID-19 cases from late March through early April may have created an additional large cluster related to the outbreak in Europe, leading to additional spread within Japan. In conclusion, genome surveillance has suggested that there were at least two distinct SARS-CoV-2 introductions into Japan from China and other countries.IMPORTANCE This study aimed to evaluate the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) genome sequences from COVID-19 cases and to characterize their genealogical networks to demonstrate possible routes of spread in Japan. We found that there were at least two distinct SARS-CoV-2 introductions into Japan, initially from China and subsequently from other countries, including Europe. Our findings can help understand how SARS-CoV-2 entered Japan and contribute to increased knowledge of SARS-CoV-2 in Asia and its association with implemented stay-at-home/shelter-in-place/self-restraint/lockdown measures. This study suggested that it is necessary to formulate a more efficient containment strategy using real-time genome surveillance to support epidemiological field investigations in order to highlight potential infection linkages and mitigate the next wave of COVID-19 in Japan.


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus/genética , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , ARN Viral/análisis , Secuenciación Completa del Genoma , Betacoronavirus/aislamiento & purificación , Técnicas de Laboratorio Clínico , Infecciones por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecciones por Coronavirus/transmisión , Infecciones por Coronavirus/virología , Emigración e Inmigración , Haplotipos , Política de Salud , Humanos , Japón/epidemiología , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/diagnóstico , Neumonía Viral/transmisión , Neumonía Viral/virología
5.
Intern Med ; 59(21): 2693-2699, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33132305

RESUMEN

Objective Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is spreading around the world. The aim of this study was to assess the degree of anxiety, depression, resilience, and other psychiatric symptoms among healthcare workers in Japan during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods This survey involved medical healthcare workers at the Japanese Red Cross Medical Center (Tokyo, Japan) between April 22 and May 15, 2020. The degree of symptoms of anxiety, depression, and resilience was assessed using the Japanese versions of the 7-item Generalized Anxiety Disorder Scale (GAD-7), Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D), and 10-item Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale. Furthermore, we added original questionnaires comprising three factors: (i) anxiety and fear of infection and death; (ii) isolation and unreasonable treatment; and (iii) motivation and escape behavior at work. Results In total, 848 healthcare workers participated in this survey: 104 doctors, 461 nurses, 184 other co-medical staff, and 99 office workers. Among all participants, 85 (10.0%) developed moderate-to-severe anxiety disorder, and 237 (27.9%) developed depression. Problems with anxiety and fear of infection and death, isolation and unreasonable treatment, and motivation and escape from work were higher in the depression group than in the non-depression group (total CES-D score ≥ 16 points). Being a nurse and high total GAD-7 scores were risk factors of depression. Older workers and those with higher resilience were less likely to develop depression than others. Conclusion During the COVID-19 epidemic, many healthcare workers suffered from psychiatric symptoms. Psychological support and interventions for protecting the mental health of them are needed.


Asunto(s)
Ansiedad/etiología , Betacoronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus/complicaciones , Depresión/etiología , Personal de Salud/psicología , Salud Mental , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/complicaciones , Adulto , Ansiedad/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/psicología , Estudios Transversales , Depresión/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Incidencia , Japón/epidemiología , Masculino , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/psicología
6.
Environ Health Prev Med ; 25(1): 64, 2020 Oct 31.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33129280

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The burden of dementia is growing rapidly and has become a medical and social problem in Japan. Prospective cohort studies have been considered an effective methodology to clarify the risk factors and the etiology of dementia. We aimed to perform a large-scale dementia cohort study to elucidate environmental and genetic risk factors for dementia, as well as their interaction. METHODS: The Japan Prospective Studies Collaboration for Aging and Dementia (JPSC-AD) is a multisite, population-based prospective cohort study of dementia, which was designed to enroll approximately 10,000 community-dwelling residents aged 65 years or older from 8 sites in Japan and to follow them up prospectively for at least 5 years. Baseline exposure data, including lifestyles, medical information, diets, physical activities, blood pressure, cognitive function, blood test, brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and DNA samples, were collected with a pre-specified protocol and standardized measurement methods. The primary outcome was the development of dementia and its subtypes. The diagnosis of dementia was adjudicated by an endpoint adjudication committee using standard criteria and clinical information according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 3rd Revised Edition. For brain MRI, three-dimensional acquisition of T1-weighted images was performed. Individual participant data were pooled for data analyses. RESULTS: The baseline survey was conducted from 2016 to 2018. The follow-up surveys are ongoing. A total of 11,410 individuals aged 65 years or older participated in the study. The mean age was 74.4 years, and 41.9% were male. The prevalence of dementia at baseline was 8.5% in overall participants. However, it was 16.4% among three sites where additional home visit and/or nursing home visit surveys were performed. Approximately two-thirds of dementia cases at baseline were Alzheimer's disease. CONCLUSIONS: The prospective cohort data from the JPSC-AD will provide valuable insights regarding the risk factors and etiology of dementia as well as for the development of predictive models and diagnostic markers for the future onset of dementia. The findings of this study will improve our understanding of dementia and provide helpful information to establish effective preventive strategies for dementia in Japan.


Asunto(s)
Demencia/epidemiología , Anciano , Enfermedad de Alzheimer/epidemiología , Enfermedad de Alzheimer/etiología , Enfermedad de Alzheimer/genética , Demencia/etiología , Demencia/genética , Ambiente , Femenino , Humanos , Incidencia , Japón/epidemiología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Prevalencia , Estudios Prospectivos , Factores de Riesgo
7.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 808, 2020 Nov 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33153446

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Although more than 10 years have passed since HPV vaccination was implemented, first as an interim programme (Emergent vaccine promotion programme) in November 2010, followed by incorporating into the National Immunization Programme in April, 2013 and suspended in June 2013, limited studies have investigated the HPV vaccine effectiveness against high-grade cervical lesions in Japan. METHODS: We collected the matched data of the results of cervical biopsy and history of vaccination from the Japan Cancer Society database. The subjects were women aged 20 to 29 years screened for cervical cancer between April, 2015 and March, 2017, and with information on HPV vaccination status. We estimated the relative risk of developing high-grade cervical lesions in vaccinated subjects using Poisson regression as compared to unvaccinated subjects. RESULTS: Among the 34,281 women screened, 3770 (11.0%) were vaccinated. The prevalence of CIN2+ was statistically significantly lower in the vaccinated women as compared to the unvaccinated women (Vaccine Effectiveness (VE) =76%; RR = 0.24, 95% CI:0.10-0.60). High VE against CIN3+ was also observed (91%; RR = 0.09, 95% CI:0.00-0.42). CONCLUSION: Women aged 20-29 years who received at least one dose of HPV vaccine had a significantly lower risk of high-grade cervical lesions than those not vaccinated. In Japan, HPV vaccination should be resumed in order to reduce the incidence of cervical cancer.


Asunto(s)
Neoplasia Intraepitelial Cervical/prevención & control , Papillomaviridae/inmunología , Infecciones por Papillomavirus/prevención & control , Vacunas contra Papillomavirus/inmunología , Neoplasias del Cuello Uterino/prevención & control , Vacunación , Adulto , Neoplasia Intraepitelial Cervical/clasificación , Neoplasia Intraepitelial Cervical/virología , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Programas de Inmunización , Incidencia , Japón/epidemiología , Infecciones por Papillomavirus/epidemiología , Vacunas contra Papillomavirus/administración & dosificación , Prevalencia , Resultado del Tratamiento , Neoplasias del Cuello Uterino/clasificación , Neoplasias del Cuello Uterino/virología , Adulto Joven
8.
Vaccine ; 38(48): 7668-7673, 2020 11 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33071002

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: More than 100 COVID-19 vaccine candidates are in development since the SARS-CoV-2 genetic sequence was published in January 2020. The uptake of a COVID-19 vaccine among children will be instrumental in limiting the spread of the disease as herd immunity may require vaccine coverage of up to 80% of the population. Prior history of pandemic vaccine coverage was as low as 40% among children in the United States during the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic. PURPOSE: To investigate predictors associated with global caregivers' intent to vaccinate their children against COVID-19, when the vaccine becomes available. METHOD: An international cross sectional survey of 1541 caregivers arriving with their children to 16 pediatric Emergency Departments (ED) across six countries from March 26 to May 31, 2020. RESULTS: 65% (n = 1005) of caregivers reported that they intend to vaccinate their child against COVID-19, once a vaccine is available. A univariate and subsequent multivariate analysis found that increased intended uptake was associated with children that were older, children with no chronic illness, when fathers completed the survey, children up-to-date on their vaccination schedule, recent history of vaccination against influenza, and caregivers concerned their child had COVID-19 at the time of survey completion in the ED. The most common reason reported by caregivers intending to vaccinate was to protect their child (62%), and the most common reason reported by caregivers refusing vaccination was the vaccine's novelty (52%). CONCLUSIONS: The majority of caregivers intend to vaccinate their children against COVID-19, though uptake will likely be associated with specific factors such as child and caregiver demographics and vaccination history. Public health strategies need to address barriers to uptake by providing evidence about an upcoming COVID-19 vaccine's safety and efficacy, highlighting the risks and consequences of infection in children, and educating caregivers on the role of vaccination.


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus/patogenicidad , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Pandemias/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Negativa a la Vacunación/psicología , Vacunación/psicología , Vacunas Virales/economía , Adulto , Betacoronavirus/inmunología , Niño , Infecciones por Coronavirus/economía , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/inmunología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/virología , Estudios Transversales , Servicio de Urgencia en Hospital , Europa (Continente)/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Inmunidad Colectiva , Cooperación Internacional , Israel/epidemiología , Japón/epidemiología , Masculino , Análisis Multivariante , América del Norte/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/inmunología , Neumonía Viral/virología , Cobertura de Vacunación/estadística & datos numéricos , Negativa a la Vacunación/estadística & datos numéricos , Vacunas Virales/biosíntesis
9.
Parasitol Res ; 119(11): 3739-3753, 2020 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33000433

RESUMEN

Many tick-borne pathogens (TBPs) are present in wildlife. The objective of this study is to reveal the role of wild bears in maintaining TBPs. A total of 49 brown bears (Ursus arctos yesoensis) from Hokkaido, and 18 Japanese black bears (Ursus thibetanus japonicus) from Tochigi, and 66 Japanese black bears from Nagano were examined by two molecular methods, reverse line blot (RLB) hybridization, and nested PCR. A total of 5 TBPs (Hepatozoon ursi, Babesia sp. UR2-like group, Cytauxzoon sp. UR1, Babesia sp. UR1, and Babesia microti) were detected from bear blood DNA samples. B. microti was detected from blood DNA samples of Japanese black bear for the first time, with the prevalence of 6.0% (5/84). Out of detected pathogens, H. ursi, Babesia sp. UR2-like pathogens, and Cytauxzoon sp. UR1 were considered as three of the most prevalent TBPs in bears. The prevalence of H. ursi were significantly higher in Japanese black bear (0% vs 96.4%) while that of Babesia sp. UR2-like group was higher in Hokkaido brown bears (89.8% vs 40.5%). The prevalence of Babesia sp. UR1 were significantly higher in Japanese black bears from Tochigi (44.4%), comparing with those from Nagano (18.2%). The prevalence of the detected TBPs were significantly higher in adult bears, comparing with those in younger bears. The present study suggests that Japanese bear species contribute in the transmission of several TBPs in Japan. The expanding distribution of bears might cause the accidental transmission of TBPs to humans and domestic animals.


Asunto(s)
Apicomplexa/aislamiento & purificación , Infecciones Protozoarias en Animales/parasitología , Ursidae/parasitología , Animales , Animales Salvajes/parasitología , Apicomplexa/clasificación , Apicomplexa/genética , ADN Protozoario/genética , Japón/epidemiología , Prevalencia , Infecciones Protozoarias en Animales/epidemiología , Infecciones Protozoarias en Animales/transmisión , Enfermedades por Picaduras de Garrapatas/epidemiología , Enfermedades por Picaduras de Garrapatas/parasitología , Enfermedades por Picaduras de Garrapatas/transmisión , Garrapatas/parasitología
10.
Arch Osteoporos ; 15(1): 152, 2020 10 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33006016

RESUMEN

The incidence rate of hip fracture in Tottori Prefecture tended to increase until 2018 in men, but it did not increase after 2010 in women. By type of fracture, the incidence rate of femoral neck fractures also increased over time in men, but no other changes were observed from 2010. PURPOSE: The aims of this study were to determine the sex-, age-, and fracture-type-specific incidence rates of hip fractures in Tottori Prefecture between 2007 and 2018 and to compare the results with our past results to identify changes over time. METHODS: All hip fractures in people aged 35 years or older living in Tottori Prefecture were surveyed from 2007 to 2018 throughout the entire prefecture, and the age- and sex-specific incidence rates were calculated. The incidence rates from 1986 to 1988, 1992 to 1994, 1998 to 2000, and 2004 to 2006 previously reported were used for the analysis. RESULTS: In men, the age-adjusted number of patients adjusted by demographic structure based on the mean incidence rate for each 3-year period from 1986 to 2018 showed an increase in incidence over time compared with the incidence for 1986-1988 (p < 0.001). In women, the incidence rose over time compared with the incidence for 1986-1988 until 2004-2006 (p < 0.001), and no further increase was observed from 2010. The age-specific incidence rates of neck fracture in men were higher in 2010-2012 and 2016-2018 compared with 2004-2006 (p < 0.001), but those in women showed no increase with time. Those of trochanteric fracture did not change over time in either men or women. CONCLUSION: The hip fracture incidence rate in Tottori Prefecture, Japan, tended to increase until 2018 in men, but it did not increase after 2010 in women.


Asunto(s)
Fracturas del Cuello Femoral/epidemiología , Fracturas de Cadera/epidemiología , Adulto , Distribución por Edad , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Femenino , Fracturas del Cuello Femoral/etnología , Fracturas de Cadera/etnología , Humanos , Fracturas del Húmero/epidemiología , Incidencia , Japón/epidemiología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Vigilancia de la Población/métodos , Distribución por Sexo
11.
Anaesth Intensive Care ; 48(5): 381-388, 2020 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33021807

RESUMEN

The reported incidence of post--dural puncture headache (PDPH) after neuraxial anaesthesia varies widely, depending on patient and procedural risk factors. Most previous studies have had small sample sizes and focused on obstetric patients. This study aimed to investigate the incidence of PDPH and factors associated with PDPH in non-obstetric and obstetric patients after neuraxial anaesthesia. We identified patients who underwent surgery with neuraxial anaesthesia between July 2010 and December 2017 from a Japanese nationwide inpatient administrative claims and discharge database. Factors associated with PDPH (body mass index (BMI), depression, spinal abnormalities, academic hospital and location of epidural anaesthesia) were examined using multivariable logistic analyses. The incidence of PDPH in non-obstetric patients after spinal anaesthesia, epidural anaesthesia and combined spinal epidural anaesthesia was 0.16%, 0.13% and 0.23% and in obstetric patients was 1.16%, 0.99% and 1.05%, respectively. Higher BMI was associated with decreased incidence of PDPH in non-obstetric patients receiving spinal anaesthesia and obstetric patients receiving epidural anaesthesia. In female patients receiving spinal anaesthesia, a history of depression was associated with increased incidence of PDPH. Being in an academic hospital was associated with decreased incidence of PDPH in male patients receiving spinal anaesthesia and female patients receiving spinal or epidural anaesthesia, but increased incidence of PDPH in male patients receiving epidural anaesthesia. Lumbar epidural anaesthesia was associated with increased incidence of PDPH in male patients, but decreased incidence of PDPH in obstetric patients compared with thoracic epidural anaesthesia. The present study identified several potential new risk factors for PDPH, and revealed that the incidence of PDPH in non-obstetric patients after neuraxial anaesthesia was lower than in obstetric patients.


Asunto(s)
Anestesia Obstétrica , Anestesia Raquidea , Cefalea Pospunción de la Duramadre , Anestesia Obstétrica/efectos adversos , Anestesia Raquidea/efectos adversos , Parche de Sangre Epidural , Femenino , Cefalea , Humanos , Incidencia , Pacientes Internos , Japón/epidemiología , Masculino , Cefalea Pospunción de la Duramadre/epidemiología , Cefalea Pospunción de la Duramadre/etiología , Embarazo , Punciones , Factores de Riesgo
12.
Shokuhin Eiseigaku Zasshi ; 61(4): 103-108, 2020.
Artículo en Japonés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33012763

RESUMEN

Ascaris lumbricoides or roundworm is one of the key soil-transmitted helminths affecting humans. A small number of infections continue to occur in Japan, suggesting plant foodstuff contamination as the source of infection. To understand the current status of ascariasis incidence and to identify potential sources of infection, we extensively surveyed the available literature and collected data from testing facilities that examined clinical samples or foodstuffs. We observed that from 2002 onwards, there was a decrease in the number of ascariasis cases reported in scientific journals. Data from a clinical testing facility indicated that the number of detected cases declined remarkably from 2009. Foodstuff testing facilities reported that 11 of 10,223 plant foodstuff specimens were contaminated with anisakid nematodes but not with Ascaris. Imported kimchi was suspected as the most probable source of ascarid nematode infection, as one Ascaris egg-positive sample was detected among 60 kimchi samples in a testing facility. Therefore, the sources of Ascaris infection are still not fully known and need to be clarified to establish preventive countermeasures to safeguard Ascaris infections that continue to occur in Japan.


Asunto(s)
Ascariasis , Ascaris lumbricoides , Parasitología de Alimentos , Animales , Ascariasis/epidemiología , Ascariasis/prevención & control , Humanos , Incidencia , Japón/epidemiología , Suelo
14.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 16642, 2020 10 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33024235

RESUMEN

Among Italy, Spain, and Japan, the age distributions of COVID-19 mortality show only small variation even though the number of deaths per country shows large variation. To understand the determinant for this situation, we constructed a mathematical model describing the transmission dynamics and natural history of COVID-19 and analyzed the dataset of mortality in Italy, Spain, and Japan. We estimated the parameter which describes the age-dependency of susceptibility by fitting the model to reported data, including the effect of change in contact patterns during the epidemics of COVID-19, and the fraction of symptomatic infections. Our study revealed that if the mortality rate or the fraction of symptomatic infections among all COVID-19 cases does not depend on age, then unrealistically different age-dependencies of susceptibilities against COVID-19 infections between Italy, Japan, and Spain are required to explain the similar age distribution of mortality but different basic reproduction numbers (R0). Variation of susceptibility by age itself cannot explain the robust age distribution in mortality by COVID-19 infections in those three countries, however it does suggest that the age-dependencies of (i) the mortality rate and (ii) the fraction of symptomatic infections among all COVID-19 cases determine the age distribution of mortality by COVID-19.


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/mortalidad , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/mortalidad , Adolescente , Adulto , Distribución por Edad , Factores de Edad , Anciano , Número Básico de Reproducción , Niño , Preescolar , Infecciones por Coronavirus/transmisión , Infecciones por Coronavirus/virología , Susceptibilidad a Enfermedades , Femenino , Humanos , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Italia/epidemiología , Japón/epidemiología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Modelos Teóricos , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/transmisión , Neumonía Viral/virología , España/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
15.
Nihon Koshu Eisei Zasshi ; 67(9): 593-602, 2020.
Artículo en Japonés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33041285

RESUMEN

Objective The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of age, period, birth cohort, and regional differences in the detection of breast cancer using screening data.Method Data from the Japan Cancer Society's breast cancer screening program, collected from 21 prefectural branches between 2004 to 2015, were used to generate age-specific estimates of cancer detection for women aged between 40 to 79 years. We used Bayesian age-period-cohort (APC) analyses based on the cohort table to describe the simultaneous effects of age, period, and cohort on breast cancer detection rates to understand the population dynamics underlying the detection patterns. We also incorporated region as a random effect to examine regional characteristics.Results The age effect showed bimodality in the late 40s and late 50s. The period effect decreased from 2004 to 2007 and remained constant thereafter. The cohort effect showed that the detection rate for women born between 1943 and 1958 was high. Furthermore, we found regional differences in the breast cancer detection rate: Miyazaki, Fukui, Tochigi, and Hokkaido prefectures showed higher detection rates, while Kagoshima and Chiba prefecture had lower rates.Conclusion Age effect has the strongest influence on the secular trend of breast cancer detection, and there is a regional difference in the detection rate. The present study that used screening data presented similar results to those of previous studies. The National Cancer Registry, based on the Cancer Registry Act of 2016, reports accurate national data. Similar to the National Cancer Registry data, analysis using screening data has immediacy and could be used for disease prevention.


Asunto(s)
Neoplasias de la Mama/diagnóstico , Neoplasias de la Mama/epidemiología , Detección Precoz del Cáncer/estadística & datos numéricos , Tamizaje Masivo , Factores de Edad , Teorema de Bayes , Neoplasias de la Mama/prevención & control , Estudios de Cohortes , Interpretación Estadística de Datos , Japón/epidemiología , Sistema de Registros , Factores de Tiempo
16.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0240396, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33031476

RESUMEN

During the past 6 months, the world has lost almost 950,000 lives because of the outbreak of COVID-19, with more than 31 million individuals diagnosed with COVID-19 worldwide. In response, lockdowns, and various other policies have been implemented. Unfortunately, many individuals are violating those policies and governments have been urging people to comply with the behavioral guidelines. In this paper, we argue that personality traits need to be considered to understand and encourage more effective public compliance with COVID 19 transmission mitigation behavioral guidelines. Using a sample of 8,548 individuals from Japan, we show that certain personality traits are related to the tendency to comply with COVID-19 transmission mitigation behavioral guidelines. We emphasize the importance of understanding why people respond differently to the same authority's messages and provide actionable insights for government policy makers and those who implement policies.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Política de Salud , Control de Infecciones/métodos , Pandemias/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Adulto , Betacoronavirus/fisiología , Conductas Relacionadas con la Salud , Humanos , Japón/epidemiología , Persona de Mediana Edad , Personalidad , Adulto Joven
17.
Brain Nerve ; 72(10): 1023-1030, 2020 Oct.
Artículo en Japonés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33051387

RESUMEN

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is a worldwide peril. The PCR tests are widely used to detect infections. However, multiple regression analysis revealed no correlation between the examination rate among population (ER) and the success of containment, which is achieved by social distancing. ER and fatality rate were even positively correlated. Japan has been criticized for its very low ER, but it achieved better containment than other major countries with much higher ER on 29 May. The estimation of the true infection rate (TIR) among population revealed that the low fatality rate in Japan and other Asian countries is partly due to low TIR. Fatality of COVID-19 is highly accentuated in aged persons. Despite having the highest aging rate in the world, the fatality rate in Japan is relatively low. The corrected fatality rate of Japan is the second-lowest among the G20 countries. Mimicking the attenuation of viral virulence due to natural selection would be a promising strategy to overcome pandemic. The prevention of in-hospital transmission, especially from severe cases, would be the key to achieve this. Attenuation of the viral virulence in the second wave is evident in many European countries, and also in Tokyo.


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Humanos , Japón/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología
18.
Math Biosci Eng ; 17(5): 5085-5098, 2020 07 27.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33120541

RESUMEN

The COVID-19 outbreak, designated a "pandemic" by the World Health Organization (WHO) on 11 March 2020, has spread worldwide rapidly. Each country implemented prevention and control strategies, mainly classified as SARS LCS (SARS-like containment strategy) or PAIN LMS (pandemic influenza-like mitigation strategy). The reasons for variation in each strategy's efficacy in controlling COVID-19 epidemics were unclear and are investigated in this paper. On the basis of the daily number of confirmed local (imported) cases and onset-to-confirmation distributions for local cases, we initially estimated the daily number of local (imported) illness onsets by a deconvolution method for mainland China, South Korea, Japan and Spain, and then estimated the effective reproduction numbers Rt by using a Bayesian method for each of the four countries. China and South Korea adopted a strict SARS LCS, to completely block the spread via lockdown, strict travel restrictions and by detection and isolation of patients, which led to persistent declines in effective reproduction numbers. In contrast, Japan and Spain adopted a typical PAIN LMS to mitigate the spread via maintaining social distance, self-quarantine and isolation etc., which reduced the Rt values but with oscillations around 1. The finding suggests that governments may need to consider multiple factors such as quantities of medical resources, the likely extent of the public's compliance to different intensities of intervention measures, and the economic situation to design the most appropriate policies to fight COVID-19 epidemics.


Asunto(s)
Número Básico de Reproducción , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles/legislación & jurisprudencia , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Teorema de Bayes , Betacoronavirus , China/epidemiología , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles/métodos , Humanos , Japón/epidemiología , Modelos Teóricos , Pandemias , Distribución de Poisson , Cuarentena , República de Corea/epidemiología , Aislamiento Social , España/epidemiología
19.
J Med Internet Res ; 22(10): e19994, 2020 10 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33001833

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The estimates of several key epidemiological parameters of the COVID-19 pandemic are often based on small sample sizes or are inaccurate for various reasons. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to obtain more robust estimates of the incubation period, serial interval, frequency of presymptomatic transmission, and basic reproduction number (R0) of COVID-19 based on a large case series. METHODS: We systematically retrieved and screened 20,658 reports of laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 cases released by the health authorities of China, Japan, and Singapore. In addition, 9942 publications were retrieved from PubMed and China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) through April 8, 2020. To be eligible, a report had to contain individual data that allowed for accurate estimation of at least one parameter. Widely used models such as gamma distributions were fitted to the data sets and the results with the best-fitting values were presented. RESULTS: In total, 1591 cases were included for the final analysis. The mean incubation period (n=687) and mean serial interval (n=1015 pairs) were estimated to be 7.04 (SD 4.27) days and 6.49 (SD 4.90) days, respectively. In 40 cases (5.82%), the incubation period was longer than 14 days. In 32 infector-infectee pairs (3.15%), infectees' symptom onsets occurred before those of infectors. Presymptomatic transmission occurred in 129 of 296 infector-infectee pairs (43.58%). R0 was estimated to be 1.85 (95% CI 1.37-2.60). CONCLUSIONS: This study provides robust estimates of several epidemiological parameters of COVID-19. The findings support the current practice of 14-day quarantine of persons with potential exposure, but also suggest the need for additional measures. Presymptomatic transmission together with the asymptomatic transmission reported by previous studies highlight the importance of adequate testing, strict quarantine, and social distancing.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Número Básico de Reproducción , Betacoronavirus , China/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Japón/epidemiología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pandemias , Singapur/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
20.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 790, 2020 Oct 23.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33096994

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Jamestown Canyon virus (JCV) is a mosquito-borne orthobunyavirus that causes acute febrile illness, meningitis, and meningoencephalitis, mainly among adults. JCV is widely distributed in North America and the number of JCV cases in the U.S. has increased in recent years. Therefore, the central nervous system disease caused by JCV can be considered a potentially re-emerging viral disease. However, the seroprevalence of JCV is unknown in Japan. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the seroprevalence of JCV in the Japanese population. METHODS: We used an IgG enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (IgG-ELISA) with JCV-infected cell-lysates and/or a neutralizing (NT) antibody assay. The cut-off value of IgG-ELISA was determined using IgG-ELISA to analyze serum specimens from 37 healthy Japanese donors. IgG-ELISA was validated by assessing its sensitivity and specificity, using 38 human serum samples previously tested for the presence or absence of antibodies against JCV and snowshoe hare virus (SSHV), in an in-house NT antibody assay conducted by the Public Health Agency of Canada. The seroepidemiological study was performed using IgG-ELISA and NT antibody assay to analyze 246 human serum samples from the serum bank of the National Institute of Infectious Diseases (NIID) in Japan. RESULTS: The cut-off value of IgG-ELISA was determined at 0.20, based on the mean (- 0.075) and standard deviation (0.092) values using Japanese donors' sera. The sensitivity and the specificity of IgG-ELISA determined using 25 JCV-positive and 4 JCV-negative serum samples were 96 and 100%, respectively. Analysis of the 246 Japanese serum samples revealed that no specimen showed a higher value than the cut-off value of IgG-ELISA, and no sample tested positive by the NT antibody assay. CONCLUSIONS: Our results showed that JCV is not circulating significantly in Japan. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report to demonstrate the seroprevalence of JCV in the general population in Japan.


Asunto(s)
Anticuerpos Antivirales/inmunología , Virus de la Encefalitis de California/inmunología , Encefalitis de California/epidemiología , Ensayo de Inmunoadsorción Enzimática/métodos , Pruebas de Neutralización/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Animales , Anticuerpos Neutralizantes/sangre , Anticuerpos Neutralizantes/inmunología , Anticuerpos Antivirales/sangre , Niño , Preescolar , Culicidae/virología , Encefalitis de California/virología , Femenino , Humanos , Inmunoglobulina G/sangre , Inmunoglobulina G/inmunología , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Japón/epidemiología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Prevalencia , Sensibilidad y Especificidad , Estudios Seroepidemiológicos , Adulto Joven
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