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1.
Chemosphere ; 286(Pt 3): 131858, 2022 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34399256

RESUMEN

Phthalates and 1,2-Cyclohexane dicarboxylic acid diisononyl ester (DINCH), bisphenols (BPs), parabens (PBs), and triclosan (TCS) are high-production-volume chemicals of pseudo-persistence that are concerning for the environment and human health. This study aims to assess the exposure to 10 phthalates, DINCH, and environmental phenols (3 BPs, 7 PBs, and TCS) of Slovenian men (n = 548) and lactating primiparous women (n = 536). We observed urinary concentrations comparable to studies from other countries and significant differences among the sub-populations. In our study, men had significantly higher levels of phthalates, DINCH, and BPs, whereas the concentrations of PBs in urine were significantly higher in women. The most significant determinant of exposure was the area of residence and the year of sampling (2008-2014) that mirrors trends in the market. Participants from urban or industrialized sampling locations had higher levels of almost all monitored analytes compared to rural locations. In an attempt to assess the risk of the population, hazard quotient (HQ) values were calculated for individual compounds and the chemical mixture. Individual analytes do not seem to pose a risk to the studied population at current exposure levels, whereas the HQ value of the chemical mixture is near the threshold of 1 which would indicate a higher risk. We conclude that greater emphasis on the risk resulting from cumulative exposure to chemical mixtures and additional studies are needed to estimate the exposure of susceptible populations, such as children.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Ambientales , Ácidos Ftálicos , Niño , Ácidos Dicarboxílicos , Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales/análisis , Ésteres , Femenino , Humanos , Lactancia , Masculino , Parabenos , Fenoles
2.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1354: 177-206, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34807443

RESUMEN

L-Arginine (Arg) plays a central role in the nitrogen metabolism (e.g., syntheses of protein, nitric oxide, polyamines, and creatine), blood flow, nutrient utilization, and health of ruminants. This amino acid is produced by ruminal bacteria and is also synthesized from L-glutamine, L-glutamate, and L-proline via the formation of L-citrulline (Cit) in the enterocytes of young and adult ruminants. In pre-weaning ruminants, most of the Cit formed de novo by the enterocytes is used locally for Arg production. In post-weaning ruminants, the small intestine-derived Cit is converted into Arg primarily in the kidneys and, to a lesser extent, in endothelial cells, macrophages, and other cell types. Under normal feeding conditions, Arg synthesis contributes 65% and 68% of total Arg requirements for nonpregnant and late pregnany ewes fed a diet with ~12% crude protein, respectively, whereas creatine production requires 40% and 36% of Arg utilized by nonpregnant and late pregnant ewes, respectively. Arg has not traditionally been considered a limiting nutrient in diets for post-weaning, gestating, or lactating ruminants because it has been assumed that these animals can synthesize sufficient Arg to meet their nutritional and physiological needs. This lack of a full understanding of Arg nutrition and metabolism has contributed to suboptimal efficiencies for milk production, reproductive performance, and growth in ruminants. There is now considerable evidence that dietary supplementation with rumen-protected Arg (e.g., 0.25-0.5% of dietary dry matter) can improve all these production indices without adverse effects on metabolism or health. Because extracellular Cit is not degraded by microbes in the rumen due to the lack of uptake, Cit can be used without any encapsulation as an effective dietary source for the synthesis of Arg in ruminants, including dairy and beef cows, as well as sheep and goats. Thus, an adequate amount of supplemental rumen-protected Arg or unencapsulated Cit is necessary to support maximum survival, growth, lactation, reproductive performance, and feed efficiency, as well as optimum health and well-being in all ruminants.


Asunto(s)
Células Endoteliales , Lactancia , Animales , Arginina , Bovinos , Citrulina , Dieta/veterinaria , Suplementos Dietéticos , Femenino , Leche , Embarazo , Rumiantes , Ovinos
3.
Theriogenology ; 177: 195-205, 2022 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34757242

RESUMEN

We hypothesised that heifers and cows with positive genetic merit for fertility would have a follicular microenvironment that resulted in better quality oocytes. To test this, we compared cumulus cell-oocyte complexes (COC) and follicular fluid from preovulatory follicles of 36 Holstein-Friesian nulliparous heifers and 50 primiparous lactating cows with either positive (POS, +5%) or negative (NEG, -5%) fertility breeding values (FertBV). Established gene markers of oocyte quality were measured in individual cumulus cell masses and oocytes, and concentrations of amino acids, steroids, and metabolites were quantified in corresponding follicular fluid and plasma. The timing of visually detectable oestrus in NEG FertBV heifers was inconsistent with their stage of COC maturation. Retrospective analyses of oestrous activity data indicated that NEG FertBV heifers were sampled earlier. Their recovered COC were morphologically less mature and exhibited differential expression of genes that are associated with follicular maturation (lower levels of BMPR2) and protein processing (higher levels of HSP90B1). Despite consistent sampling times being achieved in the lactating cows, lower concentrations of serine, proline, methionine, isoleucine, and non-esterified fatty acids were present in follicular fluid from POS FertBV cows. This was associated with higher expression of gene biomarkers of good oocyte quality (VCAN, PDE8A) in COC recovered from POS FertBV cows. This study supports our hypothesis that the follicular microenvironment in lactating dairy cows with high genetic merit leads to COC with higher metabolic rates and oocytes of superior quality. Moreover, an additional stressor such as lactation is required for this difference to be pronounced.


Asunto(s)
Lactancia , Folículo Ovárico , Animales , Bovinos , Femenino , Fertilidad , Líquido Folicular , Oocitos , Estudios Retrospectivos
4.
Oral Maxillofac Surg Clin North Am ; 34(1): 201-212, 2022 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34728146

RESUMEN

The purpose of this article is to clarify clinically impactful features of the perioperative and postoperative pharmacologic management of pregnant and lactating patients in the maxillofacial or dental setting. Before prescribing any drug to a nursing mother or pregnant patient, the maxillofacial surgeon and other dental and medical providers should consider the available evidence, benefits, and risk for that particular drug. There are many complex factors to consider when prescribing in order to maintain the safety of the pregnant individual, fetus, and infant. This article aims to provide concise, memorable, and actionable information to use in your clinical practice.


Asunto(s)
Lactancia , Cirugía Bucal , Femenino , Humanos , Cirujanos Oromaxilofaciales , Embarazo
5.
Theriogenology ; 177: 73-83, 2022 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34678544

RESUMEN

The dairy industry is searching for new technologies to address low (<50%) estrus detection. However, the lack of information on the potential economic benefits regarding new technology implementation has led some dairy producers to continue using conventional estrus detection methods (e.g. visual observation of standing to be mounted). The objective of this study was to compare the costs of infrared thermography (IRT), visual observation (VO) and ovulation synchronization (Ovsynch: OVS) as breeding strategies at different accuracy levels (Sensitivity [Se], Specificity [Sp]) and pregnancy rates (PR). The costs associated with Breeding, Feeding, Operation Costs, Return to Equity and Culling Risk per estrus detection rate (ER; 30-100%, conception rate for OVS; 30-100%), PR [PR per Parity group; 1-2 (50%), 3-4 (43%), and >4 (41%)], and ER accuracy determined the potential financial benefit of each breeding method for a representative farm. Breeding Cost results (Canadian dollars per cow; CAD/cow) showed a higher cost of OVS (138.99) as compared to VO (115.78) and IRT (127.69). Pregnancy Costs were affected by Breeding Cost; however, ER had a significant effect on PR expense for each method, IRT (ER; 30%: 210.38; 100%: 132.19), VO (ER; 30%: 205.93; 100%: 129.39), and OVS (ER; 30%: 247.21; 100%: 155.33). The minimum Se level with a positive Financial Effect for IRT and VO was 60% with a Sp of 100%, and for the OVS was Se 65% and Sp 100%. However, when the Se was 100% a positive Financial Effect was observed with a minimum Sp of 85% for IRT and 75% for VO. Culling Risk was reduced if ER increases differently depending on the parity group. Implementing of IRT as an estrus detection method yields a competitive breeding cost compared to VO and OVS. Further, breeding methods must accomplish at least ∼60% accuracy to have a positive net return.


Asunto(s)
Sincronización del Estro , Inseminación Artificial , Alberta , Animales , Bovinos , Industria Lechera , Dinoprost , Detección del Estro , Femenino , Hormona Liberadora de Gonadotropina , Inseminación Artificial/veterinaria , Lactancia , Embarazo
6.
J Korean Acad Nurs ; 51(5): 511-524, 2021 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34737245

RESUMEN

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has emerged as a threat to human health and public safety. People of all ages are susceptible to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection. However, the clinical manifestations of this infection differ by age. This study purposes to describe healthcare considerations for special populations, such as children, pregnant and lactating women, and older adults, who may have unique healthcare needs, in the pandemic situation. To realize the research purpose, we conducted a review of the practice guidelines of public documents and qualified studies that were published online/offline during a specific period. The review identified current knowledge on care for newborns, children in schools, pregnant women (from antenatal to postpartum care), and older adults suffering from high-risk conditions. Subsequently, we summarize vaccination guidance for special populations and, finally, discuss the issues currently affecting special populations. Therefore, this current knowledge on care for special populations helps nurses to provide accurate information on vaccinations aimed at preventing COVID-19 and protecting the masses from infection. Currently, the scarcity of information on COVID-19 variants necessitates further research on measures to reduce pandemic spread.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Complicaciones Infecciosas del Embarazo , Anciano , Niño , Atención a la Salud , Femenino , Humanos , Recién Nacido , Lactancia , Pandemias , Embarazo , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 11: 760400, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34746030

RESUMEN

Toxoplasma gondii is a worldwide zoonotic protozoan. Donkeys are often susceptible to many pathological agents, acting as carriers of pathogens for other animal species and humans. However, data on the prevalence of T. gondii in donkeys during lactation and on the status of antibodies against T. gondii in donkey milk are lacking. A cross-sectional study evaluated the variation of the anti-T. gondii antibodies in the blood and milk of domestic donkeys during lactation. A total of 418 domestic donkeys were randomly selected from the Shandong province, eastern China from January 2019 to March 2020. The anti-T. gondii antibodies were found in 11.72% (49/418) serum and 9.81% (41/418) milk samples using a commercial ELISA kit, respectively. There was a very high consistency between the serum and milk (Spearman's coefficient = 0.858, p-value < 0.0001 and Kendall's tau = 0.688, p-value < 0.0001), particularly at the 45th to 60th day of lactation. The present results of the statistical analysis showed that the history of abortion (p = 0.026; adjusted OR = 2.20; 95% CI: 1.15-4.20) and cat in the house (p = 0.008; adjusted OR = 2.36; 95% CI: 1.26-4.44) were significantly associated with T. gondii infection in the domestic donkeys. This is the first report to detect antibodies against T. gondii in donkey milk in China. These results indicate a potential risk of humans contracting the infection through the consumption of raw milk from the naturally infected donkeys.


Asunto(s)
Toxoplasma , Toxoplasmosis Animal , Animales , Anticuerpos Antiprotozoarios , China/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Equidae , Femenino , Inmunoglobulina G , Lactancia , Leche , Embarazo , Salud Pública , Toxoplasmosis Animal/epidemiología
8.
JAAPA ; 34(12): 31-33, 2021 Dec 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34813533

RESUMEN

ABSTRACT: This article describes a rare case of lactation ketoacidosis in a patient who started a ketogenic diet while nursing an infant and toddler. The patient presented to the ED with a history of nausea, vomiting, and postural dizziness, and was found to have a significant metabolic acidosis and elevated lipase level. The metabolic changes induced in this patient could occur in anyone with high metabolic demands who also is on a strict ketogenic diet. The case highlights the importance of a dietary history in patients with unexplained metabolic derangements.


Asunto(s)
Acidosis , Dieta Cetogénica , Cetosis , Acidosis/etiología , Dieta Cetogénica/efectos adversos , Femenino , Humanos , Lactante , Cetosis/etiología , Lactancia , Vómitos
9.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 11: 724401, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34796123

RESUMEN

Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is a common enteric pathogen that causes diarrhoea in humans and animals. Lactobacillus rhamnosus LB1 (formerly named Lactobacillus zeae LB1) has been shown to reduce ETEC infection to Caenorhabditis elegans and Salmonella burden in pigs. This study was to evaluate the effect of L. rhamnosus LB1 on the gut health of lactating piglets that were challenged with ETEC. Six-four piglets at 7 days of age were equally assigned into 8 groups (8 piglets per group): 1) control group (basal diet, phosphate buffer saline); 2) CT group (basal diet + 40 mg/kg colistin); 3) LL group (basal diet + 1 × 107 CFU/pig/day LB1); 4) HL group (basal diet + 1 × 108 CFU/pig/day LB1); 5) ETEC group: (basal diet + ETEC challenged); 6) CT + ETEC group (basal diet + CT + ETEC); 7) LL + ETEC group (basal diet + 1 × 107 CFU/pig/day LB1 + ETEC); 8) HL + ETEC group (basal diet + 1 × 108 CFU/pig/day LB1 + ETEC). The trial lasted ten days including 3 days of adaptation. Several significant interactions were found on blood parameters, intestinal morphology, gene, and protein expression. ETEC infection disrupted the cell structure and biochemical indicators of blood, undermined the integrity of the intestinal tract, and induced oxidative stress, diarrhoea, intestinal damage, and death of piglets. The supplementation of L. rhamnosus LB1 alleviated ETEC's adverse effects by reducing pig diarrhoea, oxidative stress, and death, modulating cell structure and biochemical indicators of blood, improving the capacity of immunity and anti-oxidation stress of pigs, and restoring their intestinal integrity. At the molecular level, the beneficial effects of L. rhamnosus LB1 appeared to be mediated by regulating functional related proteins (including HSP70, Caspase-3, NLRP3, AQP3, and AQP4) and genes (including RPL4, IL-8, HP, HSP70, Mx1, Mx2, S100A12, Nrf2, GPX2 and ARG1). These results suggest that dietary supplementation of L. rhamnosus LB1 improved the intestinal functions and health of piglets.


Asunto(s)
Escherichia coli Enterotoxigénica , Infecciones por Escherichia coli , Lactobacillus rhamnosus , Enfermedades de los Porcinos , Animales , Caenorhabditis elegans , Infecciones por Escherichia coli/prevención & control , Infecciones por Escherichia coli/veterinaria , Femenino , Inmunidad , Lactancia , Lactobacillus , Estrés Oxidativo , Porcinos
10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34769876

RESUMEN

Breastfeeding rates remain extremely low in Greece and women with gestational diabetes mellitus and hypothyroidism may experience additional difficulties. The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of a structured individualized lactation educational intervention by a midwife on increasing breastfeeding rates in women with endocrine disorders and low-risk women compared to women receiving standard care, 24 months after delivery. Two-hundred women made up the study population. Half of them were experiencing endocrine pregnancy disorders and 100 women constituted the low-risk pregnancy standard care control group. Women who were breastfeeding exclusively were significantly higher in the midwifery intervention group with endocrine disorders, namely breastfeeding continued at four months (breastfeeding: 20% vs. 12%, exclusive breastfeeding: 50% vs. 26%, p = 0.0228), and at six months after childbirth (breastfeeding: 54% vs. 28%, exclusive breastfeeding: 32% vs. 12%, p = 0.0011), compared to the standard care control group with endocrine disorder. The low-risk midwifery intervention group breastfed at four months (22% vs. 14%, p = 0.0428) and at six months (52% vs. 26%, p = 0.0018) at higher rates compared to the standard care control group. In addition, exclusive breastfeeding was significantly higher in the low-risk midwifery intervention group at four months (46% vs. 20%, p = 0.0102) and six months (38% vs. 4%, p < 0.0001) compared to the standard care control group. This study was the first attempt of a structured midwifery breastfeeding education in Greece and its major contribution reflects a significant positive impact on breastfeeding rates in terms of duration and exclusivity in women with gestational endocrine disorders as well as in low-risk women, and could possibly be applied and instituted in everyday clinical practice to increase the low breastfeeding rates in Greece.


Asunto(s)
Lactancia Materna , Partería , Femenino , Grecia/epidemiología , Humanos , Lactancia , Masculino , Parto , Embarazo
11.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 53(6): 534, 2021 Nov 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34739597

RESUMEN

This study aimed to investigate the effect of beta-casein genotypes (A1A2 and A2A2) in three different thermal comfort conditions on the adaptability of Sindhi cows and as a tool for selecting thermotolerant cattle. Twelve Sindhi cows were used in a completely randomized design in a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement, with six replicates, with two genotypes, and three thermal comfort conditions. The climatic variables were recorded, while black globe temperature, humidity index, and radiant heat load were calculated. We measured respiratory rate, surface temperature, and rectal temperature while the heat tolerance coefficient was calculated. Genotype had no significant effect (p > 0.05) on any of the parameters measured. However, there was a thermal comfort condition effect (p < 0.05) on rectal temperature, surface temperature, and thermal gradients. The respiratory rate and heat tolerance coefficient were not significantly affected (p > 0.05). Therefore, although the results indicate substantial adaptability of Sindhi cows under any thermal conditions, the tested genotypes should not be used as a tool for selecting thermotolerant Sindhi cows.


Asunto(s)
Caseínas , Termotolerancia , Animales , Temperatura Corporal , Bovinos , Femenino , Calor , Humedad , Lactancia , Temperatura
12.
Schweiz Arch Tierheilkd ; 164(10): 635-649, 2021 Oct.
Artículo en Alemán | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34758956

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Bovine virus diarrhea (BVD) is an economically important disease in cattle. Switzerland started an eradication program in 2008. After the initial virological examination of all cattle followed by the examination of all newborn calves, the BVD prevalence in 2012 was low enough to start serological monitoring. An unusually high number of increased tank milk values were observed during this serological monitoring in autumn 2019. No seropositive animals were found on most farms in the follow-up cattle group testing. The present study was designed in the form of a multiple case report to better assess the BVD situation in a herd after a serological tank milk result above the cut-off value. The tank milk of 13 farms with serological values above the cut-off value from the analyses in autumn 2019 was examined again with two different ELISA tests in spring 2020. In addition, at the same time blood samples were taken to obtain serological values of all adult cattle on the farm. The results of the two tests that were used to examine the tank milk samples correlated well with each another. The results of the tank milk serology showed a low correlation with the seroprevalence in the lactating cows, but no correlation with the seroprevalence of all adult animals in the herd. A single seropositive animal had a major influence on the results of the tank milk serology in some herds. In addition, correct tank milk sampling must be ensured because the representativeness of the tank milk sample is decisive for a meaningful result for the investigated farm. If the result of the tank milk test is above the cut-off value, the examination of a group of cattle is still the best way to identify a current infection in a herd.


Asunto(s)
Diarrea Mucosa Bovina Viral/epidemiología , Lactancia , Leche , Animales , Bovinos , Ensayo de Inmunoadsorción Enzimática/veterinaria , Granjas , Femenino , Leche/virología , Estudios Seroepidemiológicos
13.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 53(6): 538, 2021 Nov 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34762180

RESUMEN

In dairy production systems, the efficient use of resources is required to guarantee its sustainability. Worldwide, the efficiency of feed utilization and its effects have been widely studied. However, few studies have quantified animal nitrogen use and its corresponding soil contribution in small-scale production systems. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the efficiency of feed utilization and quantify the soil chemical composition in small-scale production systems using two different feeding strategies. Twelve dairy farms were evaluated from May 2016 to April 2017. Data analysis was performed using an ANOVA following a completely randomized model and using feeding strategies as treatment. Regarding the feeding systems' characteristics, significant differences (P < 0.05) were only observed in land surface and land used to produce mixed-grass and corn. Nitrogen (N) input and output in dairy cattle were significantly different (P < 0.05) for crude protein intake. The highest results were observed in grazing feeding systems. The cut and carry strategies excreted 71% of the consumed N in the manure; grazing strategies excreted 72%. The efficiency of feed utilization (EFU) is low; only 19% of the consumed N is recovered during milk production. As for the soil chemical composition, significant differences (P < 0.05) were observed in the percentage of total N and the carbon to nitrogen (C:N) ratio. The remaining components behaved similarly in both feeding systems. Systems that include crops and livestock can positively change the biophysical and socioeconomic dynamics of agricultural systems.


Asunto(s)
Alimentación Animal , Nitrógeno , Alimentación Animal/análisis , Animales , Bovinos , Industria Lechera , Dieta/veterinaria , Lactancia , Estiércol , Leche/química , Nitrógeno/análisis , Poaceae , Suelo
14.
BMC Musculoskelet Disord ; 22(1): 926, 2021 Nov 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34732196

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: To review, analyze and characterize the pregnancy and lactation-related osteoporosis (PLO) with vertebral fractures based on the extraction data in the previous studies. METHODS: A comprehensive literature search of electronic databases including the PubMed, Embase and Web of Science was conducted from January 1st,1990 to December 1st, 2020. The enrolled data were pooled to analyze the baseline characteristics, clinical features, risk factors and treatment options. RESULTS: A total of 65 articles with 338 cases were enrolled for data extraction. The enrolled cases aged from 19 to 47 years, with a mean value of 35.7 years old. The average body mass index (BMI) was 22.2 kg/m2 ranged from 16.0 to 39.0 kg/m2. Of the 173 cases, 149 cases with vertebral fractures occurred in the first pregnancy, 19 cases in the second pregnancy, four cases in the third pregnancy and one case in the fourth pregnancy. Up to 91.5% of the back pain occurred within the last 3 months of pregnancy and the first 3 months after delivery. The most involved vertebral levels were L2, L1 and T12 accounting for 32.6% of all the fractures. The average fracture numbers were 4.4 levels per patient. The lumbar Z-scores were mostly recorded with a mean value of - 3.2 ranged from - 7.8 to 0. CONCLUSIONS: PLO with vertebral fractures is a rare clinical entity, which is more likely to occur in older and thinner pregnant women. Back pain is the clinical complaint and mostly occurs in the late pregnancy and early lactation periods. Most vertebral fractures appear in the first pregnancy but it can occur in any time of pregnancy. Thoracolumbar region is the mostly involved region. As compared with postmenopausal osteoporotic fractures, PLO usually has multiple levels fractures. Bisphosphonates are the most widely used treatment so far, however, many factors need to be taken into account to decide which drug to choose in PLO and further studies are necessary for clear recommendation in the future.


Asunto(s)
Osteoporosis , Fracturas Osteoporóticas , Complicaciones del Embarazo , Fracturas de la Columna Vertebral , Adulto , Anciano , Densidad Ósea , Femenino , Humanos , Lactancia , Osteoporosis/epidemiología , Fracturas Osteoporóticas/epidemiología , Fracturas Osteoporóticas/etiología , Embarazo , Complicaciones del Embarazo/epidemiología , Fracturas de la Columna Vertebral/diagnóstico por imagen , Fracturas de la Columna Vertebral/epidemiología , Fracturas de la Columna Vertebral/etiología
15.
Obstet Gynecol Clin North Am ; 48(4): 813-821, 2021 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34756299

RESUMEN

As the world clamored to respond to the rapidly evolving coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, health care systems reacted swiftly to provide uninterrupted care for patients. Within obstetrics and gynecology, nearly every facet of care was influenced. Rescheduling of office visits, safety of labor and delivery and in the operating room, and implementation of telemedicine are examples. Social distancing has impacted academic centers in the education of trainees. COVID-19 vaccine trials have increased awareness of including pregnant and lactating women. Last, the pandemic has reminded us of issues related to ethics, diversity and inclusiveness, marginalized communities, and the women's health workforce.


Asunto(s)
Vacunas contra la COVID-19 , COVID-19 , Femenino , Humanos , Lactancia , Embarazo , SARS-CoV-2 , Salud de la Mujer
16.
Schweiz Arch Tierheilkd ; 164(11): 721-736, 2021 Nov.
Artículo en Alemán | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34758949

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: The impact of lameness on fertility in dairy cows has already been investigated, however predominantely in Holstein cows. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of lameness during the dry period, between calving and first service and between calving and conception (days open) on selected fertility traits in Austrian Fleckvieh cows. Locomotion scoring of dairy cows was performed during the course of routine performance testing in 2014 and 2015. Using the observed maximum locomotion score (MLSC) during pre- and postcalving periods, the cows were classified into three groups: cows never lame (MLSC 1), cows that showed MLSC 2, and cows with MLSC ≥3 during these defined periods. Data sets of 3,998 lactations of 3,058 Austrian Fleckvieh cows from 97 dairy herds could be evaluated. In several statistical models the fixed effects of MLSC (1, 2, ≥ 3), farm, year and season of calving, parity*age class at calving, and early fertility disorders were considered for analysis of the traits days from calving to first insemination, interval from first to last insemination, days from calving to conception and calving interval (CI), as well as the non-return-rate90 (NRR90). Mean lameness prevalence during the dry period was 19,43 %, and reached 27,70 % in the period between calving and conception. Lameness (MLSC ≥ 3) during the dry period significantly (P = 0,030) prolonged the period between calving and conception, and lameness (MLSC ≥ 3) during the period from calving to first service had a significantly detrimental effect on the periods calving to first insemination, days open and CI (P < 0,001). Further, highly significant associations (P < 0,001) in cows showing MLSC ≥ 2 during the period between calving and conception on all fertility traits were determined. Apart from lameness, farm, year and season of calving, parity*-age class at calving, early fertility disorders and, partly, the interaction of the latter two effects significantly (P.


Asunto(s)
Fertilidad , Cojera Animal , Animales , Austria/epidemiología , Bovinos , Femenino , Lactancia , Cojera Animal/epidemiología , Paridad , Embarazo
17.
Schweiz Arch Tierheilkd ; 164(11): 737-751, 2021 Nov.
Artículo en Alemán | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34758950

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Especially in regions with intensive cattle farming, paratuberculosis in ruminants can cause considerable economic losses for example through loss of sick animals, reduced milk yield and decreased reproduction performance. Although quantifying the actual economic losses is complex, this study attempts to quantify the losses caused by paratuberculosis in infected dairy farms in Switzerland by means of meta-analyses. For this purpose, in an elaborate selection process, data from 12 studies on milk yield and from three studies on the calving to conception interval were finally selected for further calculations. In addition, data from eight studies each on milk fat concentration and milk protein concentration were evaluated. For the meta-analyses, only studies in which «sick¼ (seropositive) and «healthy¼ (seronegative) animals based on the results of serum ELISA tests were compared at the individual animal level were considered. With a paratuberculosis prevalence of 5,99 % in cattle in Switzerland, a total loss of CHF 12 034 329,96 (95 % CI [CHF 8 625 406,02; CHF 16 409 276,30]; 11 095 652,20 € [7 952 624,35 €; 15 129 352,70 €]) per year was calculated for a population of 559 900 dairy cows. The main part of the losses is caused by an extended calving to conception interval: Seropositive animals need an average of 14,93 days longer (95 % CI [1,73; 28,13]) from calving to successful insemination as seronegative animals. This results in total costs for the extended calving to conception interval due to paratuberculosis of CHF 7 365 591,21 per year (95 % CI [CHF 900 394,95; CHF 14 838 087,61]; 6 791 075,10 € [830 164,14 €; 13 680 716,80 €]). Milk yield reduction based on a lactation period of 305 days results in an economic loss of CHF 4 668 738,75 per year (95 % CI [CHF 1 571 188,69; CHF 7 725 011,07]; 4 304 577,13 € [1 448 635,97 €; 7 122 460,21 €]). Milk fat and milk protein content were not found to be significantly changed. Despite a large number of studies in the screening phase, it was not possible to calculate all types of losses attributable to paratuberculosis due to lack of comparability between the studies, which is essential for meta-analyses. Nevertheless, it was possible to carry out four different meta-analyses, the results of which give a first impression of the economic importance of paratuberculosis in dairy cows in Switzerland.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades de los Bovinos , Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis , Paratuberculosis , Animales , Bovinos , Enfermedades de los Bovinos/epidemiología , Femenino , Lactancia , Reproducción , Suiza/epidemiología
18.
Schweiz Arch Tierheilkd ; 164(11): 767-777, 2021 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34758952

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to record the course of peripartal udder oedema with ultrasonography in dairy cows and to investigate the therapeutic effects of diuretic furosemide. For this purpose, a device with a force sensor for the ultrasound probe was developed, which ensured the generation of data under similar pressure conditions and thereby repeatable and comparable results. In a pretrial with ten cows, ultrasonographic measurements were performed daily at four locations per udder quarter beginning 14 days ante partum until 14 d post partum. The main study included 50 dairy cows. The experimental group (n=25) received 500 mg furosemide intramuscularly on the day of calving, as well as on the first and second day post partum. The control group (n=25) was treated with 10 mL 0,9 % sodium chloride solution (NaCl) at the same timepoints. The experimental period was extended from 21 days ante partum until 21 days post partum and included 15 ultrasonographic measurements at three-day intervals. The measurements were performed at the teat base, which turned out to be the most suitable location in the pretrial. Quarter milk samples were collected on the day of calving, 7 and 14 days post partum. The average thickness of the udder oedema between the group treated with furosemide and the control group did not differ. In conclusion, a method for the ultrasonographic measurement of udder oedema under comparable applied forces was established. The teat base turned out to be a suitable location to monitor the characteristic temporal course of udder oedema. In the present study, treatment with furosemide did not have a measurable, positive effect on the severity of the udder oedema post partum in the study animals. Finally, further studies with a higher sample size are necessary to confirm this relationship.


Asunto(s)
Furosemida , Glándulas Mamarias Animales , Animales , Bovinos , Diuréticos , Edema/diagnóstico por imagen , Edema/tratamiento farmacológico , Edema/veterinaria , Femenino , Lactancia , Glándulas Mamarias Animales/diagnóstico por imagen , Leche , Ultrasonografía/veterinaria
19.
J Med Invest ; 68(3.4): 280-285, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34759145

RESUMEN

The administration of Leu57-Leu58-His59-Lys60 (LLHK), Leu58-His59-Lys60 (LHK), and His59-Lys60 (HK) from ß-lactoglobulin C variant, which is specific to Jersey cow milk, has been shown to prevent and/or restore the age-dependent atrophy and functional decline of salivary glands by affecting gene expression in elderly rats. In this study, we investigated the effect of Jersey cow defatted milk on salivary volume and composition in elderly persons. Participants (aged 85 to 98, n = 8) were administered defatted dry milk from Jersey cows twice a day for 4 weeks. Before and after 4 weeks from the start of drinking, saliva was collected and weighed. Salivary cystatin S and amylase levels were analyzed by Western blotting. To assess the effect of Jersey cow defatted milk on taste perception, questionnaires were used. Salivary volume after oral administration of 40 g of Jersey cow defatted dry milk daily for 4 weeks was 1.8 times higher than that before administration. Salivary cystatin S and amylase levels significantly increased after administration of Jersey cow defatted dry milk. Moreover, all participants who had taste impairment reported improved taste perception after administration. The administration of Jersey cow defatted dry milk increased salivary volume and changed the composition of saliva in elderly persons. Furthermore, it improved taste perception. J. Med. Invest. 68 : 280-285, August, 2021.


Asunto(s)
Lactancia , Leche , Animales , Bovinos , Femenino , Proyectos Piloto , Ratas , Saliva
20.
A A Pract ; 15(11): e01544, 2021 Nov 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34784304

RESUMEN

Many anesthesiologists and nurse anesthetists want to continue breastfeeding their babies when returning to work from maternity leave. The cornerstone of breast milk supply maintenance is breast milk pumping sessions at regular intervals. These breast milk pumping sessions require time and private space for lactation. We surveyed Iowa hospitals and ambulatory surgery centers and created an educational spreadsheet to guide inquiry and postgraduate job selection of our anesthesiology residents and nurse anesthetist students (eg, when considering future family planning). The survey and spreadsheet showed a low prevalence of dedicated lactation space for anesthesia practitioners near the surgical suites.


Asunto(s)
Procedimientos Quirúrgicos Ambulatorios , Lactancia Materna , Femenino , Hospitales , Humanos , Lactante , Iowa , Lactancia , Embarazo , Prevalencia
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