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1.
Ann Glob Health ; 87(1): 106, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34786354

RESUMEN

COVID-19 poses a particular threat to refugees in Africa. Overcrowded living conditions and lack of effective sanitation make refugees highly vulnerable to infection. Furthermore, migration has the potential to undermine measures to control viral spread. As a result, vaccination of the refugee community in Africa must be considered key in the vaccination plan to end the worldwide COVID-19 pandemic. Although the WHO has approved vaccines for emergency use worldwide in vulnerable groups through the COVID-19 Vaccines Global Access (COVAX) program, there is a lack of a strategy for achieving vaccination in the African refugee population. A specific strategy for refugee vaccination must be among the top priorities at national, regional, and global levels to ensure all refugees and asylum seekers in African countries have equitable and quality vaccine assistance regardless of displacement, statelessness, and financial hardship. We call on leaders in Africa and worldwide to ensure that refugee vaccination is a priority to protect this highly at-risk population and achieve an end to the current pandemic.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Equidad en Salud , Refugiados , África/epidemiología , Vacunas contra la COVID-19 , Humanos , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Justicia Social
2.
Healthc Q ; 24(3): 18-22, 2021 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34792443

RESUMEN

This article weighs three important moral and ethical considerations for leaders in healthcare: their obligations to society, their privilege as leaders and how value goes beyond a simple cost analysis. Leaders highly motivated by the bottom line have avoided the long overdue action on moral and ethical considerations critical to a more just and fairer society. Leaders are now being tasked to develop strategies for health equity, anti-oppression, anti-racism, social justice, diversity, equity and inclusiveness, community engagement, the social determinants of health and environmental accountability, and to demonstrate that their disruptive work adds more value to society than what can be measured in spreadsheet metrics.


Asunto(s)
Equidad en Salud , Liderazgo , Humanos , Principios Morales , Justicia Social , Responsabilidad Social
3.
J Aging Stud ; 59: 100975, 2021 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34794720

RESUMEN

Developed via an online collaborative writing project involving members of the Multi-species Dementia International Research Network, this article seeks to refocus "the lens of the dementia debate" (Bartlett & O'Connor, 2007) by bringing dementia's complicated relations with the more-than-human world into sharper relief. Specifically, the article explores four thematic areas (contours) within contemporary dementia studies (Care & Caring; Illness Experience & Disease Pathology; Environment, Self & Sustainability; Power, Rights & Social Justice) where the application of multi-species theories and concepts has potential to foster innovation and lead to new ways of thinking and working. Whilst incorporating multi-species perspectives within dementia studies can create new ways of responding and new spaces of response-ability, the potential for conflict and controversy remains high. It is imperative, therefore, that the field of dementia studies not only becomes a site within which multi-species perspectives can flourish, but that dementia studies also becomes a vehicle through which multi-species concepts may be refined.


Asunto(s)
Demencia , Humanos , Justicia Social , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
4.
Cuad Bioet ; 32(106): 341-352, 2021.
Artículo en Español | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34727505

RESUMEN

Illness and disability are forms of vulnerability to which human beings are victims; they limit a person's ability to act and his real possibilities are reduced. These forms of vulnerability may correspond to the loss of capabilities. Armatya Sen presents the capabilities approach as a new theory of social justice, a new way of thinking about human well-being that overcomes the shortcomings of utilitarianism, the dominant approach of his time. Capability refers to what a person is really capable of doing. Medical care, therefore, appears as a form of help whose objective is to fight against vulnerability by re-mobilizing the capabilities of the patient who, at some point in his existence due to the disease, is found more or less momentary deprived of them. The development of the power to act and the power to be of the patient, through the care provided by the caregivers, consists of strengthening their capabilities that allow them to participate effectively and actively in social life and in the management of care and health system. The objective of this article is to highlight the contributions of capabilities to patient's care. For us, it will be a matter of considering capabilities as the basis of a new paradigm for understanding the care of sick and vulnerable people in medical practice.


Asunto(s)
Personas con Discapacidad , Teoría Ética , Humanos , Justicia Social
5.
Cuad Bioet ; 32(106): 353-362, 2021.
Artículo en Español | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34727506

RESUMEN

Duchenne muscular dystrophy is a rare genetic disease with only ataluren like pharmaceutical treatment available. This drug received a conditional authorization by the European Medicines Agency (EMA) in 2014, meaning that it was commercially available while waiting for more solid results that demonstrate the efficacy and safety. Currently, the authorization still maintains the ″conditional″ modality, and the actual health benefits of the drug still remain unclear. In Spain, ataluren is not financed by the National Health System. The decision of non-financing has generated a heated debate, especially because in those patients who se treatment were started prior to the non-financing decision the drug has continued being funded. This controversial situation encompasses complex aspects of pharmaceutical and health management related to scientific evidence, the motivations of regulatory agencies and the pharmaceutical industry in the processes of drug investigation and authorization. Furthermore, as the center of the debate, some pillars of bioethics such as justice and equity, as well as certain legal principles, such as the protection of minors, are involved.


Asunto(s)
Distrofia Muscular de Duchenne , Oxadiazoles , Humanos , Justicia Social , España
6.
Am J Occup Ther ; 75(4)2021 Jul 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34780605

RESUMEN

IMPORTANCE: Societal stigma gravely impedes occupational justice for transgender and gender-nonconforming (TGNC) people, producing vast health disparities for this population. OBJECTIVE: To test the feasibility of an intervention to reduce stigma and improve the well-being of TGNC people. DESIGN: A parallel, mixed-methods design was used to test feasibility in the areas of acceptability, demand, and limited efficacy. SETTING: Community. PARTICIPANTS: Forty-two audience members and 5 TGNC interviewees. INTERVENTION: Virtual, narrative-informed play reading and moderated discussion about gender diversity and affirmative care. Outcomes and Measures: The valid and reliable Acceptance and Action Questionnaire-Stigma was used to assess stigma beliefs. An open-ended, qualitative question assessed TGNC interviewees' experiences. RESULTS: Recruitment and participant responses to the intervention indicated feasibility in the areas of acceptability, demand, and limited efficacy. However, future efforts at obtaining a diverse TGNC sample are needed. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: The intervention decreased stigma beliefs in audience members and offered a positive experience for TGNC participants. Feasibility outcomes warrant future efficacy testing. What This Article Adds: This article adds an innovative intervention for promoting occupational justice to support the health and well-being of TGNC people. The community-based intervention facilitates change in societal attitudes and stigmatizing beliefs.


Asunto(s)
Personas Transgénero , Estudios de Factibilidad , Identidad de Género , Humanos , Justicia Social , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
7.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34769858

RESUMEN

In the first quarter of 2020, Italy became one of the earliest hotspots of COVID-19 infection, and the government imposed a lockdown. During the lockdown, an online survey of 2053 adults was conducted that asked about health behaviors and about the psychological and overall impact of COVID-19. The present study is a secondary analysis of that data. We hypothesized that self-control, higher socio-economic status, existing health conditions, and fear of infection were all inversely related to actions (or intentions) that violated the lockdown (i.e., infractions). Using partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM), we found that only the fear of infection significantly dissuaded people from violating lockdown rules. Since it is not practical or ethical to sow a fear of infection, our study indicates that enacting rules and enforcing them firmly and fairly are important tools for containing the infection. This may become more important as vaccines become more widely available and people lose their fear of infection.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Animales , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles , Miedo , Femenino , Humanos , Italia/epidemiología , SARS-CoV-2 , Justicia Social , Porcinos
8.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34770126

RESUMEN

To facilitate systematic work environment management, which should be a natural part of business development, a structured support model was developed. The Stamina model has previously been used in Swedish municipalities, showing positive results. The aim was to study how the Human Resources Index (HRI), relational justice, short-term recovery and perceived productivity changed in a recently reorganised perioperative setting in a hospital in Sweden that uses a structured support model for systematic work environment management. A longitudinal design that took measurements at four time points was used in a sample of 500 employees in a perioperative hospital department. The results for the overall sample indicated a positive trend in the HRI (Mt1 = 48.5, SDt1 = 22.5; Mt3 = 56.7, SDt1 = 21.2; p < 0.001). Perceived health-related production loss (Mdt1 = 2, IQR = 3; Mdt3 = 0, IQR = 3; p < 0.001) and perceived work environment-related production loss (Mdt1 = 2, IQR = 3; Mdt3 = 0, IQR = 4; p < 0.001) showed major improvements. Short-term recovery showed a minor improvement (Mt1 = 2.61, SDt1 = 1.33; Mt3 = 2.65, SDt3 = 1.22; p = 0.872). In conclusion, the implementation of the Stamina model, of which the HRI constitutes an important part, seems to be a helpful tool to follow-up on work environment processes, and minimise production losses due to health and work environment-related issues.


Asunto(s)
Justicia Social , Lugar de Trabajo , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Hospitales , Humanos , Investigación Cualitativa , Suecia , Recursos Humanos
9.
Vertex ; XXXII(152): 17-19, 2021 Jun.
Artículo en Español | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34783790

RESUMEN

The COVID-19 has changed the way of working of forensic doctors, and the use of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) has gained relevance. But its implementation, for psychiatric-forensic evaluations, should comply with standards endorsed by the scientific community. Psycho-legal instruments are necessary in order to determine the procedural capacity of an accused person to stand trial. In the Justice of the Autonomous City of Buenos Aires (CABA), virtual proceedings are carried out, as the National Government decreed the obligatory social lockdown. In the case of the criminal jurisdiction, web platforms and electronic notifications are used for the processing of legal cases. However, in the practice of forensic medicine, there are difficulties in the use of ICTs to determine a person's capacity for criminal prosecution.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Justicia Social , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles , Comunicación , Psiquiatría Forense , Humanos , Competencia Mental , SARS-CoV-2
11.
J Water Health ; 19(5): 823-835, 2021 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34665774

RESUMEN

Access to safe drinking water and adequate sanitation is considered as a basic human right. Swachh Bharat Mission - Gramin (Rural), launched by the Government of India in 2014, is hailed as an attempt towards that direction. On 2nd October 2019, India was declared free from open defecation, with rural households having full toilet coverage. However, despite Government claims, the existing literature indicates the presence of slippage: where households practice open defecation despite having access to toilets. Equating progress in sanitation interventions with mere toilet provision presents a partial assessment of sanitation. To address the gap, the 'Sanitation Well-being' framework, based on Amartya Sen's concept of justice, has been proposed. It identifies slippage as an outcome of various underlying factors across the sanitation life-cycle. The framework provides a lens to analyse existing frameworks and secondary data sets and finds that they do not capture the dynamism inherent in the sector. The efficacy of the framework has been tested in the rural district of Shravasti, Uttar Pradesh, India, through the rapid rural appraisal method. Through our investigation, we found that slippage exists in the field, and that the framework is a feasible instrument to assess sanitation as a comprehensive phenomenon.


Asunto(s)
Aparatos Sanitarios , Saneamiento , Composición Familiar , Humanos , India , Población Rural , Justicia Social , Cuartos de Baño
15.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(10): e2126714, 2021 10 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34652448

RESUMEN

Importance: Tensions around COVID-19 and systemic racism have raised the question: are hospitals advocating for equity for their Black patients? It is imperative for hospitals to be supportive of the Black community and acknowledge themselves as safe spaces, run by clinicians and staff who care about social justice issues that impact the health of the Black community; without the expression of support, Black patients may perceive hospitals as uncaring and unsafe, potentially delaying or avoiding treatment, which can result in serious complications and death for those with COVID-19. Objective: To explore how hospitals showed public-facing support for the Black community as measured through tweets about social equity or the Black Lives Matter (BLM) movement. Design, Setting, and Participants: Using a retrospective longitudinal cohort study design, tweets from the top 100 ranked hospitals were collected, starting with the most recent over a 10-year span, from May 3, 2009, to June 26, 2020. The date of the George Floyd killing, May 25, 2020, was investigated as a point of interest. Data were analyzed from June 11 to December 4, 2020. Main Outcomes and Measures: Tweets were manually identified based on 4 categories: BLM, associated with the BLM movement; Black support, expressed support for Black population within the hospital's community; Black health, pertained to health concerns specific to and the creation of health care for the Black community; or social justice, associated with general social justice terms that were too general to label as Black. If a tweet did not contain any hashtags from these categories, it remained unlabeled. Results: A total of 281 850 tweets from 90 unique social media accounts were collected. Each handle returned at least 1279 tweets, with 85 handles (94.4%) returning at least 3000 tweets. Tweet publication dates ranged from 2009 to 2020. A total of 274 tweets (0.097%) from 67 handles (74.4%) used a hashtag to support the BLM movement. Among the tweets labeled BLM, the first tweet was published in 2018 and only 4 tweets (1.5%) predated the killing of George Floyd. A similar trend of low signal observed was detected for the other categories (Black support: 244 tweets [0.086%] from 42 handles [46.7%] starting in 2013; Black health: 28 tweets [0.0099%] from 15 handles [16.7%] starting in 2018; social justice: 40 tweets [0.014%] from 21 handles [23.3%] starting in 2015). Conclusions and Relevance: These findings reflect the low signal of tweets regarding the Black community and social justice in a generalized way across approximately 10 years of tweets for all the hospital handles within the data set. From 2009 to 2020, hospitals rarely engaged in issues pertaining to the Black community and if so, only within the last half of this time period. These later entrances into these discussions indicate that these discussions are relatively recent.


Asunto(s)
Hospitales/estadística & datos numéricos , Justicia Social/estadística & datos numéricos , Medios de Comunicación Sociales/estadística & datos numéricos , Afroamericanos , COVID-19/epidemiología , Humanos , Estudios Longitudinales , Pandemias , Racismo , Estudios Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2 , Justicia Social/psicología , Estados Unidos/epidemiología
16.
Torture ; 31(1): 88-92, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34606480

RESUMEN

In front of the current ongoing debate on the need to actively engaging torture survivors in the global fight against torture, IRCT held a webinar at the request of IRCT member centres. The webinar examined torture survivor engagement in the rehabilitation process of rebuilding lives, seeking justice and torture prevention. Lived experience can be emancipating and also paralysing, but foremost, it is precious to combat what has been suffered in the first person (Henry, 2021). How to recognise that contribution and engage torture survivors in the global fight against torture? What role do survivors play in society? How to involve survivors in advocacy and policy-making processes? What are the existing power (in)balances at play? Who gets to decide whether a survivor should speak up or not? Acknowledging that it can prompt some organisational, therapeutic, and professional considerations, what are the limits? How do we ensure that the survivor's well-being is protected along the process? To what extend should survivors be engaged in our organisation's decision-making? Léonce Byimana, Feride Rushiti, Kolbassia Haoussou and Vasfije Karsniqi-Goodman walked us through these questions. The discussion was enhanced with inputs from other IRCT-members.


Asunto(s)
Trastornos por Estrés Postraumático , Tortura , Humanos , Justicia Social , Sobrevivientes , Caminata
17.
Semin Pediatr Surg ; 30(5): 151098, 2021 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34635283

RESUMEN

Peer review is an essential tool for institutions and providers to meet the modern goals of safety and quality in health care. It is a mechanism that leads to a just culture within a health care institution whereby errors and complications are considered products of the system rather than isolated actions by an individual. The benefits and potential drawbacks of peer review are outlined in this review with a special emphasis on the interface between peer review and principles of medical ethics. It is argued that peer review, in the ideal setting, is founded upon the principles of beneficence and justice, and to varying levels on non-maleficence and autonomy.


Asunto(s)
Ética Médica , Justicia Social , Beneficencia , Atención a la Salud , Humanos , Revisión por Pares
18.
J Nurs Educ ; 60(10): 545-551, 2021 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34605690

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Clarification of best practices in teaching social justice concepts is necessary to prepare undergraduate nursing students to address health care disparities. METHOD: An integrative literature review was used to analyze literature describing coursework, teaching methods, sites for application of learning, and methods to evaluate student learning. RESULTS: Junior- and senior-level coursework and optional opportunities were identified. Traditional and nontraditional approaches to teaching also were evident. Nursing students applied knowledge at sites where health care was provided and vulnerable populations were served, as well as in simulated environments. Evaluation of learning occurred related to students' abilities to inform an empathetic understanding, analyze the community, and become change agents. CONCLUSION: Social justice can be threaded throughout the curriculum with the use of traditional and nontraditional teaching strategies. The application of learning can occur in a variety of settings with evaluation demonstrating students' ability to take action to advocate for social justice. [J Nurs Educ. 2021;60(10):545-551.].


Asunto(s)
Bachillerato en Enfermería , Estudiantes de Enfermería , Curriculum , Humanos , Aprendizaje , Justicia Social , Enseñanza
19.
Rev Esp Salud Publica ; 952021 Oct 07.
Artículo en Español | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34617519

RESUMEN

In addition to the opportunities posed by the use of Big Data in health, it also generates important challenges in the field of research, especially from the point of view of its management and ethical considerations. The European Union has been promoting different initiatives that allow the exploitation of this data in the context of the knowledge economy. The UNESCO Ethics Committee has identified three ethical principles to take into account regarding the application of Big Data in Health: independence, privacy and justice. The protection of privacy and patient safety is questioned in a context where cybersecurity is far to be complete. In addition, an imbalance in the exploitation of these data by the public and private sectors could generate inequalities that would represent a significant problem of social justice. This article follows a qualitative methodology based on the documentary analysis of current legislative texts, especially the recently approved General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR), as well as non-legislative documents of projects and parliamentary communications throughout the last two legislatures, with the aim of analyzing them and evaluating how they conform to the principles outlined by UNESCO, especially with respect to the principle of social justice. The most representative national projects that have started to be adopted are also reviewed.


Asunto(s)
Macrodatos , Justicia Social , Comunicación , Unión Europea , Humanos , España
20.
Nurs Leadersh (Tor Ont) ; 34(3): 13-23, 2021 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34698010

RESUMEN

Notwithstanding the significant representation of social justice as a theoretical ideal of public health nursing (PHN), there is little agreement about how the concept is applied in PHN practice and supported by nurse leaders and organizations. A framework for social justice praxis in PHN was developed after a critical review of the literature to advance the ability of nurse leaders and healthcare administrators to support social justice praxis in PHN. This conceptual framework provides a foundation from which nursing leaders can launch meaningful conversations and make specific efforts toward achieving social justice to improve health equity.


Asunto(s)
Enfermería en Salud Pública , Justicia Social , Humanos
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