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1.
Ann Lab Med ; 42(1): 24-35, 2022 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34374346

RESUMEN

Background: Laboratory parameter abnormalities are commonly observed in COVID-19 patients; however, their clinical significance remains controversial. We assessed the prevalence, characteristics, and clinical impact of laboratory parameters in COVID-19 patients hospitalized in Daegu, Korea. Methods: We investigated the clinical and laboratory parameters of 1,952 COVID-19 patients on admission in nine hospitals in Daegu, Korea. The average patient age was 58.1 years, and 700 (35.9%) patients were men. The patients were classified into mild (N=1,612), moderate (N=294), and severe (N=46) disease groups based on clinical severity scores. We used chi-square test, multiple comparison analysis, and multinomial logistic regression to evaluate the correlation between laboratory parameters and disease severity. Results: Laboratory parameters on admission in the three disease groups were significantly different in terms of hematologic (Hb, Hct, white blood cell count, lymphocyte%, and platelet count), coagulation (prothrombin time and activated partial thromboplastin time), biochemical (albumin, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, lactate, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, and electrolytes), inflammatory (C-reactive protein and procalcitonin), cardiac (creatinine kinase MB isoenzyme and troponin I), and molecular virologic (Ct value of SARS-CoV-2 RdRP gene) parameters. Relative lymphopenia, prothrombin time prolongation, and hypoalbuminemia were significant indicators of COVID-19 severity. Patients with both hypoalbuminemia and lymphopenia had a higher risk of severe COVID-19. Conclusions: Laboratory parameter abnormalities on admission are common, are significantly associated with clinical severity, and can serve as independent predictors of COVID-19 severity. Monitoring the laboratory parameters, including albumin and lymphocyte count, is crucial for timely treatment of COVID-19.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Análisis de Datos , Humanos , Laboratorios , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , República de Corea/epidemiología , Estudios Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Ann Lab Med ; 42(1): 89-95, 2022 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34374353

RESUMEN

Background: Total laboratory automation (TLA) is an innovation in laboratory technology; however, the high up-front costs restrict its widespread adoption. To examine whether the capital investment for TLA is worthwhile, we analyzed its clinical- and cost-effectiveness for the expected payback period. Methods: Clinical chemistry tests and immunoassays performed in the clinical laboratory of a tertiary care hospital were divided into a post-TLA group, including 1,182,419 tests performed during December 2019, and a pre-TLA group, including 1,151,501 tests performed during December 2018. Laboratory information system data were used to measure clinical effectiveness, and depreciation data were used to calculate TLA costs. Results: Laboratory performance improved after TLA adoption in all four key performance indicators: mean turn-around time (TAT), representing the timeliness of result reporting, decreased by 6.1%; the 99th percentile of TAT, representing the outlier rate, decreased by 13.3%; the TAT CV, representing predictability, decreased by 70.0%; and weighted tube touch moment (wTTM), representing staff safety, improved by 77.6%. Based on these effectiveness results, economic evaluation was performed using two approaches. First, the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio and wTTM were used as the most cost-effective performance indicators. Second, the expected payback period was calculated. Considering only staff cost reduction, it was anticipated that 4.75 yrs would be needed to payback the initial investment. Conclusions: TLA can significantly enhance laboratory performance, has a relatively quick payback period, and can reduce total hospital expenses in the long term. Therefore, the capital investment for TLA adoption is considered to be worthwhile.


Asunto(s)
Automatización de Laboratorios , Servicios de Laboratorio Clínico , Análisis Costo-Beneficio , Humanos , Laboratorios , Centros de Atención Terciaria
3.
Food Chem ; 367: 130748, 2022 Jan 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34375894

RESUMEN

The development of a collaborative study as a requirement for the preparation of a laboratory reference material candidate is reported in this paper. The evaluation was performed by 13 laboratories invited to quantify the calcium, potassium, magnesium, phosphorus, copper, iron, manganese and zinc; 8 of them presented results for all the analytes under investigation. The data were statistically analyzed by applying the z-score robust technique as recommended by ISO Guide 35. For the potassium element, laboratories 4 and 13 presented questionable results. Laboratory 5 proved to be unsatisfactory for calcium and zinc. ANOVA-PCA and DD-SIMCA were also applied to evaluate stability and interlaboratory studies results, respectively. It has been demonstrated that multivariate data analysis can be successfully applied as an alternative method to the recommendations made by ISO 13528 and ISO Guide 35 with defined confidence intervals.


Asunto(s)
Laboratorios , Zea mays , Análisis de Varianza , Calcio , Cobre , Harina , Magnesio
4.
Orphanet J Rare Dis ; 16(1): 409, 2021 10 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34600583

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Specialized clinical care for cystic fibrosis (CF) in Cyprus, a small island country, has been implemented since the 1990s. However, only recently, a national CF patient registry has been established for the systematic recording of patients' data. In this study, we aim to present data on the epidemiological, genotypic and phenotypic features of CF patients in the country from the most recent data collection in 2019, with particular emphasis on notable rare or unique cases. RESULTS: Overall, data from 52 patients are presented, 5 of whom have deceased and 13 have been lost to follow-up in previous years. The mean age at diagnosis was 7.2 ± 12.3 years, and the mean age of 34 alive patients by the end of 2019 was 22.6 ± 13.2 years. Patients most commonly presented at diagnosis with acute or persistent respiratory symptoms (46.2%), failure to thrive or malnutrition (40.4%), and dehydration or electrolyte imbalance (32.7%). Sweat chloride levels were diagnostic (above 60 mmol/L) in 81.8% of examined patients. The most common identified mutation was p.Phe508del (F508del) (45.2%), followed by p.Leu346Pro (L346P) (6.7%), a mutation detected solely in individuals of Cypriot descent. The mean BMI and FEV1 z-scores were 0.2 ± 1.3 and - 2.1 ± 1.7 across all age groups, respectively, whereas chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa colonization was noted in 26.9% of patients. The majority of patients (74.5%) were eligible to receive at least one of the available CFTR modulator therapies. In 25% of patients we recovered rare or unique genotypic profiles, including the endemic p.Leu346Pro (L346P), the rare CFTR-dup2, the co-segregated c.4200_4201delTG/c.489 + 3A > G, and the polymorphism p.Ser877Ala. CONCLUSIONS: CF patient registries are particularly important in small or isolated populations, such as in Cyprus, with rare or unique disease cases. Their operation is necessary for the optimization of clinical care provided to CF patients, enabling their majority to benefit from evolving advances in precision medicine.


Asunto(s)
Regulador de Conductancia de Transmembrana de Fibrosis Quística , Fibrosis Quística , Adolescente , Adulto , Niño , Fibrosis Quística/genética , Regulador de Conductancia de Transmembrana de Fibrosis Quística/genética , Demografía , Humanos , Laboratorios , Mutación/genética , Sistema de Registros , Adulto Joven
5.
Euro Surveill ; 26(39)2021 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34596019

RESUMEN

BackgroundAcross the World Health Organization European Region, there are few estimates of the proportion of people seeking medical care for influenza-like illness or acute respiratory infections and who have laboratory-confirmed seasonal influenza infection.MethodsWe conducted a meta-analysis of data extracted from studies published between 2004 and 2017 and from sentinel data from the European surveillance system (TESSy) between 2004 and 2018. We pooled within-season estimates by influenza type/subtype, setting (outpatient (OP)/inpatient (IP)) and age group to estimate the proportion of people tested who have laboratory-confirmed and medically-attended seasonal influenza in Europe.ResultsIn the literature review, the pooled proportion for all influenza types was 33% (95% confidence interval (CI): 30-36), higher among OP 36% (95% CI: 33-40) than IP 24% (95% CI: 20-29). Pooled estimates for all influenza types by age group were: 0-17 years, 26% (22-31); 18-64 years, 41% (32-50); ≥ 65 years, 33% (27-40). From TESSy data, 33% (31-34) of OP and 24% (21-27) of IP were positive. The highest proportion of influenza A was in people aged 18-64 years (22%, 16-29). By subtype, A(H1N1)pdm09 was highest in 18-64 year-olds (16%, 11-21%) whereas A(H3N2) was highest in those ≥ 65 years (10%, 2-22). For influenza B, the highest proportion of infections was in those aged 18-64 years (15%, 9-24).ConclusionsLaboratory-confirmed influenza accounted for approximately one third of all acute respiratory infections for which medical care was sought during the influenza season.


Asunto(s)
Subtipo H1N1 del Virus de la Influenza A , Vacunas contra la Influenza , Gripe Humana , Adolescente , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Niño , Preescolar , Humanos , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Subtipo H3N2 del Virus de la Influenza A , Gripe Humana/diagnóstico , Gripe Humana/epidemiología , Laboratorios , Estaciones del Año , Vigilancia de Guardia , Organización Mundial de la Salud
6.
J Nepal Health Res Counc ; 19(2): 349-354, 2021 Sep 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34601529

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 pandemic hit all age group with different presentations and outcome. This study aimed at exploring the clinical characteristics, investigational findings, hospital outcome along with 90 days follow up of COVID-19 infection in children. METHODS: This was longitudinal descriptive study among hospital admitted children with COVID-19 RT-PCR positive during first wave of Pandemic with 90 days telephonic follow up. Demographic and clinical characteristics, comorbidities, SPO2, investigations, need of oxygen , PICU admission, need of ventilator, outcome (improved and discharged, death) and duration of hospital stay were recorded and 90 days telephonic follow up was performed for any illness and hospital admission. RESULTS: Out of 65 children admitted, male 44 (67.7%) and female 21 (32.3%), median age was 23 months ( IQR 6 days -14 years) with 52( 80.0%) without any comorbid conditions. The common signs were Fever 40(61.5%) vomiting 15 (23.1%) and Cough 11(16.9%).Thirteen (20.0%) children has platelets count less than 150000 and 16(24.6%) had C - reactive protein Positive .Mean duration of hospital stay 8 days (Range 1 -44 days), 20( 30.8% ) needed oxygen , 20(30.8%) needed Pediatric intensive care unit (PICU)admission and 6 (9.2%), needed ventilator. Forty seven (72.3%) recovered and discharged with death of 6.2% (n=4). Fifty six children (75.4%) has not experienced any problem after COVID -19 and only 2 children needed hospital admission in 90 days telephone follow up. CONCLUSIONS: In the first wave of the pandemic, Respiratory and Gastrointestinal symptoms were common presentation with few Severe and critical cases. Majority had good outcome. Majority has no other related illness till 90 days after discharge.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Niño , Preescolar , Femenino , Hospitales Pediátricos , Humanos , Lactante , Laboratorios , Masculino , Nepal/epidemiología , SARS-CoV-2
7.
J Nepal Health Res Counc ; 19(2): 372-377, 2021 Sep 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34601533

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The laboratory abnormalities for hospitalized patients with the SARS-CoV-2 have been described in various studies. Limited data are available for the recovered patients. This study aimed to evaluate various laboratory findings in the recovered SARS-CoV-2 patients. METHODS: In this cross sectional study, the laboratory findings of various hematological and biochemical parameters along with antibody against SARS-CoV-2 of 150 patients who visited Samyak Diagnostic Pvt. Ltd for recovery check up after SARS-CoV-2 were studied from October 2020 to March 2021. RESULTS: Out of total 150 participants, 84% of SARS-CoV-2 recovered patients, who had mild or moderate illness, reported persistence of milder symptoms. Persistence of high serum inflammatory markers such as CRP, Ferritin and LDH along with abnormal cell count and morphology of leukocyte lineage was present in 45.4% of these patients. Similarly, 98.7 % had SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibody after 37 median days of recovery. CONCLUSIONS: Various laboratory abnormalities may persist after SARS-CoV-2 recovery in addition to the presence of SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibody. Follow up study is needed to determine the period up to which these abnormalities are present and the protection from antibody is conferred.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Estudios Transversales , Humanos , Inmunoglobulina G , Laboratorios , Nepal , Derivación y Consulta
8.
Rev Bras Enferm ; 75(1): e20210064, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés, Portugués | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34614085

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the presence of anemia in patients with chronic lower limb ulcers based on profile and hematometric indices. METHOD: This is a cross-sectional study carried out in a university hospital in Rio de Janeiro. The sample was composed of 64 participants with lower limb ulcers and evolution time greater than 12 weeks. Data was collected between May/2016 and December/2017 from hematological analyses, records from medical records, and wound assessment form. RESULTS: 36 (56.2%) were male; 38 (59.4%) between 60 and 80 years old; 56 (87.5%) with chronic diseases and 52 (81.2%) with venous ulcers. 6 years mean of active ulceration. Anemia was detected in 36 (56.2%), 27 (75%) of which were normochromic and normocytic; 14 (38.8%) had deficiency anemia recorded in their medical chart. CONCLUSION: The low hemoglobin concentration is recurrent among the participants characterizing an anemia condition, whose profile reveals congruence to the anemia of chronic disease.


Asunto(s)
Anemia , Úlcera de la Pierna , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Anemia/complicaciones , Anemia/epidemiología , Brasil/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Humanos , Laboratorios , Úlcera de la Pierna/complicaciones , Úlcera de la Pierna/epidemiología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad
9.
BMJ Open ; 11(10): e043790, 2021 10 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34598979

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: As early prediction of severe illness and death for patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is important, we aim to explore the clinical value of laboratory indicators in evaluating the progression and prognosis of patients with COVID-19. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: Hospital-based study in China. PARTICIPANTS: Adult patients with COVID-19 from December 15, 2019 to March 15, 2020. END POINT: Disease severity and mortality. METHODS: Clinical data of 638 patients with COVID-19 were collected and compared between severe and non-severe groups. The predictive ability of laboratory indicators in disease progression and prognosis of COVID-19 was analysed using the receiver operating characteristic curve. The survival differences of COVID-19 patients with different levels of laboratory indicators were analysed utilising Kaplan-Meier analysis. RESULTS: 29.8% (190/638) of patients with COVID-19 progressed to severe. Compared with patients with no adverse events, C reactive protein (CRP), neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and D-dimer were significantly higher in severe patients with adverse events, such as acute myocardial injury, respiratory failure, acute kidney injury, mechanical ventilation, intensive care unit admission, multiple organ dysfunction syndromes and death (all p<0.05). The multivariate logistic analysis suggested that CRP, NLR and D-dimer were independent risk factors for the disease progression of COVID-19 (all p<0.05). The model combining all of them owned the highest area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) predicting disease progression and death of COVID-19, with AUC of 0.894 (95% CI 0.857 to 0.931) and 0.918 (95% CI 0.873 to 0.962), respectively. Survival analysis suggested that the patients with a high level of CRP, NLR or D-dimer performed shorter overall survival time (all p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The combination of CRP, NLR and D-dimer could be an effective predictor for the aggravation and death in patients with COVID-19. The abnormal expression of these indicators might suggest a strong inflammatory response and multiple adverse events in patients with severe COVID-19.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Laboratorios , Adulto , Progresión de la Enfermedad , Humanos , Neutrófilos , Pronóstico , Curva ROC , Estudios Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Mymensingh Med J ; 30(4): 1073-1078, 2021 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34605479

RESUMEN

Dengue is endemic in more than a hundred countries throughout the tropics. The classic presentation of dengue fever has expanded its horizon by involving different organ systems, and these system-specific presentations pose a diagnostic dilemma. The objective of this prospective observational study was to evaluate the sociodemographic, and clinical profile of expanded dengue syndrome (EDS) patients admitted to a tertiary hospital in Dhaka, Bangladesh. Data were collected from all admitted patients from April 2019 to September 2019 and diagnosed with dengue. The patients with dengue having EDS were followed up till discharge. Of 4200 dengue cases admitted during this period, 108 patients (2.57%) were diagnosed with EDS. Among the EDS cases, 94% were from Dhaka city, and 6% were outside Dhaka city; 66% of the patients were male. Gastrointestinal (GI) manifestations were the most common (87%) type of EDS, and among the GI presentations, acute acalculous cholecystitis (38.3%), acute pancreatitis (30.85%), acute hepatitis (21.27%) were the most frequent. Among the EDS cases, 5.55% had a central nervous system (CNS), 4.6% cardiovascular (CVS), and 1.88% had renal complications; 0.93% presented with myositis. The majority (90.74%) of the patients recovered with conservative management, 10 (9.26%) died. This study shows that expanded dengue syndrome (EDS) is not uncommon in Bangladesh's dengue viral infection. A high degree of clinical suspicion is the key to early diagnosis and treatment.


Asunto(s)
Dengue , Pancreatitis , Enfermedad Aguda , Bangladesh/epidemiología , Dengue/diagnóstico , Dengue/epidemiología , Dengue/terapia , Humanos , Laboratorios , Masculino , Estudios Prospectivos , Centros de Atención Terciaria
11.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 1044, 2021 Oct 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34625049

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Erythema migrans (EM) is the most common manifestation of Lyme borreliosis. Here, we examined EM patients in Norwegian general practice to find the proportion exposed to tick-transmitted microorganisms other than Borrelia, and the impact of co-infection on the clinical manifestations and disease duration. METHODS: Skin biopsies from 139/188 EM patients were analyzed using PCR for Neoehrlichia mikurensis, Rickettsia spp., Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Babesia spp. Follow-up sera from 135/188 patients were analyzed for spotted fever group (SFG) Rickettsia, A. phagocytophilum and Babesia microti antibodies, and tested with PCR if positive. Day 0 sera from patients with fever (8/188) or EM duration of ≥ 21 days (69/188) were analyzed, using PCR, for A. phagocytophilum, Rickettsia spp., Babesia spp. and N. mikurensis. Day 14 sera were tested for TBEV IgG. RESULTS: We detected no microorganisms in the skin biopsies nor in the sera of patients with fever or prolonged EM duration. Serological signs of exposure against SFG Rickettsia and A. phagocytophilum were detected in 11/135 and 8/135, respectively. Three patients exhibited both SFG Rickettsia and A. phagocytophilum antibodies, albeit negative PCR. No antibodies were detected against B. microti. 2/187 had TBEV antibodies without prior immunization. There was no significant increase in clinical symptoms or disease duration in patients with possible co-infection. CONCLUSIONS: Co-infection with N. mikurensis, A. phagocytophilum, SFG Rickettsia, Babesia spp. and TBEV is uncommon in Norwegian EM patients. Despite detecting antibodies against SFG Rickettsia and A. phagocytophilum in some patients, no clinical implications could be demonstrated.


Asunto(s)
Coinfección , Medicina General , Ixodes , Animales , Coinfección/epidemiología , Eritema , Estudios de Seguimiento , Humanos , Laboratorios
12.
Ann Palliat Med ; 10(9): 9516-9522, 2021 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34628877

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Owing to its simplicity, speed, small incision, and low cost, peripheral blood collection is widely used in routine blood testing. However, there are certain differences between the detection results of peripheral and venous blood specimens. This investigation and analysis aimed to investigate and analyze the status and opinions of laboratory physicians on the application of peripheral blood for routine blood testing. METHODS: A questionnaire was used to investigate and analyze the current status of laboratory physicians with regards to routine peripheral blood testing. The content of the questionnaire included the following aspects: the proportion of peripheral blood specimens, the difficulty of detecting peripheral blood, factors affecting the results of peripheral blood specimens, the proportion of the simultaneous detection of blood test and C-reactive protein (CRP), as well as the proportion and ideals of hypersensitive CRP (hs-CRP), which included a total of 10 re-examination rules. RESULTS: Laboratory physicians from 410 hospitals participated in the investigation. The proportion of routine blood tests using peripheral blood specimens in the laboratory departments of tertiary hospitals was low (P=0.006). Difficulties in routine blood tests with peripheral blood specimens were dominated by insufficient blood volume (67.8%). The factors affecting the results of routine blood tests with peripheral blood specimens were dominated by the mixing method (86.6%). When abnormal results were determined by routine blood tests using peripheral blood specimens, they were retested most commonly by making slide smears (82.4%) or re-examined using the remaining peripheral blood (66.1%). The same rules for re-examination of peripheral and venous blood were applied in most medical institutions (86.1%). When the platelet count decreased in routine blood tests using peripheral blood samples, the most common measures included sample agglutination checks (88.5%), instrument alarm message checks (82.4%), and making slide smears for re-examination (73.6%). More laboratory physicians expected blood analyzers to be integrated instruments that could provide both routine blood and hs-CRP testing (80.5%). CONCLUSIONS: There are numerous difficulties in routine blood testing using peripheral blood, and thus, more convenient and accurate blood analysis instruments should be developed.


Asunto(s)
Laboratorios , Médicos , Proteína C-Reactiva , Pruebas Diagnósticas de Rutina , Pruebas Hematológicas , Humanos
13.
Sichuan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 52(5): 747-753, 2021 Sep.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34622587

RESUMEN

Specialty courses are an important carrier for driving forward the education reform of integrating ideological and political theories education in all courses and implementing the philosophy of fostering character through moral education. Medical Laboratory Pathways and Their Clinical Applicationis an undergraduate specialty course offered by the Department of Laboratory Medicine, West China Hospital, Sichuan University. The paper is based on the campaign of Integrating Ideological and Political Theories Education in All Courses and takes into consideration the features of the medical laboratory technology specialty. The paper proposes the organic unity of knowledge and skills teaching objectives and emotions and value-guided teaching objectives. In regard to the teaching content, horizontal integration was carried out, transforming the design of the course content from being laboratory test-centered to being disease-centered. Ideological and political theories education was organically incorporated in the content of the specialty course, assigning to the course the important task of values guidance. In addition, we made discussions on course design and instruction of Medical Laboratory Pathways and Their Clinical Application mainly in regard to the instruction, teaching methodology, and the form of classroom instruction of the course. We hope that the paper will provide useful information and reference for the ongoing education reform of the medical laboratory technology specialty under the new circumstances.


Asunto(s)
Laboratorios , Universidades , China , Humanos
14.
Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao ; 37(9): 3361-3367, 2021 Sep 25.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34622642

RESUMEN

In order to explore the role of the opening and sharing management mode (OSMM) of undergraduate experiment teaching instruments in fostering talents under the "Double first-class" initiative, the importance of laboratory information management system (LIMS) in the OSMM was discussed, in light of the experience and shortcomings of developing an OSMM in the experimental teaching center of environment and ecology college at Xiamen university. Some approaches were put forward to promote OSMM development and improve the utility of teaching equipments, so as to maximize the utility of the instruments, guarantee the regular teaching and scientific research, promote the sustainable and healthy development of colleges and universities, and achieve the desirable progress of the ongoing national "Double first-class" initiative.


Asunto(s)
Laboratorios , Estudiantes , Humanos , Gestión de la Información , Universidades
15.
Cell ; 184(19): 4848-4856, 2021 09 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34480864

RESUMEN

Since the first reports of a novel severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-like coronavirus in December 2019 in Wuhan, China, there has been intense interest in understanding how severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) emerged in the human population. Recent debate has coalesced around two competing ideas: a "laboratory escape" scenario and zoonotic emergence. Here, we critically review the current scientific evidence that may help clarify the origin of SARS-CoV-2.


Asunto(s)
SARS-CoV-2/fisiología , Animales , Evolución Biológica , COVID-19/virología , Humanos , Laboratorios , SARS-CoV-2/genética , Zoonosis/virología
16.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(18)2021 Sep 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34577205

RESUMEN

With characters of low cost, portability, easy disposal, and high accuracy, as well as bulky reduced laboratory equipment, paper-based sensors are getting increasing attention for reliable indoor/outdoor onsite detection with nonexpert operation. They have become powerful analysis tools in trace detection with ultra-low detection limits and extremely high accuracy, resulting in their great popularity in medical detection, environmental inspection, and other applications. Herein, we summarize and generalize the recently reported paper-based sensors based on their application for mechanics, biomolecules, food safety, and environmental inspection. Based on the biological, physical, and chemical analytes-sensitive electrical or optical signals, extensive detections of a large number of factors such as humidity, pressure, nucleic acid, protein, sugar, biomarkers, metal ions, and organic/inorganic chemical substances have been reported via paper-based sensors. Challenges faced by the current paper-based sensors from the fundamental problems and practical applications are subsequently analyzed; thus, the future directions of paper-based sensors are specified for their rapid handheld testing.


Asunto(s)
Laboratorios , Ácidos Nucleicos , Hospitales , Metales , Compuestos Orgánicos
17.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(18)2021 Sep 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34577235

RESUMEN

Concussion is an inherent risk of participating in contact, combat, or collision sports, within which head impacts are numerous. Kinematic parameters such as peak linear and rotational acceleration represent primary measures of concussive head impacts. The ability to accurately measure and categorise such impact parameters in real time is important in health and sports performance contexts. The purpose of this study was to assess the accuracy of the latest HitIQ Nexus A9 instrumented mouthguard (HitIQ Pty. Ltd. Melbourne Australia) against reference sensors in an aluminium headform. The headform underwent drop testing at various impact intensities across the NOCSAE-defined impact locations, comparing the peak linear and rotational acceleration (PLA and PRA) as well as the shapes of the acceleration time-series traces for each impact. Mouthguard PLA and PRA measurements strongly correlated with (R2 = 0.996 and 0.994 respectively), and strongly agreed with (LCCC = 0.997) the reference sensors. The root mean square error between the measurement devices was 1 ± 0.6g for linear acceleration and 47.4 ± 35 rad/s2 for rotational acceleration. A Bland-Altman analysis found a systematic bias of 1% for PRA, with no significant bias for PLA. The instrumented mouthguard displayed high accuracy when measuring head impact kinematics in a laboratory setting.


Asunto(s)
Conmoción Encefálica , Fútbol Americano , Protectores Bucales , Aceleración , Fenómenos Biomecánicos , Dispositivos de Protección de la Cabeza , Humanos , Laboratorios
18.
J Antimicrob Chemother ; 76(Supplement_3): iii20-iii27, 2021 Sep 23.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34555158

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Virus-associated respiratory infections are in the spotlight with the emergence of SARS-CoV-2 and the expanding use of multiplex PCR (mPCR). The impact of molecular testing as a point-of-care test (POCT) in the emergency department (ED) is still unclear. OBJECTIVES: To compare the impact of a syndromic test performed in the ED as a POCT and in the central laboratory on length of stay (LOS), antibiotic use and single-room assignment. METHODS: From 19 November 2019 to 9 March 2020, adults with acute respiratory illness seeking care in the ED of a large hospital were enrolled, with mPCR performed with a weekly alternation in the ED as a POCT (week A) or in the central laboratory (week B). RESULTS: 474 patients were analysed: 275 during A weeks and 199 during B weeks. Patient characteristics were similar. The hospital LOS (median 7 days during week A versus 7 days during week B, P = 0.29), the proportion of patients with ED-LOS <1 day (63% versus 60%, P = 0.57) and ED antibiotic prescription (59% versus 58%, P = 0.92) were not significantly different. Patients in the POCT arm were more frequently assigned a single room when having a positive PCR for influenza, respiratory syncytial virus and metapneumovirus [52/70 (74%) versus 19/38 (50%) in the central testing arm, P = 0.012]. CONCLUSIONS: Syndromic testing performed in the ED compared with the central laboratory failed to reduce the LOS or antibiotic consumption in patients with acute respiratory illness, but was associated with an increased single-room assignment among patients in whom a significant respiratory pathogen was detected.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Sistemas de Atención de Punto , Adulto , Servicio de Urgencia en Hospital , Humanos , Laboratorios , Tiempo de Internación , Pruebas en el Punto de Atención , SARS-CoV-2
19.
F1000Res ; 10: 292, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34381592

RESUMEN

Reports of non-replicable research demand new methods of research data management. Electronic laboratory notebooks (ELNs) are suggested as tools to improve the documentation of research data and make them universally accessible. In a self-guided approach, we introduced the open-source ELN eLabFTW into our lab group and, after using it for a while, think it is a useful tool to overcome hurdles in ELN introduction by providing a combination of properties making it suitable for small preclinical labs, like ours. We set up our instance of eLabFTW, without any further programming needed. Our efforts to embrace open data approach by introducing an ELN fits well with other institutional organized ELN initiatives in academic research.


Asunto(s)
Disciplinas de las Ciencias Biológicas , Laboratorios
20.
Rev Sci Instrum ; 92(8): 081401, 2021 Aug 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34470433

RESUMEN

The ongoing coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic is a global public health emergency. Adherence to biosafety practices is mandatory to protect the user as well as the environment, while handling infectious agents. A biological safety cabinet (BSC) is the most important equipment used in diagnostic and research laboratories in order to safeguard the product, the person, and the environment. The World Health Organization has emphasized the use of validated BSCs in order to ensure quality of the results. There are different classes of BSCs that are used in various work environments based on the need. It is imperative to use appropriate levels of biosafety and types of BSCs in laboratories based on the risk assessment of the pathogen used. During the development of COVID-19 laboratories and training of laboratory staff, we came across several queries about the functions and selection of BSCs and realized that the knowledge about the detailed information on selections and applications of BSCs is scanty. There are several guidelines regarding the biosafety aspects for diagnostic and research laboratories handling infectious pathogens from national and international agencies. However, there is no detailed information on the use of appropriate types of BSCs and their functions in the context of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome-Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). In view of this, the present paper describes in detail the selection and applications of BSCs, which could be useful for laboratories handling or planning to handle SARS-CoV-2 and suspected samples.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Contención de Riesgos Biológicos , Laboratorios , SARS-CoV-2 , Manejo de Especímenes , Inactivación de Virus , Animales , Humanos
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