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1.
Braz. j. oral sci ; 20: e211606, jan.-dez. 2021. tab
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS, BBO - Odontología | ID: biblio-1253158

RESUMEN

Aim: The present study sought to investigate dental caries experience and its association with sociodemographic, postnatal and breastfeeding variables in children in the agerange from 6 to 71 months of age, in the Xingu Indigenous Park, Mato Grosso, Brazil. Methods: This was an analytical cross-sectional study that used secondary data pertaining to 402 indigenous children of the Low, Middle and Eastern Xingu regions, who participated in the Oral Health Epidemiological Survey in 2013. The dependent variable was dental caries, dichotomized by the median (dmf-t≤1 and dmf-t>1). The data of independent variables were obtained by means of instruments of the Local Health Information System of the Xingu Indigenous Special Sanitary District (DSEI). Raw analyses were performed to test the association of the independent variables with the dependent variable. The variables were tested in the multiple logistic regression model. Results: The mean value of the dmf-t index was 2.60 and the prevalence of affected children was 51%. In the multiple analysis, only children older than 36 months (OR: 6.64; CI95%: 4.11 to 10.73) and those that were breastfed for a longer period of time (OR: 1.88; CI95%: 1.16 to 3.02) showed significant association with the dmf-t>1 index. Conclusion: Childhood dental caries among indigenous children was associated with age and breastfeeding prolonged for over 26 months, therefore, pointing out the need to offer dental follow-up care at earlier ages


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Preescolar , Lactancia Materna , Indios Sudamericanos , Salud Bucal , Caries Dental
2.
Curr Opin Gastroenterol ; 37(6): 547-556, 2021 11 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34634003

RESUMEN

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Breastfeeding provides passive immunity while the neonatal immune system matures, and may also protect against chronic immune-mediated conditions long after weaning. This review summarizes current knowledge and new discoveries about human milk and mucosal immunity. RECENT FINDINGS: New data suggest that certain microbes in maternal milk may seed and shape the infant gut microbiota, which play a key role in regulating gut barrier integrity and training the developing immune system. Human milk oligosaccharides, best known for their prebiotic functions, have now been shown to directly modulate gene expression in mast and goblet cells in the gastrointestinal tract. Epidemiologic data show a reduced risk of peanut sensitization among infants breastfed by peanut-consuming mothers, suggesting a role for milk-borne food antigens in tolerance development. Cross-fostering experiments in mice suggest the soluble Toll-like receptor 2, found in human milk, may be critical in this process. Finally, interest in human milk antibodies surged during the pandemic with the identification of neutralizing severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 antibodies in maternal milk following both natural infection and vaccination. SUMMARY: Human milk provides critical immune protection and stimulation to breastfed infants. Understanding the underlying mechanisms could identify new therapeutic targets and strategies for disease prevention across the lifespan.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Leche Humana , Animales , Lactancia Materna , Femenino , Humanos , Sistema Inmunológico , Inmunidad Innata , Inmunidad Mucosa , Lactante , Ratones , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34639709

RESUMEN

Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a multifaceted disease and is associated with complications for newborns and mothers. The aim of the study was to assess Polish women's knowledge concerning GDM and their attitude to breastfeeding. As a research tool, an anonymous online survey that included 33 questions, grouped into three main sections-sociodemographic and obstetric variables, risk factors for GDM and neonatal adverse outcomes, and knowledge about breastfeeding-was used and administered online. A total of 410 women aged from 18 to 45 participated in this study. Based on the survey, it was demonstrated that the women had moderate knowledge concerning the maternal risk factors and adverse neonatal outcomes associated with GDM and, additionally, the short- and long-term effects of breastfeeding. Significantly deeper knowledge about GDM, including breastfeeding by GDM mothers, was observed among hyperglycemic mothers in comparison to normoglycemic mothers. However, knowledge concerning the health benefits of breastfeeding was not related to the mothers' glycemic status. In conclusion, educational programs must include pre-pregnancy education of women and place emphasis on explaining the mechanism of development of GDM and the transformation of GDM to type 2 diabetes. This is crucial for changing the public's perception of GDM as a temporary, reversible clinical entity.


Asunto(s)
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Diabetes Gestacional , Lactancia Materna , Diabetes Gestacional/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Recién Nacido , Madres , Polonia/epidemiología , Embarazo
4.
Front Public Health ; 9: 691894, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34660508

RESUMEN

This study aimed to estimate the status of complementary feeding (CF) and its associated factors among 6-23-month breastfed infants and young children (IYC). We used secondary data from the China Nutrition Improvement Project on Children in Poor Areas in 2018. The status of CF was provided by parents of IYC through 24-h dietary recall. The study included 13,972 6-23-month-old breastfed IYC comprising 24.7% 6-8-month, 28.5% 9-11-month, 31.4% 12-17-month, and 18-23-month IYC. The highest percentage of IYC introduced to cereal foods was 84.8%. Nearly, 83.6% of 6-8-month infants were introduced to solid or semi-solid food. The prevalence of meeting requirements of non-dairy animal source food and minimum acceptable diet (MAD) was 75.3 and 35.1% of 6-23-month IYC, respectively, and was significantly higher in older than younger IYC (p < 0.001). Age of IYC, education level of parents, paternal employment, and nutrition knowledge of parents were positively associated factors for the prevalence of meeting requirements of MAD, and diarrhea at 2 weeks and maternal employment were negatively associated with MAD. Totally, the prevalence of meeting the requirements of MAD was relatively lower in breastfed IYC. The government should scale up appropriate CF with consideration of food availability.


Asunto(s)
Lactancia Materna , Fenómenos Fisiológicos Nutricionales del Lactante , Anciano , Niño , Preescolar , China/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Lactante , Alimentos Infantiles , Recién Nacido , Masculino , Prevalencia
5.
J Midwifery Womens Health ; 66(5): 631-640, 2021 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34596953

RESUMEN

It is estimated that as many as 1 in 20 women worldwide are unable to successfully breastfeed or provide adequate nutrition for their infants through their breast milk alone. Compromised nutrition in the early stages of life places the infant at risk for insufficient growth as well as serious and potentially disabling or life-threatening complications. This review summarizes risk factors associated with impaired lactation that may result in either delayed lactogenesis or insufficient lactation. The risk factors for insufficient lactation are categorized into preglandular, glandular, and postglandular causes. Impaired lactation can occur despite maternal motivation, knowledge, support, and appropriate breastfeeding technique. Although there is no clear way to predict who will experience impaired lactation, knowledge about the risk factors can enable health care professionals to better identify at-risk mother-infant dyads. Early intervention may help prevent infant complications associated with inadequate nutritional intake.


Asunto(s)
Lactancia Materna , Trastornos de la Lactancia , Femenino , Humanos , Lactante , Lactancia , Trastornos de la Lactancia/etiología , Leche Humana , Madres
8.
Recurso de Internet en Portugués | LIS - Localizador de Información en Salud | ID: lis-48422

RESUMEN

Organizado pelo Centro Latino-Americano de Perinatologia, Saúde da Mulher e Reprodutiva (CLAP)/Organização Pan-Americana da Saúde/Organização Mundial da Saúde, o seminário Nutrição no início da vida: Implicações e desafios na Região das Américas integra uma série de seminários que o Clap vem realizando sobre temas que relacionados à saúde perinatal e reuniu especialistas para debater esses assuntos durante as celebrações do Agosto Dourado.


Asunto(s)
Lactancia Materna , Promoción de la Salud , Nutrición del Lactante
9.
Recurso de Internet en Portugués | LIS - Localizador de Información en Salud | ID: lis-48423

RESUMEN

Estudos avaliam a relação entre obesidade em crianças maiores de três anos e tipo de alimentação no início da vida, constando menor frequência de sobrepeso naquela que amamentaram por um período maior. Além disso, foi constatado que elas possuem risco 22% menor de desenvolver obesidade, em comparação com outras crianças da mesma faixa etária e que não foram amamentadas.


Asunto(s)
Lactancia Materna , Obesidad Pediátrica , Sobrepeso , Leche Humana
10.
Recurso de Internet en Portugués | LIS - Localizador de Información en Salud | ID: lis-48424

RESUMEN

Durante todo o mês de agosto, a Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria (SBP) utilizou seus veículos de comunicação para ampliar o acesso às informações sobre o papel do aleitamento na vida das crianças e das mulheres. Como parte das ações pelo Agosto Dourado, a instituição realizou em parceria com a revista Crescer o 2o Mamaço Virtual.


Asunto(s)
Lactancia Materna , Promoción de la Salud
11.
Recurso de Internet en Portugués | LIS - Localizador de Información en Salud | ID: lis-48427

RESUMEN

Com o objetivo de incentivar e sensibilizar a população indígena sobre a importância do aleitamento materno, o Ministério da Saúde, por meio da Secretaria Especial de Saúde Indígena (Sesai), vem desenvolvendo ações de conscientização nas aldeias para estimular a prática da amamentação entre as populações tradicionais.


Asunto(s)
Lactancia Materna , Salud de Poblaciones Indígenas , Grupos de Población , Promoción de la Salud , Brasil
12.
BMJ Open ; 11(9): e046919, 2021 09 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34475152

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: The main aim of this study was to assess prelacteal feeding practice and its determinant factors among mothers having children less than 6 months of age in Bure district, Northwest Ethiopia. DESIGN: Community-based cross-sectional study design. SETTING: Northern Ethiopia. PARTICIPANTS: The present study was conducted among 621 mothers who had children less than 6 months of age in Bure district, Northwest Ethiopia, from 1 March 2019 to 30 March 2019. PRIMARY OUTCOME: Mothers prelacteal feeding practice, modelled using multivariable logistic regression. SECONDARY OUTCOME: Determinant factors of prelacteal feeding practice. RESULTS: This study found that the prevalence of prelacteal feeding practice was 11.6% ((95% CI 9.0% to 14.2%)). Delayed initiation of breast feeding (adjusted OR, AOR=5.4, 95% CI 2.2 to 13.5), mothers who did not get counselling of breast feeding (AOR=2.9, 95% CI 1.2 to 7.2), home delivery (AOR=6.9, 95% CI 2.2 to 21.5), primiparous mothers (AOR=4.1, 95% CI 1.4 to 12.2), a newborn with history of neonatal illness (AOR=3.3, 95% CI 1.3 to 8.5) and lack of postnatal care visits (AOR=3.9, 95% CI 1.3 to 11.8) were determinant factors of prelacteal feeding practice. CONCLUSIONS: Delayed initiation of breast feeding, mothers who did not get counselling of breast feeding, home delivery, primiparous mothers, newborns with a history of neonatal illness and lack of postnatal care visits were determinant factors of prelacteal feeding practice. Therefore, healthcare workers should provide a home to home health education for mothers on the merits of early initiation of breast feeding, promote institutional delivery, enhance maternal health-seeking behaviour and encourage mothers to have postnatal care visits is recommended.


Asunto(s)
Lactancia Materna , Madres , Niño , Estudios Transversales , Etiopía , Conducta Alimentaria , Femenino , Humanos , Recién Nacido , Embarazo
13.
East Mediterr Health J ; 27(9): 931-940, 2021 Sep 21.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34569049

RESUMEN

Background: There is a paucity of published studies on factors influencing feeding practices for infants and young children born via caesarean section. Aims: To assess whether the mode of childbirth affects early initiation and exclusive breastfeeding, and to identify factors that positively or negatively influence breastfeeding after caesarean births in selected countries in the Middle East. Methods: We conducted a scoping review of publicly available population-based surveys and peer-reviewed literature on the associations between birthing mode and breastfeeding published between 2000 and 2018. The search identified 33 demographic surveys and 16 studies containing information on the mode of childbirth and breastfeeding in selected countries in the Middle East listed in PubMed, Embase, and CINAHL databases. Searches were completed in March 2019. Results: Demographic surveys in 6 participating Middle Eastern countries demonstrated increased rates of births by caesarean section. All 3 countries with ≥ 3 datasets available demonstrated that early initiation of breastfeeding was less likely after caesarean section than after vaginal births. Eleven studies analysed differences in breastfeeding outcomes between caesarean section and vaginal births, and all of them identified significant differences between birthing modes. Five studies addressed factors influencing breastfeeding after caesarean births. Conclusion: Caesarean births are associated with a higher risk of delayed initiation of breastfeeding as well as early cessation of exclusive breastfeeding.


Asunto(s)
Lactancia Materna , Cesárea , Niño , Preescolar , Parto Obstétrico , Femenino , Humanos , Lactante , Medio Oriente/epidemiología , Parto , Embarazo
14.
Nutr J ; 20(1): 76, 2021 09 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34493286

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Early childhood is a period when dietary behaviours are established. This study aimed to examine the longitudinal intake of core and discretionary foods and identify early life and socio-economic factors influencing those intakes. METHODS: Mother-infant dyads (n = 934) from the Healthy Smiles Healthy Kids study, an ongoing birth cohort study, were interviewed. The information on 'weekly frequency of core and discretionary foods intake' using a food frequency questionnaire was collected at 4 months, 8 months, 1 year, 2 years and 3 years age points. Group-based trajectory modelling analyses were performed to identify diet trajectories for 'core' and 'discretionary' foods respectively. A multinomial logistic regression was performed to identify the maternal and child-related predictors of resulting trajectories. RESULTS: The intake of core and discretionary foods each showed distinct quadratic (n = 3) trajectories with age. Overall, core foods intake increased rapidly in the first year of life, followed by a decline after age two, whereas discretionary foods intake increased steadily across the five age points. Multiparity (Relative Risk (RR): 0.46, 95%CI: 0.27-0.77), non-English speaking ethnicity of mother (RR: 0.66, 95%CI: 0.47-0.91) and having a single mother (RR: 0.40, 95%CI: 0.18-0.85) were associated with low trajectories of core foods intake whereas older maternal age (RR: 1.05, 95%CI: 1.01-1.08) and longer breastfeeding duration (RR: 1.02, 95%CI: 1.00-1.03) were associated with higher trajectories of core foods intake. Also, multiparity (RR 2.63, 95%CI: 1.47-4.70), low maternal education (RR 3.01, 95%CI: 1.61-5.65), and socio-economic disadvantage (RR 2.69, 95%CI: 1.31-5.55) were associated with high trajectories of discretionary foods intake. Conversely, longer duration of breastfeeding (RR 0.99, 95%CI: 0.97-0.99), and timely introduction of complementary foods (RR 0.30, 95%CI: 0.15-0.61) had a protective effect against high discretionary foods consumption in infancy and early childhood. CONCLUSION: Children's frequency of discretionary foods intake increases markedly as they transition from infancy to preschool age, and the trajectories of intake established during early childhood are strongly influenced by socio-demographic factors and infant feeding choices. Hence, there is a need for targeted strategies to improve nutrition in early childhood and ultimately prevent the incidence of chronic diseases in children.


Asunto(s)
Dieta , Estado Nutricional , Lactancia Materna , Preescolar , Estudios de Cohortes , Conducta Alimentaria , Femenino , Humanos , Lactante , Factores Socioeconómicos
15.
Nutrients ; 13(9)2021 Aug 26.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34578848

RESUMEN

COVID-19 is an infectious disease caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus that was declared a Public Health Emergency of International Concern by the World Health Organization (WHO). One major problem faced is whether breastfeeding by mothers infected with the virus is safe. The objective of this work is to study the impact that the SARS-CoV-2 virus can have on breastfeeding, and whether the virus or antibodies can be transmitted from mother to child through milk. We carried out a systematic review of studies focusing on the impact of SARS-CoV-2 on breastfeeding by mothers infected with the virus. The bibliographic search was done through Medline (Pubmed), MedlinePlus and Google Scholar. From 292 records, the title and summary of each were examined according to the criteria, and whether they meet the selection criteria was also analysed. A total of 30 articles are included, of which 26 deal with the study of RNA virus in breastmilk and its involvement in breastfeeding and four on the study of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in milk. Most studies have been conducted in China. Breastfeeding by mothers infected with SARS-CoV-2 is highly recommended for infants, if the health of the mother and the infant allow for it. Direct breastfeeding and maintaining appropriate protective measures should be encouraged. Should the mother's health condition not permit direct breastfeeding, infants should be fed with pumped breastmilk or donor milk.


Asunto(s)
Lactancia Materna/efectos adversos , COVID-19/transmisión , Transmisión Vertical de Enfermedad Infecciosa/prevención & control , Leche Humana/inmunología , Complicaciones Infecciosas del Embarazo/virología , COVID-19/inmunología , COVID-19/virología , Femenino , Humanos , Lactante , Leche Humana/virología , Embarazo , SARS-CoV-2/inmunología
16.
Indian J Public Health ; 65(3): 218-225, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34558481

RESUMEN

Background: A child receiving an acceptable diet is expected to reach the optimal anthropometric measures. More than 60% of dietary requirement has to be met through complimentary diet. Objectives: This aimed to estimate the prevalence of dietary diversity and to assess factors associated with it from caregivers' perceptions by quantitative and qualitative participatory techniques. Methods: A mixed-method study comprising community-based cross-sectional quantitative and participatory rural appraisal qualitative components was conducted in 25 villages from the field practice area of medical institute in South India during 2017. Caregivers of eligible children 6-23 months from villages were interviewed regarding various food groups consumed in the last 24 h using a validated checklist. Association of demographic-, child, and mother-related characteristics with inappropriate dietary diversity was identified using multivariate negative log-binomial model. Results: Of the 603 eligible children, 75.1% had inappropriate dietary diversity. Although inappropriate dietary diversity prevailed across all categories, mothers with less than primary education (adjusted prevalence ratio [PR]: 1.26) children <1 year (adjusted PR: 1.29) and not on current breastfeeding (adjusted PR: 1.15) had significantly more inappropriate diversity. Restraining and motivating forces for dietary diversity were initially recorded from free listing and subjected to force-field analysis. Ignorance, lack of literacy, affordability issues, nuclear family pattern, and influence of junk foods are restraining forces. Conclusion: Inappropriate dietary diversity among 6-23 months children in the rural block of Tamil Nadu, South India, is extensive (75%). Current Child development programs should focus to address these issues based on these identified contextual factors.


Asunto(s)
Dieta , Población Rural , Lactancia Materna , Niño , Preescolar , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , India/epidemiología , Lactante , Estado Nutricional
17.
Pediatrics ; 148(4)2021 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34493538

RESUMEN

This technical report accompanies the recommendations of the American Academy of Pediatrics for the routine use of the influenza vaccine and antiviral medications in the prevention and treatment of influenza in children during the 2021-2022 season. Influenza vaccination is an important intervention to protect vulnerable populations and reduce the burden of respiratory illnesses during circulation of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, which is expected to continue during this influenza season. In this technical report, we summarize recent influenza seasons, morbidity and mortality in children, vaccine effectiveness, vaccination coverage, and detailed guidance on storage, administration, and implementation. We also provide background on inactivated and live attenuated influenza vaccine recommendations, vaccination during pregnancy and breastfeeding, diagnostic testing, and antiviral medications for treatment and chemoprophylaxis.


Asunto(s)
Vacunas contra la Influenza , Gripe Humana/prevención & control , Antivirales/uso terapéutico , Lactancia Materna , Niño , Contraindicaciones de los Medicamentos , Farmacorresistencia Viral , Almacenaje de Medicamentos , Femenino , Hospitalización , Humanos , Vacunas contra la Influenza/administración & dosificación , Vacunas contra la Influenza/efectos adversos , Gripe Humana/tratamiento farmacológico , Gripe Humana/epidemiología , Gripe Humana/mortalidad , Vacunación Masiva , Factores de Riesgo , Estados Unidos/epidemiología , Vacunas Atenuadas/administración & dosificación , Vacunas Atenuadas/efectos adversos , Vacunas de Productos Inactivados/administración & dosificación , Vacunas de Productos Inactivados/efectos adversos
18.
Z Rheumatol ; 80(8): 733-742, 2021 Oct.
Artículo en Alemán | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34535821

RESUMEN

Information on pregnancy and breastfeeding in women with chronic inflammatory rheumatic diseases is relevant for a successful pregnancy and also for maternal and child health. In general, pregnant and breastfeeding women are excluded from randomized clinical trials and therefore evidence for clinical care and counselling has to be generated from observational studies. In the past decades, various data collections have been established for this purpose in addition to the existing spontaneous reporting systems initiated by drug authorities, with the aim of monitoring the teratogenic risk of a drug. Health insurance claims data, electronic health records and Scandinavian registers are also increasingly being used for research on pregnancy-associated events; however, all these data sources lack the inclusion of the maternal disease, especially with respect to its inflammatory component. Established cohort studies, biologics and disease registries record disease activity but are not designed for pregnancy-specific questions. Pregnancy registries and studies in rheumatology close this gap. In order to be able to make a better assessment of the possibilities and limitations of existing data sources on pregnancy and lactation, they are presented in detail in the following review including their respective advantages and disadvantages and examples from rheumatology are given. In addition, existing collaborations as well as studies for investigating the influence of paternal rheumatic disease are highlighted.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades Reumáticas , Fiebre Reumática , Reumatología , Lactancia Materna , Estudios de Cohortes , Femenino , Humanos , Lactante , Embarazo , Ensayos Clínicos Controlados Aleatorios como Asunto , Enfermedades Reumáticas/tratamiento farmacológico , Enfermedades Reumáticas/epidemiología
19.
Breastfeed Med ; 16(9): 664-674, 2021 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34516777

RESUMEN

A central goal of the Academy of Breastfeeding Medicine is the development of clinical protocols for managing common medical problems that may impact breastfeeding success. These protocols serve only as guidelines for the care of breastfeeding mothers and infants and do not delineate an exclusive course of treatment or serve as standards of medical care. Variations in treatment may be appropriate according to the needs of an individual patient. The Academy of Breastfeeding Medicine recognizes that not all lactating individuals identify as female. Using gender-inclusive language, however, is not possible in all languages and all countries and for all readers. The position of the Academy of Breastfeeding Medicine (https://doi.org/10.1089/bfm.2021.29188.abm) is to interpret clinical protocols within the framework of inclusivity of all breastfeeding, chestfeeding, and human milk-feeding individuals.


Asunto(s)
Lactancia Materna , Lactancia , Niño , Protocolos Clínicos , Femenino , Hospitalización , Humanos , Lactante , Madres
20.
Rev Esc Enferm USP ; 55: e20200329, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés, Portugués | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34516600

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To develop and validate a prototype mobile application on breastfeeding for health professionals. METHOD: Methodological study. To build this prototype, information obtained from interviews with six health professionals who were certified as international breastfeeding consultants was employed. For validating the prototype, screenshots were sent to each professional participating in the first phase, as well as an adapted instrument to assess appearance, content, and language. RESULTS: Most assessments were "great" or "good". The participating professionals have also made important considerations for content enhancement, mainly for the clinical content. CONCLUSION: The prototype was positively assessed by the professionals, fulfilling the proposed objective. This study is highly important for breastfeeding care professional practice, since it presents a tool which improves quality of care by contributing to the best evidence-based practice.


Asunto(s)
Lactancia Materna , Personal de Salud , Consultores , Femenino , Humanos , Lenguaje
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