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5.
Bogotá; Ministerio de Salud y Protección Social;Instituto Nacional de Salud; 20200211. 9 p.
No convencional en Español | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1050138

RESUMEN

El Ministerio de Salud y Protección Social y el Instituto Nacional de Salud, en ejercicio de las facultades señaladas en los Decretos 4107 y 4109, ambos de 2.011, y en el marco del Reglamento Sanitario Internacional -RSI-2005, y ante la situación epidemiológica por el nuevo coronavirus (2019-nCoV), declarada como emergencia en salud pública de importancia internacional (ESPII) por la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS) el día 30 de enero del año en curso: imparten instrucciones sobre las acciones que los destinatarios de esta circular deben observar para la vigilancia activa, preparación y toma de medidas de contención para una eventual introducción del virus en el territorio nacional.


The Ministry of Health and Social Protection and the National Institute of Health, in exercise of the powers indicated in Decrees 4107 and 4109, both of 2,011, and within the framework of the International Health Regulations -RSI-2005, and before the epidemiological situation by the new coronavirus (2019-nCoV), declared as an emergency in public health of international importance (ESPII) by the World Health Organization (WHO) on January 30 of this year: they give instructions on the actions that the recipients of This circular must observe for the active surveillance, preparation and taking of containment measures for an eventual introduction of the virus into the national territory.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Coronavirus , Jurisprudencia
6.
Rev. bras. cir. plást ; 34(4): 485-496, oct.-dec. 2019. ilus, tab
Artículo en Inglés, Portugués | LILACS | ID: biblio-1047909

RESUMEN

Introdução: É consenso no meio jurídico que os resultados referentes às atividades médicas sejam obrigação de meio, e não de resultado. Contudo, há grande discussão quando se trata de procedimentos estéticos. A Resolução nº 1621/2001, do Conselho Federal de Medicina, define que o objetivo do ato médico na cirurgia plástica também constitui obrigação de meio. O estudo avaliou, entre novembro de 2015 a novembro de 2017, 106 casos, para verificar se o entendimento do Judiciário se alinha à Resolução do CFM [Conselho Federal de Medicina]. Foram quantificados o número de processos e a porcentagem dos casos julgados como procedentes ou improcedentes, além de verificar as principais posições doutrinárias e jurisprudenciais que embasaram as sentenças admitidas como procedentes. Foi, ainda, quantificado o número de casos cuja decisão do magistrado foi relacionada com o posicionamento do laudo pericial médico. Métodos: Foi feita busca no banco de sentenças do site do Tribunal de Justiça do Estado de São Paulo (SP), por meio da palavra-chave "Cirurgia Plástica", de todos os processos de indenização relacionados a cirurgias plásticas estéticas. Resultados: Foram sentenciados como improcedentes 61 casos (58%). Foram sentenciados como procedentes 45 casos (42%). Em 96% dos casos (102) a sentença relacionou-se positivamente com a análise pericial. Conclusão: Foram 102 sentenças concordantes aos laudos periciais e apenas quatro casos cuja sentença divergiu do entendimento do laudo. Estes dados mostram a importância crucial da análise pericial para a definição das sentenças judiciais. Analisando todas as sentenças, observou-se que em nenhum caso os juízes levaram em conta a Resolução do CFM [Conselho Federal de Medicina].


Introduction: There is a legal consensus that the results of medical activities represent obligations of means, not results. However, there is ample discussion when it comes to aesthetic procedures. Resolution 1621/2001 of the Federal Council of Medicine also defines the objective of a medical act in plastic surgery as an obligation of means. This study evaluated 106 cases between November 2015 and November 2017 to verify whether the decisions of the Judicial Power agree with the Resolution of the Federal Council of Medicine. The number of lawsuits and the percentage of claims granted or denied were quantified, and the opinions of jurists and courts that supported the claims granted were verified. The number of cases in which the judge's decision was related to the opinion of a medical expert was also quantified. Methods: The authors searched the judgment database located on the website of the Court of Justice of the State of São Paulo (SP) for damage related to aesthetic plastic surgery, using the keyword "Plastic Surgery" for all actions. Results: A total of 61 claims (58%) were denied, and 45 (42%) were granted. In 96% of cases (102) the judgment was positively related to the expert report. Conclusion: There were 102 cases in which the judgment agreed with the expert reports and only four cases in which the judgment did not agree with the reports. These data show the crucial importance of experts' reports in defining judicial judgments. The analyses of all judgments showed that there were no cases in which the judge considered the Resolution of the Federal Council of Medicine.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Historia del Siglo XXI , Administración en Salud Pública , Cirugía Plástica , Errores Médicos , Decisiones Judiciales , Estética , Medicina Legal , Jurisprudencia , Administración en Salud Pública/legislación & jurisprudencia , Administración en Salud Pública/métodos , Administración en Salud Pública/estadística & datos numéricos , Cirugía Plástica/legislación & jurisprudencia , Errores Médicos/legislación & jurisprudencia , Medicina Legal/estadística & datos numéricos
7.
Ig Sanita Pubbl ; 75(4): 297-301, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31887735

RESUMEN

A 65-year-old woman affected by chronic pruritus in both ears was referred by her family physician to a private laboratory to undergo an ear swab test for microbiological and cultural examination. During the procedure on the right side, the patient experienced sudden pain, immediately followed by auricular fullness and dizziness. The clinician performing the swab did not perform an otoscopy and did not administer any topical or general medications. A few days later, purulent discharge appeared. Follow-up showed tympanic membrane perforation and mixed severe hearing loss. Indications for ear swab tests are currently unclear, and complications deriving from this apparently simple procedure are seldom reported.


Asunto(s)
Pérdida Auditiva/complicaciones , Jurisprudencia , Errores Médicos , Otitis Media/complicaciones , Perforación de la Membrana Timpánica , Anciano , Femenino , Humanos , Rotura Espontánea
8.
Rev. esp. drogodepend ; 44(4): 105-117, oct.-dic. 2019.
Artículo en Español | IBECS | ID: ibc-187267

RESUMEN

El incremento de las casas de apuestas supone un aumento de la oportunidad para iniciarse en los juegos de azar, pero también para el desarrollo de patologías como la ludopatía. Lo mismo podría decirse respecto de la expansión del juego online, especialmente en sectores jóvenes de la población, atendiendo además a las facilidades que la tecnología ofrece respecto de las adicciones comportamentales. Este contexto supone un factor criminógeno que favorece la comisión de hechos delictivos relacionados con el juego patológico, con el objetivo de satisfacer las necesidades económicas de la persona para seguir jugando. De acuerdo con lo expuesto, en este trabajo se analiza el tratamiento penal de la ludopatía, considerando su afectación a la capacidad volitiva del sujeto, mediante la aplicación de la atenuante de análoga significación recogida en el art. 21.7 del Código penal. La descripción del marco legal sobre la imputabilidad y la atenuación de la pena en los casos de ludopatía es acompañada por un estudio de la jurisprudencia del Tribunal Supremo en lo relativo al tratamiento del juego patológico


The increasing number of betting offices entails an increase in opportunities to start gambling, but also concerning the development of pathologies such as compulsive gambling. The situation is the same with respect to the expansion of online gambling, specially focused on young people, according to the new context created by the incidence of technologies regarding behavioral addictions. This context entails a criminogenic risk which could lead to the committing of offences related to pathological gambling, with the purpose of feeding the gambling habit. In line with this issue, this paper analyses the treatment of compulsive gambling in Spanish criminal law, taking into account its effect on a person’s willpower, by means of the analogical mitigating circumstance regulated in art. 21.7 Criminal Code. The description of the legal framework regarding accountability and mitigation of the penalty in compulsive gambling is combined with a study about the Supreme Court case law related to pathological gambling treatment


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Juego de Azar/terapia , Prisiones/legislación & jurisprudencia , Imputabilidad , Jurisprudencia , Internet
11.
Am J Law Med ; 45(2-3): 106-129, 2019 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31722633

RESUMEN

Beginning on inauguration day, President Trump has attempted an executive repeal of the Affordable Care Act. In doing so, he has tested the limits of presidential power. He has challenged the force of institutional and non-institutional constraints. And, ironically, he has helped boost public support for the ACA's central features. The first two sections of this article respectively consider the use of the President's tools to advance and to subvert health reform. The final two sections consider the forces constraining the administration's attempted executive repeal. I argue that the most important institutional constraint, thus far, is found in multifaceted actions by states - and not only blue states. I also highlight the force of public voices. Personal stories, public opinion, and 2018 election results - bolstered by presidential messaging - reflect growing support for government-grounded options and statutory coverage protections. Indeed, in a polarized time, "refine and revise" seems poised to supplant "repeal and replace" as the conservative focus countering liberal pressure for a common option grounded in Medicare.


Asunto(s)
Personal Administrativo , Reforma de la Atención de Salud/legislación & jurisprudencia , Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act/legislación & jurisprudencia , Política , Gobierno Federal , Financiación Gubernamental/legislación & jurisprudencia , Financiación Gubernamental/organización & administración , Regulación Gubernamental , Reforma de la Atención de Salud/historia , Historia del Siglo XX , Historia del Siglo XXI , Humanos , Reembolso de Seguro de Salud/legislación & jurisprudencia , Jurisprudencia , Medicaid/legislación & jurisprudencia , Medicaid/organización & administración , Medicare/legislación & jurisprudencia , Medicare/organización & administración , Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act/organización & administración , Cobertura de Afecciones Preexistentes , Opinión Pública , Gobierno Estatal , Estados Unidos
14.
Prensa méd. argent ; 105(10): 680-685, oct 2019.
Artículo en Español | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1025960

RESUMEN

SWOT matrix is a strategic planning technique used to help to identify strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats related to project planning. SWOT matrx has been described as the tried-and-true tool for strategic analysis. Application of the SWOT matrix to the clinic history for its medico-legal evaluation, is referred


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Registros Médicos/legislación & jurisprudencia , Responsabilidad Legal , Registros , Medicina Legal/legislación & jurisprudencia , Jurisprudencia
15.
J Hist Med Allied Sci ; 74(4): 416-439, 2019 Oct 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31553441

RESUMEN

This essay explores the uses of phrenological theory in the realm of jurisprudence between the mid-1830s and 1850s, focusing in particular on the adoption and circulation of phrenological language within medico-legal circles through this period. The article begins by contextualizing medical jurisprudence in early America; at the same time that phrenology was gaining ground in the United States, theories of medical jurisprudence were in flux. I next turn to the concept of the propensities in phrenological theory and their relationship to theories of moral insanity developed in the same period. This article concludes with an exploration of explicit and implicit uses of phrenology, focusing on court cases featuring phrenological expertise or language. The article thus suggests both the uses of phrenology for the building of medico-legal expertise and the extent to which phrenological language around the propensities inflected lay and medico-legal discourse around criminal responsibility and insanity.


Asunto(s)
Defensa por Insania/historia , Jurisprudencia/historia , Frenología/historia , Historia del Siglo XIX , Humanos , Defensa por Insania/estadística & datos numéricos , Estados Unidos
16.
PLoS One ; 14(8): e0220160, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31390348

RESUMEN

Institution-centered accounts of generalized trust rely on the idea that law-breaking and state's unfairness lower individuals' propensity to trust fellow citizens because of a weaker confidence in the state. Despite the theoretical relevance attributed to this mediation mechanism, no empirical analysis in the literature has focused on examining its correlational validity. Using data from the European Social Survey (2010), the Quality of Government EU Regional data, and EUROSTAT, this paper assesses the intervening role of institutional trust on the relationship between crime rates, state's fairness, and generalized trust. Results from a Multilevel SEM (MSEM) mediation analysis indicate that trust in institutions strongly mediates the relationship between violent crimes (i.e. homicide) and generalized trust but not the one between property crimes (i.e. vehicle thefts and robberies) and generalized trust. On the other hand, indicators of fairness (i.e. impartiality and corruption) are all mediated by institutional trust, though impartiality maintains a significant direct effect. Overall, findings support the institutional approach, confirming that the negative relationship between ineffective and unfair institutions and generalized trust passes mostly through people's lost faith in the state.


Asunto(s)
Jurisprudencia , Justicia Social , Confianza , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Actitud , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Adulto Joven
17.
BMC Med Ethics ; 20(1): 51, 2019 08 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31383026

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The marketing of unproven direct-to-consumer stem cell interventions is becoming widespread in Canada. There is little evidence supporting their use and they have been associated with a range of harms. Canada has been slower to act against clinics offering these interventions than other jurisdictions, including the United States. Here, we outline the regulatory and policy tools available in Canada to address this growing problem. MAIN BODY: Health Canada's regulations governing cell therapies are complex, but recent statements make it clear that Health Canada believes it has jurisdiction over many of the currently marketed stem cell interventions. Still, further regulatory clarity is needed from Health Canada, as are increased directed enforcement efforts on interventions that fall within their scope. The Competition Bureau, via the Competition Act, prohibits advertisers from making materially false or misleading promotional representations. The Competition Bureau could collaborate with the scientific community to analyze the claims of existing clinics in Canada, and impose sanctions upon those who breach the established standard. Professional regulators, including provincial colleges of physicians and surgeons, have considerable power over what products and services their members can offer. Every college of physicians in Canada requires, via policy and codes of ethics, that doctors maintain evidence-based practices. This requirement is incompatible with offering many unproven stem cell interventions. Litigation may be another tool, including the use of fraud, misrepresentation and/or negligence claims for failing to meet the required standard of care. Finally, political pressure on federal and provincial lawmakers could encourage changes to marketing, cell therapy and professional regulations that would allow a more comprehensive response. CONCLUSIONS: In sum, there are many existing tools that can be used to protect the public from unproven stem cell interventions. Increased bureaucratic will and grassroots efforts are needed in order to effect a positive policy response.


Asunto(s)
Regulación Gubernamental , Política de Salud , Trasplante de Células Madre/legislación & jurisprudencia , /ética , Canadá , Humanos , Jurisprudencia , Trasplante de Células Madre/ética , Resultado del Tratamiento
18.
Praxis (Bern 1994) ; 108(10): 673-677, 2019 Aug.
Artículo en Alemán | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31387494

RESUMEN

Clinical Practice Guidelines: An Ambiguous Term With Potentially Unexpected Legal Consequences Abstract. The term "Clinical Practice Guidelines (CPG)" is not applied consistently in Switzerland. The FMH published a definition in 1999. However, documents not corresponding to the definition are sometimes also called CPG, while those corresponding to it are sometimes titled with other terms, such as "(klinische) Richtlinien", "Empfehlungen" or "Stellungnahmen". This heterogeneity in terminology could lead to clinical uncertainty and potentially unintended (or at least unpredicted) legal consequences. Ill-defined CPG could lead to inappropriate use of these documents in criminal, civil and public law procedures. On the other hand, an agreement on a unified use of the CPG terms would help to improve their quality and legal certainty.


Asunto(s)
Guías de Práctica Clínica como Asunto , Terminología como Asunto , Jurisprudencia , Suiza
19.
Sci Justice ; 59(4): 367-379, 2019 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31256808

RESUMEN

Examples of reasoning problems such as the twins problem and poison paradox have been proposed by legal scholars to demonstrate the limitations of probability theory in legal reasoning. Specifically, such problems are intended to show that use of probability theory results in legal paradoxes. As such, these problems have been a powerful detriment to the use of probability theory - and particularly Bayes theorem - in the law. However, the examples only lead to 'paradoxes' under an artificially constrained view of probability theory and the use of the so-called likelihood ratio, in which multiple related hypotheses and pieces of evidence are squeezed into a single hypothesis variable and a single evidence variable. When the distinct relevant hypotheses and evidence are described properly in a causal model (a Bayesian network), the paradoxes vanish. In addition to the twins problem and poison paradox, we demonstrate this for the food tray example, the abuse paradox and the small town murder problem. Moreover, the resulting Bayesian networks provide a powerful framework for legal reasoning.


Asunto(s)
Teorema de Bayes , Modelos Teóricos , Solución de Problemas , Humanos , Jurisprudencia , Funciones de Verosimilitud , Incertidumbre
20.
Torture ; 29(1): 36-46, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31264814

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: If asylum applicants need to prove that they have been persecuted in their home country, expert judgment of the psychological and physical consequences of torture may support the judicial process. Expert medico-legal reports can be used to assess whether the medical complaints of the asylum seeker are consistent with their asylum account. It is unclear which factors influence medical expert judgement about the consistency between an asylum seeker's symptoms and story, and to what extent expert medico-legal reports are associated with judicial outcomes. METHODS: We analysed 97 medico-legal reports on traumatised asylum seekers in the Netherlands. First, we evaluated the impact of trauma-related and other variables on experts' judgments of the consistency of symptoms and story. Second, we evaluated the effect of experts' judgments of symptom-story consistency on subsequent judicial outcomes. RESULTS: Gender, receipt of mental health care and trauma-related variables were associated with symptom story consistency. Positive asylum decisions were predicted by expert judgments about the presence of physical signs and symptoms of torture, and ill-treatment and their consistency with the refugee's story, but not psychological symptoms. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that standardised procedures for the documenting of medical evidence by independent experts can improve judicial decision quality and the need to improve psychological and psychiatric assessments.


Asunto(s)
Testimonio de Experto , Medicina Legal , Jurisprudencia , Refugiados , Tortura , Adolescente , Adulto , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Países Bajos , Informe de Investigación , Delitos Sexuales , Trastornos por Estrés Postraumático/diagnóstico , Violencia , Adulto Joven
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