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1.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 207: 111537, 2021 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33254399

RESUMEN

Despite being an essential trace element with great importance for vital metabolic activities, the manganese (Mn) can also cause damage to organ systems. However, data on the effect of this metal on the male reproductive system are limited, especially using relevant doses to human exposure. The present study aimed to evaluate and compare the effects of Mn exposure on the testicular structure of mice. Three experiments were conducted: (I) direct exposure to realistic doses (0.013, 0.13, and 1.3 mg/kg/day of MnCl2); (II) parental and direct exposure to realistic doses (as in experiment I), where the animals were exposed during intrauterine development and from lactation until reproductive maturity; (III) direct exposure to high doses (15, 30, and 60 mg/kg/day of MnCl2). Biometric, histopathological, histomorphometric and stereological parameters of the testis were evaluated, in addition to sperm morphology. Bioinformatic analyses were performed to identify potential Mn binding sites in 3ß-HSD and P450ssc, as well as their protein-protein interaction network. The results obtained were compared using the integrated biomarker response index (IBR). There was an increase of seminiferous tubules pathologies in all experimental conditions tested, with effects on tubular volume, as well as a reduction in tubular diameter. The IBR analyses showed that parental and direct exposure had a significant negative effect on the testicular structure due to the exposure of this metal to sensitive periods of animal development. This study suggests that Mn has the potential to alter the morphological parameters of the testes, affecting the spermatogenesis in mice.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Ambientales/toxicidad , Manganeso/toxicidad , Testículo/anatomía & histología , Animales , Femenino , Lactancia/efectos de los fármacos , Masculino , Ratones , Espermatogénesis/efectos de los fármacos , Testículo/efectos de los fármacos , Pruebas de Toxicidad
2.
Phytomedicine ; 80: 153360, 2021 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33038867

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Curcumin is a naturally occurring polyphenol found in Curcuma longa with multiple therapeutic properties, such as anti-inflammatory, wound healing and anti-cancer effects. Curcuma longa is also used as a galactagogue to improve milk production during lactation. PURPOSE: To assess curcumin could have therapeutic potential for breastfeeding mothers, we investigated whether and how curcumin influences milk production in lactating mammary epithelial cells (MECs) at the cellular and molecular levels. METHODS: We prepared a lactating MEC culture model that produced milk components and formed less-permeable tight junctions (TJs) to investigate the molecular mechanism of curcumin on milk production, TJs, and inflammation in vitro. RESULTS: Curcumin downregulated milk production in lactation MECs concurrently with inactivation of lactogenesis-relating signaling (STAT5 and glucocorticoid receptor). The maintenance of a less-permeable TJ barrier was also confirmed, although the TJ protein claudin-4 increased. Curcumin inactivated NFκB and STAT3 signaling, which are closely involved in inflammatory responses in weaning and mastitis mammary glands. The expression levels of IL-1ß and TNF-α were also decreased by curcumin treatment. Furthermore, curcumin blocked activation of inflammatory signaling by lipopolysaccharide treatment in MECs, similar to those in MECs that were treated with diclofenac sodium. The drastic phosphorylation of ERK was induced by curcumin treatment in the absence of EGF. U0126, an inhibitor of ERK phosphorylation, attenuated the adverse effects of curcumin on lactating MECs. CONCLUSION: The results of the present study suggests that curcumin downregulates milk production via inactivation of STAT5 and GR signaling with concurrent suppression of inflammatory responses via STAT3 and NFκB signaling in MECs. These findings provide new insights into the role of curcumin as a mild suppressor of milk production without inflammatory damages in breastfeeding mothers.


Asunto(s)
Curcumina/farmacología , Células Epiteliales/efectos de los fármacos , Glándulas Mamarias Animales/citología , Leche/metabolismo , Animales , Caseínas/metabolismo , Células Cultivadas , Curcumina/efectos adversos , Células Epiteliales/metabolismo , Femenino , Glucocorticoides/metabolismo , Lactancia/efectos de los fármacos , Lactancia/metabolismo , Lipopolisacáridos/toxicidad , Glándulas Mamarias Animales/efectos de los fármacos , Glándulas Mamarias Animales/metabolismo , Mastitis/tratamiento farmacológico , Mastitis/metabolismo , Ratones Endogámicos ICR , FN-kappa B/metabolismo , Factor de Transcripción STAT3/metabolismo , Transducción de Señal/efectos de los fármacos , Uniones Estrechas/efectos de los fármacos
4.
Environ Health ; 19(1): 93, 2020 08 31.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32867778

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Bisphenol A (BPA), one of the highest-volume chemicals produced worldwide, has been identified as an endocrine disruptor. Many peer-reviewing studies have reported adverse effects of low dose BPA exposure, particularly during perinatal period (gestation and/or lactation). We previously demonstrated that perinatal oral exposure to BPA (via gavage of mothers during gestation and lactation) has long-term consequences on immune response and intestinal barrier functions. Due to its adverse effects on several developmental and physiological processes, BPA was removed from consumer products and replaced by chemical substitutes such as BPS or BPF, that are structurally similar and not well studied compare to BPA. Here, we aimed to compare perinatal oral exposure to these bisphenols (BPs) at two doses (5 and 50 µg/kg of body weight (BW)/day (d)) on immune response at intestinal and systemic levels in female offspring mice at adulthood (Post Natal Day PND70). METHODS: Pregnant female mice were orally exposed to BPA, BPS or BPF at 5 or 50 µg/kg BW/d from 15th day of gravidity to weaning of pups at Post-Natal Day (PND) 21. Humoral and cellular immune responses of adult offspring (PND70) were analysed at intestinal and systemic levels. RESULTS: In female offspring, perinatal oral BP exposure led to adverse effects on intestinal and systemic immune response that were dependant of the BP nature (A, S or F) and dose of exposure. Stronger impacts were observed with BPS at the dose of 5 µg/kg BW/d on inflammatory markers in feces associated with an increase of anti-E. coli IgG in plasma. BPA and BPF exposure induced prominent changes at low dose in offspring mice, in term of intestinal and systemic immune responses, provoking an intestinal and systemic Th1/Th17 inflammation. CONCLUSION: These findings provide, for the first time, results of long-time consequences of BPA, S and F perinatal exposure by oral route on immune response in offspring mice. This work warns that it is mandatory to consider immune markers and dose exposure in risk assessment associated to new BPA's alternatives.


Asunto(s)
Compuestos de Bencidrilo/efectos adversos , Disruptores Endocrinos/efectos adversos , Inmunidad Celular/efectos de los fármacos , Inmunidad Humoral/efectos de los fármacos , Fenoles/efectos adversos , Sulfonas/efectos adversos , Administración Oral , Animales , Relación Dosis-Respuesta a Droga , Femenino , Intestinos/efectos de los fármacos , Intestinos/inmunología , Lactancia/efectos de los fármacos , Exposición Materna , Ratones , Ratones Endogámicos C3H , Embarazo/efectos de los fármacos
5.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239308, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32956396

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Vitamin A deficiency is highly prevalent in low-income countries and is a major public health problem worldwide. Lactating mothers are the most vulnerable population group to vitamin A deficiency. Despite this, there is limited study on vitamin A-rich food consumption by lactating mothers in Ethiopia. Therefore, this study aimed to assess adequate vitamin A rich food consumption and associated factors among lactating mothers visiting child immunization and postnatal care centers in health institutions of Gondar Town. METHODS: An Institution-based cross-sectional study design was employed at a health institution in Gondar Town from February to March 2019, and included 631 study participants. Simple random sampling followed by a systematic sampling technique was used to select participants. The data were collected using the Helen Keller International Food Frequency Questionnaire, entered using Epi-Info 7 statistical software and exported to STATA version 14 for analysis. A multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to identify factors associated with the outcome variable and variables with p-value <0.05 were considered as statistically significant. RESULT: A total of 624 lactating mothers participated in the study giving a response rate of 98.89%. The study shows adequate consumption of vitamin A-rich food was 38.94% (95% CI: 35%- 43%). Predictors such as attending college diploma and above (AOR = 2.26, 95% CI; 1.02-4.99), having household family size ≤ 3 (AOR = 4.04, 95% CI; 1.60-10.17), being in higher economic class (AOR = 1.93, 95% CI; 1.18-3.14), having dietary diversity score of ≥ 5 (AOR = 1.59, 95% CI; 1.09-2.32) and meal frequency of ≥ 4 (AOR = 1.64, 95% CI; 1.09-2.32) were statistically significant. CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION: The majority of respondents had inadequate consumption of foods rich in vitamin A. Educational status, family size, wealth index, dietary diversity, and meal frequency were found to be factors that affect adequate consumption of vitamin A-rich foods. Encouraging and educating lactating mothers to consume foods rich in vitamin A is crucial.


Asunto(s)
Dieta , Lactancia/efectos de los fármacos , Deficiencia de Vitamina A/dietoterapia , Vitamina A/uso terapéutico , Adulto , Instituciones de Atención Ambulatoria , Niño , Etiopía/epidemiología , Composición Familiar , Femenino , Humanos , Inmunización/métodos , Lactancia/fisiología , Masculino , Comidas , Persona de Mediana Edad , Madres , Estado Nutricional , Pobreza , Prevalencia , Deficiencia de Vitamina A/epidemiología , Deficiencia de Vitamina A/metabolismo
6.
J Anim Sci ; 98(9)2020 Sep 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32803249

RESUMEN

The present study investigated the effect of optimizing the total dietary arginine (Arg)-to-lysine (Lys) ratios on the metabolism of lactating sows and piglet performance by supplementation with l- Arg during lactation. A total of 200 multiparous sows (three to six parities, Yorkshire × Landrace) were selected and randomly and equally assigned to five groups in lactation, and finally, 36, 34, 35, 36, and 33 dams completed the study in the dietary treatments, respectively, where the diets consisted of five step-up Arg-to-Lys ratios (0.9, 1.0, 1.1, 1.2, and 1.3) by the addition of 0%, 0.10%, 0.20%, 0.30%, and 0.40% Arg. The diets contained 3.37 to 3.38 Mcal of digestible energy/kg energy, 17.73% to 17.75% crude protein, and 0.98% to 1.01% Lys and were fed ad libitum during lactation. The performance of sows and suckling piglets was measured, and plasma and milk samples were collected for analysis. The feed intake of sows as well as litter weight gain during lactation increased linearly (P ≤ 0.05), while maternal backfat and milk composition were not affected (P > 0.05) as the dietary Arg-to-Lys ratios increased. Analyzed plasma biochemical indices, including concentrations of free Arg, Orn, and Glu, and prolactin, insulin, and follicle-stimulating hormone, responded linearly (P ≤ 0.05) to increases in dietary Arg-to-Lys ratios. The dietary Arg-to-Lys ratios of 1.01 and 1.02 were optimal for maternal feed intake and litter weight gain, based on broken-line models. Collectively, the results of this study indicate that increasing total dietary Arg-to-Lys ratios in lactation was beneficial for the performance of lactating sows and suckling piglets, and dietary Arg-to-Lys ratios of 1.01 and 1.02 were optimal, from regression analyses, for the practical feeding of lactating sows.


Asunto(s)
Alimentación Animal , Arginina , Lactancia , Porcinos , Alimentación Animal/análisis , Animales , Arginina/farmacología , Dieta/veterinaria , Dipéptidos , Femenino , Lactancia/efectos de los fármacos , Lisina/metabolismo , Leche/química , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/metabolismo , Aumento de Peso/efectos de los fármacos
7.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237163, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32764792

RESUMEN

In bovine mammary glands, the ABCG2 transporter actively secretes xenobiotics into dairy milk. This can have significant implications when cattle are exposed to pesticide residues in feed. Recent studies indicate that the fungicide prochloraz activates the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) pathway, increasing bovine ABCG2 (bABCG2) gene expression and efflux activity. This could enhance the accumulation of bABCG2 substrates in dairy milk, impacting pesticide risk assessment. We therefore investigated whether 13 commonly used pesticides in Europe are inducers of AhR and bABCG2 activity. MDCKII cells expressing mammary bABCG2 were incubated with pesticides for up to 72 h. To reflect an in vivo situation, applied pesticide concentrations corresponded to the maximum residue levels (MRLs) permitted in bovine fat or muscle. AhR activation was ascertained through CYP1A mRNA expression and enzyme activity, measured by qPCR and 7-ethoxyresorufin-Ο-deethylase (EROD) assay, respectively. Pesticide-mediated increase of bABCG2 efflux activity was assessed using the Hoechst 33342 accumulation assay. For all assays, the known AhR-activating pesticide prochloraz served as a positive control, while the non-activating tolclofos-methyl provided the negative control. At 10-fold MRL concentrations, chlorpyrifos-methyl, diflufenican, ioxynil, rimsulfuron, and tebuconazole significantly increased CYP1A1 mRNA levels, CYP1A activity, and bABCG2 efflux activity compared to the vehicle control. In contrast, dimethoate, dimethomorph, glyphosate, iprodione, methiocarb and thiacloprid had no impact on AhR-mediated CYP1A1 mRNA levels, CYP1A activity or bABCG2 efflux. In conclusion, the MDCKII-bABCG2 cell model proved an appropriate tool for identifying AhR- and bABCG2-inducing pesticides. This provides an in vitro approach that could reduce the number of animals required in pesticide approval studies.


Asunto(s)
Transportador de Casetes de Unión a ATP, Subfamilia G, Miembro 2/metabolismo , Alternativas a las Pruebas en Animales/métodos , Fungicidas Industriales/toxicidad , Receptores de Hidrocarburo de Aril/agonistas , Pruebas de Toxicidad Crónica/métodos , Transportador de Casetes de Unión a ATP, Subfamilia G, Miembro 2/agonistas , Animales , Bovinos , Perros , Alemania , Lactancia/efectos de los fármacos , Células de Riñón Canino Madin Darby , Receptores de Hidrocarburo de Aril/metabolismo , Proteínas Recombinantes/metabolismo
8.
Life Sci ; 259: 118224, 2020 Oct 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32768574

RESUMEN

AIM: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of maternal exposure to a high-fat diet associated with neonatal administration of kaempferol on somatic growth, biochemical profile and feeding behavior in offspring. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Wistar rats were distributed according to diet during pregnancy and lactation into Control (C; 3.4 kcal/g; 12% kcal/lipids) or High-fat (HFD; 4.6 kcal/g; 51% kcal/lipids) groups. In the offspring, vehicle (V) or kaempferol (K, 1 mg/kg) were administered from the 8th until the 21st postnatal day (PND). Maternal body weight (BW), caloric intake and adiposity were measured. In the offspring, somatic growth parameters were evaluated on the 7th, 14th, 21st, 25th and 30th PND, except for BW, which was measured from the 8th to the 21st and from the 25th to the 30th PND. Feeding behavior was assessed by food intake and behavioral satiety sequence (BSS) on the 30th PND. The biochemical profile and relative weight of adipose tissue of offspring were also measured. KEY FINDINGS: Dams exposed to HFD showed no difference in body weight and caloric intake but exhibited increased adiposity. Neonatal administration of kaempferol increased body weight after weaning and somatic growth in the offspring of HFD dams. Neonatal kaempferol also reduced adiposity and serum creatinine levels in offspring. Neither maternal diet nor kaempferol altered offspring feeding behavior. SIGNIFICANCE: Neonatal administration of kaempferol promotes increased somatic growth post-weaning, reduces adiposity, and does not alter feeding behavior in offspring from high-fat dams.


Asunto(s)
Adiposidad/efectos de los fármacos , Conducta Alimentaria/efectos de los fármacos , Quempferoles/farmacología , Tejido Adiposo , Animales , Animales Recién Nacidos/metabolismo , Peso Corporal/efectos de los fármacos , Dieta Alta en Grasa , Ingestión de Energía/efectos de los fármacos , Femenino , Quempferoles/metabolismo , Lactancia/efectos de los fármacos , Masculino , Exposición Materna/efectos adversos , Fenómenos Fisiologicos Nutricionales Maternos , Obesidad/tratamiento farmacológico , Embarazo , Ratas , Ratas Wistar , Destete
9.
J Anim Sci ; 98(8)2020 Aug 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32681642

RESUMEN

Dietary lysophospholipids (LPL) would influence milk composition of sows, thus positively affect intestinal health of offspring. The objective of this study was to determine effects of dietary LPL fed to lactating sows on performance, milk characteristics, gut health, and gut-associated microbiome of offspring. Sixty pregnant sows were allotted to 2 treatments in a randomized complete block design with parity and BW as blocks on day 110 of gestation. Treatments were CON (no added LPL) and LPL (0.05% LPL; Lipidol-Ultra, Pathway Intermediates, Shrewsbury, UK). Sows were fed 2 kg/d from day 110 of gestation until farrowing and ad libitum after farrowing. Diets were formulated to meet NRC requirement for lactating sows. Colostrum and milk samples from 12 sows per treatment were collected to measure nutrients and immunoglobulins on days 1 and 18 of lactation, respectively. Twelve piglets per treatment (1 piglet per litter) were euthanized on day 18 to collect tissues to measure tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-8 (IL-8), malondialdehyde, protein carbonyl, IgA, histomorphology, crypt cell proliferation rate, and microbiota in the jejunum and colon. Data were analyzed using the MIXED procedure of SAS, and the mortality was analyzed using the GLIMMIX procedure of SAS. There was no difference in sow BW, parity, and litter size between treatments on day 0 of lactation. Sows fed LPL had increased (P < 0.05) litter BW gain (53.9 vs. 59.4 kg) and decreased piglet mortality (13.9% vs. 10.6%) on day 18 of lactation. Sows fed LPL had increased (P < 0.05) omega-6:omega-3 (22.1 vs. 23.7) and unsaturated:saturated (1.4 vs. 1.6) fatty acids ratios with increased oleic acid (29.1% vs. 31.4%) and tended to have increased (P = 0.092) IgG (1.14 vs. 1.94 g/L) and linoleic acid (17.7% vs. 18.7%) in the milk on day 18 of lactation. Piglets from sows fed LPL had increased (P < 0.05) IL-8 (184 vs. 245 pg/mg) and crypt cell proliferation rate (39.4% vs. 40.9%) and tended to have increased (P = 0.095) Firmicutes:Bacteroidetes ratio (1.0 vs. 3.5) in the jejunum. In conclusion, sows fed with LPL had milk with increased IgG, oleic acids, and linoleic acids without changes in BW and backfat during lactation. These changes could contribute to improved survivability and intestinal health of piglets by increasing IL-8 concentration, enhancing balance among gut-associated microbiome, and increasing enterocyte proliferation in the jejunum.


Asunto(s)
Alimentación Animal/análisis , Suplementos Dietéticos , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Lisofosfolípidos/farmacología , Leche/química , Porcinos/fisiología , Animales , Líquidos Corporales , Calostro/metabolismo , Dieta/veterinaria , Ácidos Grasos Omega-3/farmacología , Femenino , Lactancia/efectos de los fármacos , Tamaño de la Camada/efectos de los fármacos , Lisofosfolípidos/administración & dosificación , Fenómenos Fisiologicos Nutricionales Maternos , Leche/metabolismo , Paridad , Embarazo
10.
J Dairy Sci ; 103(8): 7110-7123, 2020 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32505393

RESUMEN

Hydrolyzed feather meal (HFM) is high in crude protein, most of which bypasses rumen degradation when fed to lactating dairy cows, allowing direct supply of AA to the small intestine. Compared with other feeds that are high in bypass protein, such as blood meal or heat-treated soybean meal, HFM is low in His and Lys. The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of supplementing rumen-protected (RP) Lys and His individually or in combination in a diet containing 5% HFM on milk production and composition as well as energy and N partitioning. Twelve multiparous Jersey cows (mean ± SD: 91 ± 18 d in milk) were used in a triplicated 4 × 4 Latin square with 4 periods of 28 d (24-d adaptation and 4-d collection). Throughout the experiment, all cows were fed the same TMR, with HFM included at 5% of diet DM. Cows were grouped by dry matter intake and milk yield, and cows within a group were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatments: no RP Lys or RP His; RP Lys only [70 g/d of Ajipro-L (24 g/d of digestible Lys), Ajinomoto Co. Inc., Tokyo, Japan]; RP His only [32 g/d of experimental product (7 g/d of digestible His), Balchem Corp., New Hampton, NY]; or both RP Lys and His. Plasma Lys concentration increased when RP Lys was supplemented without RP His (77.7 vs. 66.0 ± 4.69 µM) but decreased when RP Lys was supplemented with RP His (71.4 vs. 75.0 ± 4.69 µM). Plasma concentration of 3-methylhistidine decreased with RP Lys (3.19 vs. 3.40 ± 0.31 µM). With RP His, plasma concentration of His increased (21.8 vs. 18.7 ± 2.95 µM). For milk production and milk composition, no effects of Lys were observed. Supplementing RP His increased milk yield (22.5 vs. 21.6 ± 2.04 kg/d) and tended to increase milk protein yield (0.801 vs. 0.772 ± 0.051 kg/d). Across treatments, dry matter intake (18.5 ± 0.83 kg/d) and energy supply (32.2 ± 2.24 Mcal of net energy for lactation) were not different. Supplementing RP His did not affect N utilization; however, supplementing RP Lys increased N balance (25 vs. 16 ± 9 g/d). The lack of production responses to RP Lys suggests that Lys was not limiting or that the increase in Lys supply was not large enough to cause an increase in milk protein yield. However, increased N balance and decreased 3-methylhistidine with RP Lys suggest that increased Lys supply increased protein accretion and decreased protein mobilization. Furthermore, His may be a limiting AA in diets containing HFM.


Asunto(s)
Bovinos/psicología , Suplementos Dietéticos/análisis , Histidina/administración & dosificación , Lisina/administración & dosificación , Leche/metabolismo , Nitrógeno/metabolismo , Alimentación Animal/análisis , Animales , Dieta/veterinaria , Ingestión de Alimentos , Plumas , Femenino , Histidina/sangre , Lactancia/efectos de los fármacos , Lisina/sangre , Metilhistidinas/sangre , Proteínas de la Leche/metabolismo , Distribución Aleatoria , Rumen/metabolismo , Soja
11.
J Dairy Sci ; 103(8): 7431-7450, 2020 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32475659

RESUMEN

Rations including high amounts of corn silage are currently very common in dairy production. Diets with corn silage as forage source result in a low supply of essential fatty acids, such as α-linolenic acid, and may lead to low conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) production. The present study investigated the effects of abomasal infusion of essential fatty acids, especially α-linolenic acid, and CLA in dairy cows fed a corn silage-based diet on performance, milk composition, including fatty acid (FA) pattern, and lipid metabolism from late to early lactation. Rumen-cannulated Holstein cows (n = 40) were studied from wk 9 antepartum to wk 9 postpartum and dried off 6 wk before calving. The cows were assigned to 1 of 4 treatment groups. Cows were abomasally supplemented with coconut oil (CTRL, 76 g/d), linseed and safflower oil (EFA, 78 and 4 g/d; linseed/safflower oil ratio = 19.5:1; n-6/n-3 FA ratio = 1:3), Lutalin (CLA, 38 g/d; BASF SE, Ludwigshafen, Germany; isomers cis-9,trans-11 and trans-10,cis-12 each 10 g/d) or EFA+CLA. Milk composition was analyzed weekly, and blood samples were taken several times before and after parturition to determine plasma concentrations of metabolites related to lipid metabolism. Liver samples were obtained by biopsy on d 63 and 21 antepartum and on d 1, 28, and 63 postpartum to measure triglyceride concentration. Body composition was determined after slaughter. Supplementation of CLA reduced milk fat concentration, increased body fat mass, and improved energy balance (EB) in late and early lactation, but EB was lowest during late lactation in the EFA group. Cows with CLA treatment alone showed an elevated milk citrate concentration in early lactation, whereas EFA+CLA did not reveal higher milk citrate but did have increased acetone. Milk protein was increased in late lactation but was decreased in wk 1 postpartum in CLA and EFA+CLA. Milk urea was reduced by CLA treatment during the whole period. After calving, the increase of nonesterified fatty acids in plasma was less in CLA groups; liver triglycerides were raised lowest at d 28 in CLA groups. Our data confirm an improved metabolic status with CLA but not with exclusive EFA supplementation during early lactation. Increased milk citrate concentration in CLA cows points to reduced de novo FA synthesis in the mammary gland, but milk citrate was less affected in EFA+CLA cows, indicating that EFA supplementation may influence changes in mammary gland FA metabolism achieved by CLA.


Asunto(s)
Abomaso , Bovinos/fisiología , Suplementos Dietéticos , Ácidos Grasos Esenciales/farmacología , Animales , Composición Corporal/efectos de los fármacos , Bovinos/sangre , Dieta/veterinaria , Ácidos Grasos Esenciales/administración & dosificación , Ácidos Grasos no Esterificados/sangre , Femenino , Lactancia/efectos de los fármacos , Ácidos Linoleicos Conjugados/farmacología , Leche , Proteínas de la Leche/metabolismo , Periodo Posparto , Embarazo , Rumen/metabolismo
12.
Toxicol Appl Pharmacol ; 401: 115077, 2020 08 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32479917

RESUMEN

Triclocarban (TCC) is an antimicrobial compound, widely used in personal care products, such as soaps, toothpaste, and shampoo. This agent is incompletely removed by wastewater treatment and represents an environmental contaminant. Studies show that TCC has been associated with some endocrine disruptions. In vitro, TCC demonstrated potent androgen-augmenting activity and aromatase inhibition. In this sense, exposure during critical periods of development (gestation and lactation) could lead to some adverse health outcomes in offspring. Therefore, the present study evaluated if maternal exposure to three different doses of TCC could interfere in the reproductive parameters of male offspring. Pregnant female Wistar rats were separated into four groups: vehicle Control (CTR); TCC 0.3 mg/kg (TCC 0.3); TCC 1.5 mg/kg (TCC 1.5); TCC 3.0 mg/kg (TCC 3.0). Dams were treated daily by oral gavage from gestational day 0 to lactational day 21. The males were evaluated in different timepoint: infancy (PND 21), puberty (PND 50) and adult life (PND 90-120). The histomorphometric analysis of testis and testosterone level were assessed on PND 21, 50, 120; sexual behavior and sperm parameters at adulthood. In the TCC 3.0 group, a decrease in the testis interstitial volume and an increase in testosterone levels were observed on PND 21. Moreover, there was a decrease in the diameter of the seminiferous tubules on PND 50, and a decrease in sexual competency in adulthood. These results suggest that exposure to a human relevant dose of TCC may interfere with reproduction and could have implications for human health.


Asunto(s)
Antiinfecciosos Locales/toxicidad , Carbanilidas/toxicidad , Lactancia/efectos de los fármacos , Efectos Tardíos de la Exposición Prenatal/inducido químicamente , Reproducción/efectos de los fármacos , Conducta Sexual Animal/efectos de los fármacos , Factores de Edad , Animales , Femenino , Lactancia/fisiología , Masculino , Embarazo , Efectos Tardíos de la Exposición Prenatal/sangre , Efectos Tardíos de la Exposición Prenatal/patología , Ratas , Ratas Wistar , Reproducción/fisiología , Conducta Sexual Animal/fisiología , Testículo/efectos de los fármacos , Testículo/patología , Testosterona/sangre
13.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 5: CD011505, 2020 05 18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32421208

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Many women express concern about their ability to produce enough milk, and insufficient milk is frequently cited as the reason for supplementation and early termination of breastfeeding. When addressing this concern, it is important first to consider the influence of maternal and neonatal health, infant suck, proper latch, and feeding frequency on milk production, and that steps be taken to correct or compensate for any contributing issues. Oral galactagogues are substances that stimulate milk production. They may be pharmacological or non-pharmacological (natural). Natural galactagogues are usually botanical or other food agents. The choice between pharmacological or natural galactagogues is often influenced by familiarity and local customs. Evidence for the possible benefits and harms of galactagogues is important for making an informed decision on their use. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effect of oral galactagogues for increasing milk production in non-hospitalised breastfeeding mother-term infant pairs. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register, ClinicalTrials.gov, the World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP), Health Research and Development Network - Phillippines (HERDIN), Natural Products Alert (Napralert), the personal reference collection of author LM, and reference lists of retrieved studies (4 November 2019). SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-RCTs (including published abstracts) comparing oral galactagogues with placebo, no treatment, or another oral galactagogue in mothers breastfeeding healthy term infants. We also included cluster-randomised trials but excluded cross-over trials. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We used standard Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth methods for data collection and analysis. Two to four review authors independently selected the studies, assessed the risk of bias, extracted data for analysis and checked accuracy. Where necessary, we contacted the study authors for clarification. MAIN RESULTS: Forty-one RCTs involving 3005 mothers and 3006 infants from at least 17 countries met the inclusion criteria. Studies were conducted either in hospitals immediately postpartum or in the community. There was considerable variation in mothers, particularly in parity and whether or not they had lactation insufficiency. Infants' ages at commencement of the studies ranged from newborn to 6 months. The overall certainty of evidence was low to very low because of high risk of biases (mainly due to lack of blinding), substantial clinical and statistical heterogeneity, and imprecision of measurements. Pharmacological galactagogues Nine studies compared a pharmacological galactagogue (domperidone, metoclopramide, sulpiride, thyrotropin-releasing hormone) with placebo or no treatment. The primary outcome of proportion of mothers who continued breastfeeding at 3, 4 and 6 months was not reported. Only one study (metoclopramide) reported on the outcome of infant weight, finding little or no difference (mean difference (MD) 23.0 grams, 95% confidence interval (CI) -47.71 to 93.71; 1 study, 20 participants; low-certainty evidence). Three studies (metoclopramide, domperidone, sulpiride) reported on milk volume, finding pharmacological galactagogues may increase milk volume (MD 63.82 mL, 95% CI 25.91 to 101.72; I² = 34%; 3 studies, 151 participants; low-certainty evidence). Subgroup analysis indicates there may be increased milk volume with each drug, but with varying CIs. There was limited reporting of adverse effects, none of which could be meta-analysed. Where reported, they were limited to minor complaints, such as tiredness, nausea, headache and dry mouth (very low-certainty evidence). No adverse effects were reported for infants. Natural galactagogues Twenty-seven studies compared natural oral galactagogues (banana flower, fennel, fenugreek, ginger, ixbut, levant cotton, moringa, palm dates, pork knuckle, shatavari, silymarin, torbangun leaves or other natural mixtures) with placebo or no treatment. One study (Mother's Milk Tea) reported breastfeeding rates at six months with a concluding statement of "no significant difference" (no data and no measure of significance provided, 60 participants, very low-certainty evidence). Three studies (fennel, fenugreek, moringa, mixed botanical tea) reported infant weight but could not be meta-analysed due to substantial clinical and statistical heterogeneity (I2 = 60%, 275 participants, very low-certainty evidence). Subgroup analysis shows we are very uncertain whether fennel or fenugreek improves infant weight, whereas moringa and mixed botanical tea may increase infant weight compared to placebo. Thirteen studies (Bu Xue Sheng Ru, Chanbao, Cui Ru, banana flower, fenugreek, ginger, moringa, fenugreek, ginger and turmeric mix, ixbut, mixed botanical tea, Sheng Ru He Ji, silymarin, Xian Tong Ru, palm dates; 962 participants) reported on milk volume, but meta-analysis was not possible due to substantial heterogeneity (I2 = 99%). The subgroup analysis for each intervention suggested either benefit or little or no difference (very low-certainty evidence). There was limited reporting of adverse effects, none of which could be meta-analysed. Where reported, they were limited to minor complaints such as mothers with urine that smelled like maple syrup and urticaria in infants (very low-certainty evidence). Galactagogue versus galactagogue Eight studies (Chanbao; Bue Xue Sheng Ru, domperidone, moringa, fenugreek, palm dates, torbangun, moloco, Mu Er Wu You, Kun Yuan Tong Ru) compared one oral galactagogue with another. We were unable to perform meta-analysis because there was only one small study for each match-up, so we do not know if one galactagogue is better than another for any outcome. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Due to extremely limited, very low certainty evidence, we do not know whether galactagogues have any effect on proportion of mothers who continued breastfeeding at 3, 4 and 6 months. There is low-certainty evidence that pharmacological galactagogues may increase milk volume. There is some evidence from subgroup analyses that natural galactagogues may benefit infant weight and milk volume in mothers with healthy, term infants, but due to substantial heterogeneity of the studies, imprecision of measurements and incomplete reporting, we are very uncertain about the magnitude of the effect. We are also uncertain if one galactagogue performs better than another. With limited data on adverse effects, we are uncertain if there are any concerning adverse effects with any particular galactagogue; those reported were minor complaints. High-quality RCTs on the efficacy and safety of galactagogues are urgently needed. A set of core outcomes to standardise infant weight and milk volume measurement is also needed, as well as a strong basis for the dose and dosage form used.


Asunto(s)
Galactogogos/administración & dosificación , Lactancia/efectos de los fármacos , Leche Humana , Fitoterapia/métodos , Extractos Vegetales/administración & dosificación , Administración Oral , Peso Corporal/efectos de los fármacos , Lactancia Materna , Domperidona/administración & dosificación , Domperidona/efectos adversos , Femenino , Galactogogos/efectos adversos , Humanos , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Metoclopramida/administración & dosificación , Metoclopramida/efectos adversos , Leche Humana/efectos de los fármacos , Madres , Fitoterapia/efectos adversos , Extractos Vegetales/efectos adversos , Ensayos Clínicos Controlados Aleatorios como Asunto , Sulpirida/administración & dosificación , Sulpirida/efectos adversos , Hormona Liberadora de Tirotropina/administración & dosificación , Hormona Liberadora de Tirotropina/efectos adversos
14.
J Dairy Sci ; 103(7): 6233-6243, 2020 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32418685

RESUMEN

An experiment was conducted to assess the effects of a novel and proprietary high-protein corn product [56% crude protein (CP)] relative to other common sources of protein on the lactation performance of dairy cows. Twenty-four Holstein cows (620 ± 47.7 kg of body weight, 111 ± 34 d in milk, 2.28 ± 0.46 lactations; mean ± standard deviation) were randomly assigned to treatment sequence in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design balanced for carryover effects. Cows were individually fed 1 of 4 diets with a different protein concentrate source during each 28-d period, including soybean meal (SBM), high-protein corn product (HPCP), soybean meal with rumen-bypass soy protein (SBMBP), and canola meal with rumen-bypass soy protein (CANBP). Diets were formulated for equal concentrations of CP and balanced to meet predicted lysine and methionine requirements. The SBM diet was formulated to provide 5.7% rumen-undegradable protein (RUP), whereas SBMBP and CANBP diets were formulated for 6.8% RUP to match HPCP. Data were analyzed using mixed models with the fixed effects of treatment, period, square, the interactions of treatment and period and of treatment and square, and the random effect of cow. The CANBP diet increased dry matter intake (DMI) compared with SBM and HPCP. Treatment affected milk yield, as SBMBP and CANBP increased yield compared with SBM, but HPCP decreased milk yield compared with all treatments. The HPCP diet reduced CP intake as a percent of total DMI and increased the CP content of orts, indicative of selection against HPCP. The HPCP diet also decreased apparent total-tract and CP digestibility, leading to less urine nitrogen excretion and greater fecal nitrogen output. The SBMBP and CANBP diets performed similarly in nearly every variable measured, except that SBMBP increased milk urea nitrogen. In conclusion, the HPCP diet reduced yield of milk and milk components, likely because of reduced apparent total-tract dry matter and CP digestibility.


Asunto(s)
Brassica rapa/química , Bovinos , Proteínas en la Dieta/farmacología , Lactancia/efectos de los fármacos , Soja/química , Zea mays/química , Alimentación Animal/análisis , Animales , Nitrógeno de la Urea Sanguínea , Dieta/veterinaria , Proteínas en la Dieta/análisis , Femenino , Manipulación de Alimentos , Lactancia/fisiología , Metionina/administración & dosificación , Leche/metabolismo , Nitrógeno/metabolismo , Nutrientes , Rumen/metabolismo
15.
J Dairy Sci ; 103(7): 6070-6086, 2020 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32359982

RESUMEN

The objective of this experiment was to examine production performance responses to feeding rumen-protected choline (RPC) or methionine (RPM), or both, during the periparturient period. Fifty-four Holstein cows (25 primiparous, 29 multiparous) were used in a randomized block design experiment with a 2 × 2 factorial treatment structure. Cows were blocked by expected calving date and parity and assigned to 1 of 4 treatments: CON (no RPC or RPM); RPC (13.0 g/d of choline ion); RPM (9 g/d of dl-methionine prepartum; 13.5 g/d of dl-methionine postpartum); or RPC + RPM. Treatments were applied once daily as a top-dress from 3 wk before through 5 wk after calving. Dry matter intake and milk production were recorded daily, and milk samples were obtained once weekly. Data were analyzed for primi- and multiparous cows separately, using a repeated-measures mixed model that included random effects of cow and block and fixed effects of RPC, RPM, week, and their interactions; week served as the repeated effect. Initial BW and previous lactation milk yield were included as covariates in the statistical model for multiparous cows. Feeding RPC without RPM increased milk yield for multiparous cows by 8.7 kg/d, but this increase was not observed when RPC was fed with RPM. In multiparous cows, feeding RPM increased milk fat concentration and tended to increase milk fat yield. Because of this, RPM increased fat-corrected milk (FCM) by 2.8 kg/d at wk 2 postpartum, and this increase was sustained through wk 5 postpartum. In contrast, RPM did not affect overall milk fat yield and concentration for primiparous cows. Feeding RPC increased milk yield for primiparous cows by 3.5 kg/d irrespective of RPM inclusion, which is contrary to observations in multiparous cows, where RPC increased milk yield only in the absence of RPM. These results indicate that responses to RPC during the periparturient period may be dependent upon supply of methionine. Our observations also demonstrate that primi- and multiparous cows respond differently to RPC and RPM supplemented individually or simultaneously during the periparturient period. This variation in response could have been mediated by putative differences in choline and methionine requirements of primiparous versus multiparous cows, or by differences in the levels of milk production between the 2 groups (36 vs. 25 kg of FCM/d). However, cows in this study did not experience severe negative energy balance (mean nadirs of -6.6 and -5.0 Mcal/d for multiparous and primiparous cows, respectively), which likely affected their responses to RPC and RPM.


Asunto(s)
Colina/farmacología , Suplementos Dietéticos , Lactancia/efectos de los fármacos , Metionina/farmacología , Periodo Periparto/efectos de los fármacos , Alimentación Animal/análisis , Fenómenos Fisiológicos Nutricionales de los Animales , Animales , Bovinos , Colina/administración & dosificación , Dieta/veterinaria , Metabolismo Energético/fisiología , Femenino , Lactancia/fisiología , Fenómenos Fisiologicos Nutricionales Maternos , Metionina/administración & dosificación , Leche/química , Paridad , Embarazo , Rumen/metabolismo
16.
J Dairy Sci ; 103(7): 6087-6099, 2020 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32389470

RESUMEN

Our objective was to determine the effects of replacing alfalfa silage (AS) neutral detergent fiber (NDF) with corn silage (CS) NDF at 2 levels of forage NDF (FNDF) on enteric methane (CH4), lactation performance, ruminal fluid characteristics, digestibility, and metabolism of N and energy in Holstein and Jersey cows. Twelve Holstein and 12 Jersey cows (all primiparous and mid-lactation) were used in a triplicated split-plot 4 × 4 Latin square experiment, where breed and diet formed the main and subplots, respectively. The 4 iso-nitrogenous and iso-starch dietary treatments were arranged as a 2 × 2 factorial with 2 levels of FNDF [19 (low FNDF, LF) and 24% (high FNDF, HF) of dry matter] and 2 sources of FNDF (70:30 and 30:70 ratio of AS NDF to CS NDF). Soyhull (non-forage NDF) and corn grain were respectively used to keep dietary NDF and starch content similar across diets. Total collection of feces and urine over 3 d was performed on 8 cows (1 Latin square from each breed). The difference in dry matter intake (DMI) between Holsteins and Jerseys was greater when fed AS than CS. Compared with Jerseys, Holstein cows had greater body weight (48%), DMI (34%), fat- and protein-corrected milk (FPCM; 31%) and CH4 production (22%; 471 vs. 385 g/d). However, breed did not affect CH4 intensity (g/kg of FPCM) or yield (g/kg of DMI), nutrient digestibility, and N partitioning. Compared with HF, LF-fed cows had greater DMI (10%), N intake (8%), and FPCM (5%), but they were 5% less efficient (both FPCM/DMI and milk N/intake N). Compared with HF, LF-fed cows excreted 11 and 17% less urinary N (g/d and % of N intake, respectively). In spite of lower (2.5%) acetate and higher (10%) propionate (mol/100 mol ruminal volatile fatty acids) LF-fed cows had greater (6%) CH4 production (g/d) than did HF-fed cows, most likely due to increased DMI, as affected mainly by the soyhulls. Compared with AS, CS-fed cows had greater DMI (7%) and FPCM (4%), but they were less efficient (5%), and CH4 yield (g/kg of DMI) was reduced by 8%. In addition, per unit of gross energy intake, CS-fed cows lost less urinary energy (15%) and CH energy (11%) than did AS-fed cows. We concluded that, in contrast to level and source of FNDF, breed did not affect digestive and metabolic efficiencies, and, furthermore, neither breed nor dietary treatments affected CH4 intensity. The tradeoff between CH4 and N losses may have implications in future studies assessing the environmental effects of milk production when approached from a whole-farm perspective.


Asunto(s)
Fibras de la Dieta/administración & dosificación , Digestión/efectos de los fármacos , Lactancia/efectos de los fármacos , Metano/biosíntesis , Nitrógeno/metabolismo , Ensilaje/análisis , Animales , Bovinos , Estudios Cruzados , Dieta/veterinaria , Fibras de la Dieta/metabolismo , Metabolismo Energético , Ácidos Grasos Volátiles/metabolismo , Heces/química , Femenino , Medicago sativa/metabolismo , Leche/química , Proteínas de la Leche/análisis , Rumen/metabolismo , Almidón/metabolismo , Zea mays/metabolismo
17.
J Dairy Sci ; 103(8): 7451-7461, 2020 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32448574

RESUMEN

Objectives were to evaluate the effects of rumen-protected glucose (RPG) supplementation on milk production, post-absorptive metabolism, and inflammatory biomarkers in transition dairy cows. Fifty-two multiparous cows were blocked by previous 305-d mature-equivalent milk (305ME) yield and randomly assigned to 1 of 2 iso-energetic and iso-nitrogenous treatments: (1) control diet (CON; n = 26) or (2) a diet containing RPG (pre-fresh 5.3% of dry matter and 6.0% of dry matter postpartum; n = 26). Cows received their respective dietary treatments from d -21 to 28 relative to calving, and dry matter intake was calculated daily during the same period. Weekly body weight, milk composition, and fecal pH were recorded until 28 d in milk (DIM), and milk yield was recorded through 105 DIM. Blood samples were collected on d -7, 3, 7, 14, and 28 relative to calving. Data were analyzed using repeated measures in the MIXED procedure (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC) with previous 305ME as a covariate. Fecal pH was similar between treatments and decreased (0.6 units) postpartum. Dry matter intake pre- and postpartum were unaffected by treatment, as was milk yield during the first 28 or 105 DIM. Milk fat, protein, and lactose concentration were similar for both treatments. Blood urea nitrogen and plasma glucose concentrations were unaffected by treatment; however, results showed increased concentration of circulating insulin (27%), lower nonesterified fatty acids (28%), and lower postpartum ß-hydroxybutyrate (24%) in RPG-fed cows. Overall, circulating lipopolysaccharide-binding protein and haptoglobin did not differ by treatment, but at 7 DIM, RPG-fed cows had decreased lipopolysaccharide-binding protein and haptoglobin concentrations (31 and 27%, respectively) compared with controls. Supplemental RPG improved some biomarkers of post-absorptive energetics and inflammation during the periparturient period, changes primarily characterized by increased insulin and decreased nonesterified fatty acids concentrations, with a concomitant reduction in acute phase proteins without changing milk production and composition.


Asunto(s)
Alimentación Animal , Enfermedades de los Bovinos/sangre , Glucosa/farmacología , Inflamación/veterinaria , Ácido 3-Hidroxibutírico/sangre , Animales , Peso Corporal , Bovinos , Enfermedades de los Bovinos/tratamiento farmacológico , Dieta/veterinaria , Suplementos Dietéticos , Ácidos Grasos no Esterificados/sangre , Femenino , Glucosa/metabolismo , Inflamación/sangre , Inflamación/tratamiento farmacológico , Insulina/sangre , Lactancia/efectos de los fármacos , Lactosa/análisis , Lactosa/metabolismo , Leche , Rumen/metabolismo
18.
J Dairy Sci ; 103(7): 6178-6189, 2020 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32418694

RESUMEN

The objective of this experiment was to study the effects of incorporating lemon leaves and rice straw into the compound feed of diets for dairy goats. Ten Murciano-Granadina dairy goats (n = 5 per group) in mid-lactation were used in a crossover design experiment (2 treatments across 2 periods). Goats were fed a mixed ration with barley grain (control, CON) or CON plus lemon leaves [189 g/kg of dry matter (DM)] and rice straw (120 g/kg of DM) in place of barley grain (LRS). Soybean oil (19 g/kg of DM) was added to the LRS diet to make it isoenergetic (17 MJ of gross energy/kg of DM) relative to CON. After 14 d on their respective treatments, goats were allocated to individual metabolism cages for another 7 d. Subsequently, feed intake, total fecal and urine output, and milk yield were recorded daily over the first 5 d. During the last 2 d, ruminal fluid and blood samples were collected, along with individual gas exchange measurements recorded by a mobile open-circuit indirect calorimetry system using a head box. No differences in DM intake were detected, and ME intake in LRS was lower than in CON (1,095 vs. 1,180 kJ/kg of metabolic body weight). No differences were observed in milk production, but milk fat content was greater in LRS (6.4%) than in CON (5.6%). Greater concentrations of monounsaturated (14.94 vs. 11.96 g/100 g of milk fat) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (4.53 vs. 4.03 g/100 g of milk fat) were detected in the milk of goats fed LRS compared with CON. Atherogenicity (2.68 vs.1.91) and thrombogenic (4.58 vs. 2.81) indices were lower with LRS compared with CON. Enteric CH4 emission was lower in LRS (24.3 g/d) compared with CON (31.1 g/d), probably due to the greater lipid content and unsaturated fatty acid profile of lemon leaves and the soybean oil added in the LRS diet. Overall, data suggest that incorporating lemon leaves and rice straw into lactating goat diets is effective in reducing CH4 emissions while allowing improvements in milk fat production and milk thrombogenic index without affecting production performance. Thus, their inclusion in compound feeds fed to small ruminants appears warranted and would have multiple positive effects, as on efficiency of nutrient use, human health, and the environment.


Asunto(s)
Citrus/química , Dieta/veterinaria , Lactancia/efectos de los fármacos , Metano/biosíntesis , Oryza , Hojas de la Planta/química , Alimentación Animal/análisis , Fenómenos Fisiológicos Nutricionales de los Animales , Animales , Estudios Cruzados , Metabolismo Energético , Heces , Femenino , Cabras/metabolismo , Leche/química , Nutrientes , Rumen/metabolismo
19.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 112(1): 48-56, 2020 07 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32401318

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Clinical trials evaluating the effect of calcium supplementation on bone loss in lactating women have been small, with inconsistent results. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to determine the effect of calcium supplementation on bone mineral density (BMD) in lactating women. METHODS: An electronic search of databases was conducted from inception to January 2020. Two authors screened studies, extracted data, and assessed the risk of bias of eligible studies. Percentage change in BMD was pooled using random-effects models and reported as weighted mean differences (WMDs) with 95% CIs. Risk of bias was assessed using the Cochrane risk of bias tool. RESULTS: Five randomized controlled trials including 567 lactating women were included. All had a high risk of bias. Mean baseline calcium intake ranged from 562 to 1333 mg/d. Compared with control groups (placebo/no intervention), calcium supplementation (600/1000 mg/d) had no significant effect on BMD at the lumbar spine (WMD: 0.74%; 95% CI: -0.10%, 1.59%; I2 = 47%; 95% CI: 0%, 81%; n = 527 from 5 trials) or the forearm (WMD: 0.53%; 95% CI: -0.35%, 1.42%; I2 = 55%; 95% CI: 0%, 85%; n = 415 from 4 trials). BMD at other sites was assessed in single trials: calcium supplementation had a small to moderate effect on total-hip BMD (WMD: 3.3%; 95% CI: 1.5%, 5.1%) but no effect on total body or femoral neck BMD. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, the meta-analysis indicates that calcium supplementation does not provide clinically important benefits for BMD in lactating women. However, there was adequate dietary intake before supplementation in some studies, and others did not measure baseline calcium intake. Advising lactating women to meet the current recommended calcium intakes (with supplementation if dietary intake is low) is warranted unless new high-certainty evidence to the contrary from robust clinical trials becomes available. More research needs to be done in larger samples of women from diverse ethnic and racial groups.This systematic review was registered at www.crd.york.ac.uk/prospero as CRD42015022092.


Asunto(s)
Densidad Ósea/efectos de los fármacos , Calcio en la Dieta/administración & dosificación , Calcio/administración & dosificación , Adulto , Suplementos Dietéticos/análisis , Femenino , Humanos , Lactancia/efectos de los fármacos , Ensayos Clínicos Controlados Aleatorios como Asunto , Adulto Joven
20.
Recurso de Internet en Portugués | LIS - Localizador de Información en Salud | ID: lis-47346

RESUMEN

Documento elaborado pelo Departamento Científico de Aleitamento Materno, da Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria - SBP. Com recomendações e orientações sobre a segurança dos medicamentos para uso durante a lactação, considerado um fator de risco para a interrupção precoce do aleitamento materno.


Asunto(s)
Destete , Embarazo , Lactancia/efectos de los fármacos , Salud de la Mujer , Salud del Lactante
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