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1.
An. pediatr. (2003. Ed. impr.) ; 92(4): 241.e1-241.e11, abr. 2020. mapas, graf, tab
Artículo en Español | IBECS | ID: ibc-186847

RESUMEN

El 31 de diciembre de 2019, la Comisión Municipal de Salud y Sanidad de Wuhan (provincia de Hubei, China) informó sobre la existencia de 27 casos de neumonía de etiología desconocida con inicio de síntomas el 8 de diciembre, incluyendo 7 casos graves, con exposición común a un mercado de marisco, pescado y animales vivos en la ciudad de Wuhan. El 7 de enero de 2020, las autoridades chinas identificaron como agente causante del brote un nuevo tipo de virus de la familia Coronaviridae, denominado temporalmente «nuevo coronavirus», 2019-nCoV. El 30 de enero de 2020 la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS) declara el brote una Emergencia Internacional. El día 11 de febrero la OMS le asigna el nombre de SARS-CoV2 e infección COVID-19 (Coronavirus Infectious Disease). El Ministerio de Sanidad convoca a las Sociedades de Especialidades para la elaboración de un protocolo clínico de manejo de la infección. La Asociación Española de Pediatría nombra un grupo de trabajo de las Sociedades de Infectología Pediátrica y Cuidados Intensivos Pediátricos que se encargan de elaborar las presentes recomendaciones con la evidencia disponible en el momento de su realización


On 31 December 2019, the Wuhan Municipal Committee of Health and Healthcare (Hubei Province, China) reported that there were 27 cases of pneumonia of unknown origin with symptoms starting on the 8 December. There were 7 serious cases with common exposure in market with shellfish, fish, and live animals, in the city of Wuhan. On 7 January 2020, the Chinese authorities identified that the agent causing the outbreak was a new type of virus of the Coronaviridae family, temporarily called «new coronavirus», 2019-nCoV. On January 30th, 2020, the World Health Organisation (WHO) declared the outbreak an International Emergency. On 11 February 2020 the WHO assigned it the name of SARS-CoV2 and COVID-19 (SARS-CoV2 and COVID-19). The Ministry of Health summoned the Specialties Societies to prepare a clinical protocol for the management of COVID-19. The Spanish Paediatric Association appointed a Working Group of the Societies of Paediatric Infectious Diseases and Paediatric Intensive Care to prepare the present recommendations with the evidence available at the time of preparing them


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Lactante , Preescolar , Niño , Adolescente , Infecciones por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecciones por Coronavirus/terapia , Neumonía Viral/diagnóstico , Neumonía Viral/terapia , Coronavirus/clasificación , Coronavirus/genética , Reacción en Cadena en Tiempo Real de la Polimerasa , Índice de Severidad de la Enfermedad , Sociedades Médicas , España
2.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33036326

RESUMEN

Physical activity is known to decline during pregnancy and the postnatal period, yet physical activity is recommended during this time due to the significant health benefits for mothers and their offspring. As a result of the COVID-19 pandemic and the restrictions imposed to reduce infection rates, pregnant and postnatal women have experienced disruption not just to their daily lives but also to their pregnancy healthcare experience and their motherhood journey with their new infant. This has included substantial changes in how, when and why they have engaged with physical activity. While some of these changes undoubtedly increased the challenge of being sufficiently active as a pregnant or postnatal woman, they have also revealed new opportunities to reach and support women and their families. This commentary details these challenges and opportunities, and highlights how researchers and practitioners can, and arguably must, harness these short-term changes for long-term benefit. This includes a call for a fresh focus on how we can engage and support those individuals and groups who are both hardest hit by COVID-19 and have previously been under-represented and under-served by antenatal and postnatal physical activity research and interventions.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/psicología , Ejercicio Físico , Madres/psicología , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/psicología , Complicaciones Infecciosas del Embarazo/prevención & control , Betacoronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Femenino , Promoción de la Salud , Humanos , Lactante , Motivación , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Atención Posnatal , Embarazo , Complicaciones Infecciosas del Embarazo/psicología
3.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(41): 1494-1496, 2020 Oct 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33056949

RESUMEN

CDC works with other federal agencies to identify counties with increasing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) incidence (hotspots) and offers support to state, tribal, local, and territorial health departments to limit the spread of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19 (1). Understanding whether increasing incidence in hotspot counties is predominantly occurring in specific age groups is important for identifying opportunities to prevent or reduce transmission. The percentage of positive SARS-CoV-2 reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) test results (percent positivity) is an important indicator of community transmission.* CDC analyzed temporal trends in percent positivity by age group in COVID-19 hotspot counties before and after their identification as hotspots. Among 767 hotspot counties identified during June and July 2020, early increases in the percent positivity among persons aged ≤24 years were followed by several weeks of increasing percent positivity in persons aged ≥25 years. Addressing transmission among young adults is an urgent public health priority.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/transmisión , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/transmisión , Adolescente , Adulto , Distribución por Edad , Anciano , Niño , Preescolar , Humanos , Incidencia , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pandemias , Estados Unidos/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
4.
Goiânia; s.n; out. 02, 2020. 1-24 p. ilus, tab, mapas, graf.(Boletim Epidemiológico Covid-19, 26).
Monografía en Portugués | Coleciona SUS, CONASS, SES-GO | ID: biblio-1121439

RESUMEN

O Boletim Epidemiológico COVID-19 objetiva documentar e divulgar informações oficiais atualizadas da situação epidemiológica no Estado de Goiás-GO, Brasil. Resume que desde os primeiros registros na China em dezembro de 2019 até o dia 26 de setembro foram confirmados 32.730.945 casos de COVID-19 no mundo. Deste total, 991.224 evoluíram a óbito. Quando comparados o número de casos e óbitos confirmados desta semana epidemiológica (SE 39) com a semana anterior, houve aumento de 6,7% nos casos e 3,8% nos óbitos. Sintetiza que, no Brasil, neste mesmo intervalo de tempo, o aumento foi 4,2% e 3,5% no número de casos e óbitos, respectivamente. No país o primeiro caso foi confirmado no dia 26 de fevereiro e até 26 de setembro foram registrados 4.717.991 casos confirmados com 141.406 óbitos. Informa que o registro dos primeiros casos suspeitos em Goiás foi a partir de 04 de fevereiro e até 26 de setembro foram notificados à Vigilância Epidemiológica 595.334 casos de COVID-19. Infere que, nesta última semana epidemiológica (SE 39) houve a confirmação de 17.551 casos novos, representando um aumento nos casos de COVID-19 de 9,5%, superior ao aumento observado no Brasil 4,2%. No Estado, 202.528 (34,0%) foram confirmados sendo 196.210 (96,9%) por critério laboratorial, 4.408 (2,2%) pelo critério clínico-epidemiológico, 589 (0,3%) por critério clínico imagem e 802 (0,4%) pelo critério clínico, 148.086 (24,9%) foram descartados e 221.461 (37,2%) continuam como suspeitos


The COVID-19 Epidemiological Bulletin aims to document and disseminate updated official information on the epidemiological situation in the State of Goiás-GO, Brazil. It summarizes that since the first registrations in China in December 2019 until the 26th of September, 32,730,945 cases of COVID-19 have been confirmed worldwide. Of this total, 991,224 died. When comparing the number of confirmed cases and deaths of this epidemiological week (SE 39) with the previous week, there was an increase of 6.7% in cases and 3.8% in deaths. It synthesizes that, in Brazil, in this same time interval, the increase was 4.2% and 3.5% in the number of cases and deaths, respectively. In the country, the first case was confirmed on February 26 and until September 26, 4,717,991 confirmed cases were recorded, with 141,406 deaths. Informs that the record of the first suspected cases in Goiás was from February 4 and until September 26, 595,334 cases of COVID-19 were notified to the Epidemiological Surveillance. It infers that, in this last epidemiological week (SE 39), 17,551 new cases were confirmed, representing an increase in the cases of COVID-19 of 9.5%, higher than the increase observed in Brazil 4.2%. In the State, 202,528 (34.0%) were confirmed, 196,210 (96.9%) by laboratory criteria, 4,408 (2.2%) by clinical-epidemiological criteria, 589 (0.3%) by clinical image criteria and 802 (0.4%) by the clinical criterion, 148,086 (24.9%) were discarded and 221,461 (37.2%) remain as suspects


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Animales , Masculino , Femenino , Recién Nacido , Lactante , Preescolar , Niño , Adolescente , Adulto , Persona de Mediana Edad , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Adulto Joven , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Betacoronavirus , Brasil/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecciones por Coronavirus/mortalidad , Monitoreo Epidemiológico
6.
Ann Acad Med Singap ; 49(7): 449-455, 2020 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33000107

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: As the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic continues to spread on an unprecedented scale from around the world, we described our experience in treating early COVID-19 cases in India. MATERIALS AND METHODS: An observational study of COVID-19 patients admitted to a tertiary care centre in North India between 2 March-4 April 2020 was performed. The clinical, epidemiological, laboratory, treatment and outcome data of patients were evaluated. RESULTS: A total of 75 patients were treated and 56 (74.66%) were men. The clinical spectrum of COVID-19 ranged from asymptomatic to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Fever (85.36%) was the most common symptom followed by cough (56.09%) and dyspnoea (19.51%). Findings from hemogram analysis showed that 32%, 21.33% and 18.67% of patients had lymphopaenia, eosinopenia and thrombocytopaenia, respectively. Inflammatory markers such as C-reactive protein, D-dimer, ferritin, fibrin degradation product and interleukin-6 were significantly elevated (P <0.05) in patients who required oxygen therapy than those who did not require it, suggesting the potential role such markers could play in predicting prognosis in patients. Mean hospital stay was 9.2 days and 72 (96%) patients made a complete recovery, but 3 (4%) patients demised after progressing to ARDS. CONCLUSION: The clinical and epidemiological spectrum of COVID-19 has jeopardised the health system in India. Without a proven therapy to combat this pandemic and with no sight of vaccines in the near future, a preventive strategy should be adopted to contain the spread of this infectious disease.


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecciones por Coronavirus/terapia , Neumonía Viral/diagnóstico , Neumonía Viral/terapia , Centros de Atención Terciaria , Adolescente , Adulto , Niño , Preescolar , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Femenino , Hospitalización , Humanos , India , Lactante , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Evaluación de Procesos y Resultados en Atención de Salud , Terapia por Inhalación de Oxígeno , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Evaluación de Síntomas , Adulto Joven
7.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(40): 1464-1468, 2020 Oct 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33031360

RESUMEN

Wild poliovirus type 1 (WPV1) transmission is ongoing only in Afghanistan and Pakistan (1). Following a decline in case numbers during 2013-2016, the number of cases in Afghanistan has increased each year during 2017-2020. This report describes polio eradication activities and progress toward polio eradication in Afghanistan during January 2019-July 2020 and updates previous reports (2,3). Since April 2018, insurgent groups have imposed bans on house-to-house vaccination. In September 2019, vaccination campaigns in areas under insurgency control were restarted only at health facilities. In addition, during March-June 2020, all campaigns were paused because of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. The number of WPV1 cases reported in Afghanistan increased from 21 in 2018 to 29 in 2019. During January-July 2020, 41 WPV1 cases were reported as of August 29, 2020 (compared with 15 during January-July 2019); in addition, 69 cases of circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus type 2 (cVDPV2), and one case of ambiguous vaccine-derived poliovirus type 2 (aVDPV2) (isolates with no evidence of person-to-person transmission or from persons with no known immunodeficiency) were detected. Dialogue with insurgency leaders through nongovernmental and international organizations is ongoing in an effort to recommence house-to-house campaigns, which are essential to stopping WPV1 transmission in Afghanistan. To increase community demand for polio vaccination, additional community health needs should be addressed, and polio vaccination should be integrated with humanitarian services.


Asunto(s)
Erradicación de la Enfermedad , Poliomielitis/prevención & control , Vigilancia de la Población , Adolescente , Afganistán/epidemiología , Niño , Preescolar , Humanos , Programas de Inmunización , Esquemas de Inmunización , Lactante , Poliomielitis/epidemiología , Poliovirus/aislamiento & purificación , Vacuna Antipolio Oral/administración & dosificación , Vacunación/estadística & datos numéricos
8.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0239796, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33002074

RESUMEN

Since the end of 2019, an outbreak of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), originating in the Chinese city of Wuhan has spread rapidly worldwide causing thousands of deaths. Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is supported by SARS-CoV-2 and represents the causative agent of a potentially fatal disease that is of great global public health concern. Italy has been the first European country recording an elevated number of infected forcing the Italian Government to call for total lockdown. The lockdown had the aim to limit the spread of infection through social distancing. The purpose of this study is to analyze how the pandemic has affected the patient's accesses to the Ophthalmological Emergency Department of a tertiary referral center in central-northern Italy, during the lockdown period. The charts of all patients that came to the Emergency Department during the lockdown period (March 10 -May 4, 2020) have been retrospectively collected and compared with those in the same period of 2019 and the period from 15 January- 9 March 2020. A significant reduction of visits during the lockdown has been observed, compared with those of pre-lockdown period (reduction of 65.4%) and with those of the same period of 2019 (reduction of 74.3%). Particularly, during the lockdown, minor and not urgency visits decreased whereas the undeferrable urgency ones increased. These pieces of evidence could be explained by the fear of patients to be infected; but also revealed patients misuse of emergency services.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Servicio de Urgencia en Hospital/estadística & datos numéricos , Oftalmología/estadística & datos numéricos , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Centros de Atención Terciaria/estadística & datos numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Betacoronavirus , Niño , Preescolar , Femenino , Humanos , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Clasificación Internacional de Enfermedades , Italia/epidemiología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pandemias , Estudios Retrospectivos , Adulto Joven
9.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 725, 2020 Oct 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33008316

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Commencing lifelong antiretroviral therapy (ART) immediately following HIV diagnosis (Option B+), has greatly improved maternal-infant health. Thus, large and increasing numbers of HIV-infected women are on ART during pregnancy, a situation concurrently increasing numbers of HIV-exposed-uninfected (HEU) infants. Compared to their HIV-unexposed-uninfected (HUU) counterparts, HEU infants show higher rates of adverse birth outcomes, mortality, infectious/non-communicable diseases including impaired growth and neurocognitive development. There is an urgent need to understand the impact of HIV and early life ART exposures, immune-metabolic dysregulation, comorbidities and environmental confounders on adverse paediatric outcomes. METHODS: Six hundred (600) HIV-infected and 600 HIV-uninfected pregnant women ≥20 weeks of gestation will be enrolled from four primary health centres in high density residential areas of Harare. Participants will be followed up as mother-infant-pairs at delivery, week(s) 1, 6, 10, 14, 24, 36, 48, 72 and 96 after birth. Clinical, socio-economic, nutritional and environmental data will be assessed for adverse birth outcomes, impaired growth, immune/neurodevelopment, vertical transmission of HIV, hepatitis-B/C viruses, cytomegalovirus and syphilis. Maternal urine, stool, plasma, cord blood, amniotic fluid, placenta and milk including infant plasma, dried blood spot and stool will be collected at enrolment and follow-up visits. The composite primary endpoint is stillbirth and infant mortality within the first two years of life in HEU versus HUU infants. Maternal mortality in HIV-infected versus -uninfected women is another primary outcome. Secondary endpoints include a range of maternal and infant outcomes. Sub-studies will address maternal stress and malnutrition, maternal-infant latent tuberculosis, Helicobacter pylori infections, immune-metabolomic dysregulation including gut, breast milk and amniotic fluid dysbiosis. DISCUSSION: The University of Zimbabwe-College of Health-Sciences-Birth-Cohort study will provide a comprehensive assessment of risk factors and biomarkers for HEU infants' adverse outcomes. This will ultimately help developing strategies to mitigate effects of maternal HIV, early-life ART exposures and comorbidities on infants' mortality and morbidity. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrial.gov Identifier: NCT04087239 . Registered 12 September 2019.


Asunto(s)
Transmisión Vertical de Enfermedad Infecciosa , Estudios de Cohortes , Femenino , Infecciones por VIH/tratamiento farmacológico , Infecciones por Helicobacter/complicaciones , Helicobacter pylori , Hepatitis B/complicaciones , Humanos , Lactante , Mortalidad Infantil , Leche Humana , Morbilidad , Parto , Embarazo , Complicaciones Infecciosas del Embarazo/virología , Factores de Riesgo , Mortinato , Sífilis/complicaciones , Universidades , Zimbabwe
10.
J Cardiothorac Surg ; 15(1): 293, 2020 Oct 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33008456

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: To summarize the diagnosis and treatment of 13 patients with mixed-type total anomalous pulmonary venous connection (TAPVC) and propose another classification for mixed TAPVC. METHODS: A retrospective review of 13 patients with mixed TAPVC undergoing repair at a single institution was conducted between January 2010 and November 2019. The diagnosis of mixed-type TAPVC was made in all patients using echocardiography combined with computed tomography angiography. According to the mixed TAPVC anatomy, there were 3 patients with type I TAPVC (2 + 2 veins), 10 patients with type II TAPVC (3 + 1 veins) and no patients with type III TAPVC. Correspondingly, there was 1 patient with the "SVC + VV" subtype, 2 patients with the "CS + C" subtype, 8 patients with the "CS + VV" subtype, 1 patient with the "CS + SVC" subtype and 1 patient with the "RA + SVC" subtype according to our classification system. All patients underwent cardiopulmonary bypass surgery. RESULTS: The median weight at surgery was 4.6 ± 1.0 kg (3.4-7.3 kg), and the median age at surgery was 96.2 ± 81.2 days (10-242 days). The median cardiopulmonary bypass time was 132.7 ± 25.1 min (range, 100 to 190 min). The cross-clamping time was 69.2 ± 14.4 min (range, 45 to 88 min). The hospital mortality rate was 7.7% (1 of 13), with late mortality occurring in 1 patient because of pulmonary venous obstruction (PVO) 7 months after surgery. The average follow-up after surgery was 3.4 ± 2.2 years (range, 5 months to 8 years). The survival rates at 3 and 5 years were both 90.9% ± 8.7% (95% CI: 73.8-108%). All remaining surviving patients were asymptomatic. CONCLUSION: Mixed TAPVC can be repaired with good results in children and can be correctly diagnosed with echocardiography combined with computed tomography angiography. The classification system we propose is pragmatic and can guide the surgical approach.


Asunto(s)
Síndrome de Cimitarra/cirugía , Puente Cardiopulmonar , Angiografía por Tomografía Computarizada , Ecocardiografía , Femenino , Humanos , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Masculino , Estudios Retrospectivos , Síndrome de Cimitarra/diagnóstico por imagen , Resultado del Tratamiento , Procedimientos Quirúrgicos Vasculares
11.
J Biol Regul Homeost Agents ; 34(4 Suppl. 2): 1-1, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33000592

RESUMEN

This special issue provides a rich blend of news, reviews and clinical studies on many aspects of the understanding, management and prevention of cardiovascular disease in childhood. Primary care in pediatric cardiology, principally, must concern with prevention of heart disease and early detection of existing illness. In addition, pediatricians must be able to maintain the vigilance of "healthy" children in order to prevent cardiovascular risk in adulthood. With these goals, the themes presented in this "mosaic" of topics include - Cardiovascular involvement in genetic syndromes, SIDS and infectious, endocrine, kidney, storage or autoimmune diseases. - Pulmonary hypertension and patent ductus arteriosus in premature infants. - Cardiovascular risk in obese or hypertensive children. - Bicupid aortic valve and aortic dysfunction - Covid 19 and heart disease in childhood I thank the Researchers and Professors of Catanzaro, Palermo, Pavia, Brescia, Taormina and Messina University for their interesting and up-to-date scientific contributions, and I hope the information gathered in this issue will be useful to the reader.


Asunto(s)
Cardiología , Pediatría , Betacoronavirus , Niño , Infecciones por Coronavirus , Humanos , Lactante , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral
12.
J Biol Regul Homeost Agents ; 34(4 Suppl. 2): 121-125, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33000610

RESUMEN

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), was first described in a cluster of patients in Wuhan, China, in December of 2019. Over the past few months, COVID-19 has rapidly spread worldwide becoming the first pandemic of the 21st century. COVID-19 results in mild symptoms in most infected children but can cause acute cardiac injury and death. In comparison to younger children, teenagers and infants are at higher risk for morbidity and mortality, with particular risk factors including pre-existing conditions like cardiovascular disease. Since this is an emerging infectious disease, there are limited data about the effects of this infection on patients especially in the pediatric population. We summarize here with the data on cardiovascular involvement in children and adolescents.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/complicaciones , Cardiopatías/virología , Neumonía Viral/complicaciones , Adolescente , Betacoronavirus , Niño , Infecciones por Coronavirus/fisiopatología , Humanos , Lactante , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/fisiopatología , Factores de Riesgo
13.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(39): 1404-1409, 2020 Oct 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33001872

RESUMEN

As of September 21, 2020, the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic had resulted in more than 6,800,000 reported U.S. cases and more than 199,000 associated deaths.* Early in the pandemic, COVID-19 incidence was highest among older adults (1). CDC examined the changing age distribution of the COVID-19 pandemic in the United States during May-August by assessing three indicators: COVID-19-like illness-related emergency department (ED) visits, positive reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) test results for SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, and confirmed COVID-19 cases. Nationwide, the median age of COVID-19 cases declined from 46 years in May to 37 years in July and 38 in August. Similar patterns were seen for COVID-19-like illness-related ED visits and positive SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR test results in all U.S. Census regions. During June-August, COVID-19 incidence was highest in persons aged 20-29 years, who accounted for >20% of all confirmed cases. The southern United States experienced regional outbreaks of COVID-19 in June. In these regions, increases in the percentage of positive SARS-CoV-2 test results among adults aged 20-39 years preceded increases among adults aged ≥60 years by an average of 8.7 days (range = 4-15 days), suggesting that younger adults likely contributed to community transmission of COVID-19. Given the role of asymptomatic and presymptomatic transmission (2), strict adherence to community mitigation strategies and personal preventive behaviors by younger adults is needed to help reduce their risk for infection and subsequent transmission of SARS-CoV-2 to persons at higher risk for severe illness.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Adolescente , Adulto , Distribución por Edad , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Niño , Preescolar , Humanos , Incidencia , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estados Unidos/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
14.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(39): 1428-1433, 2020 Oct 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33001874

RESUMEN

Excessive alcohol use is a leading cause of preventable death in the United States (1) and costs associated with it, such as those from losses in workplace productivity, health care expenditures, and criminal justice, were $249 billion in 2010 (2). CDC used the Alcohol-Related Disease Impact (ARDI) application* to estimate national and state average annual alcohol-attributable deaths and years of potential life lost (YPLL) during 2011-2015, including deaths from one's own excessive drinking (e.g., liver disease) and from others' drinking (e.g., passengers killed in alcohol-related motor vehicle crashes). This study found an average of 95,158 alcohol-attributable deaths (261 deaths per day) and 2.8 million YPLL (29 years of life lost per death, on average) in the United States each year. Of all alcohol-attributable deaths, 51,078 (53.7%) were caused by chronic conditions, and 52,921 (55.6%) involved adults aged 35-64 years. Age-adjusted alcohol-attributable deaths per 100,000 population ranged from 20.8 in New York to 53.1 in New Mexico. YPLL per 100,000 population ranged from 631.9 in New York to 1,683.5 in New Mexico. Implementation of effective strategies for preventing excessive drinking, including those recommended by the Community Preventive Services Task Force (e.g., increasing alcohol taxes and regulating the number and concentration of alcohol outlets), could reduce alcohol-attributable deaths and YPLL.†.


Asunto(s)
Alcoholismo/mortalidad , Esperanza de Vida/tendencias , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Niño , Preescolar , Femenino , Humanos , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estados Unidos/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
15.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(39): 1385-1390, 2020 Oct 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33001877

RESUMEN

Homicide is the 13th leading cause of death among infants (i.e., children aged <1 year) in the United States (1). Infant homicides occurring within the first 24 hours of life (i.e., neonaticide) are primarily perpetrated by the mother, who might be of young age, unmarried, have lower educational attainment, and is most likely associated with concealment of an unintended pregnancy and nonhospital birthing (2). After the first day of life, infant homicides might be associated with other factors (e.g., child abuse and neglect or caregiver frustration) (2). A 2002 study of the age variation in homicide risk in U.S. infants during 1989-1998 found that the overall infant homicide rate was 8.3 per 100,000 person-years, and on the first day of life was 222.2 per 100,000 person-years, a homicide rate at least 10 times greater than that for any other time of life (3). Because of this period of heightened risk, by 2008 all 50 states* and Puerto Rico had enacted Safe Haven Laws. These laws allow a parent† to legally surrender an infant who might otherwise be abandoned or endangered (4). CDC analyzed infant homicides in the United States during 2008-2017 to determine whether rates changed after nationwide implementation of Safe Haven Laws, and to examine the association between infant homicide rates and state-specific Safe Haven age limits. During 2008-2017, the overall infant homicide rate was 7.2 per 100,000 person-years, and on the first day of life was 74.0 per 100,000 person-years, representing a 66.7% decrease from 1989-1998. However, the homicide rate on first day of life was still 5.4 times higher than that for any other time in life. No obvious association was found between infant homicide rates and Safe Haven age limits. States are encouraged to evaluate the effectiveness of their Safe Haven Laws and other prevention strategies to ensure they are achieving the intended benefits of preventing infant homicides. Programs and policies that strengthen economic supports, provide affordable childcare, and enhance and improve skills for young parents might contribute to the prevention of infant homicides.


Asunto(s)
Maltrato a los Niños/legislación & jurisprudencia , Niño Abandonado/legislación & jurisprudencia , Homicidio/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto , Femenino , Homicidio/prevención & control , Humanos , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Masculino , Madres/estadística & datos numéricos , Riesgo , Factores Socioeconómicos , Estados Unidos/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
16.
J Indian Soc Pedod Prev Dent ; 38(3): 232-237, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33004720

RESUMEN

Background: Dental trauma can determine the occurrence of sequelae in the deciduous tooth and due to the anatomical proximity to the germ of the successor permanent tooth, it frequently causes changes to the developing teeth. Aims: The objective of this study was to analyze clinically and radiographically traumatized primary teeth and permanent successors in children aged 0-8 years. Materials and Methods: Initially, a sample selection of medical records was made, designating the patients who fit the requirements; 247 patients were analyzed, totaling 379 traumatized primary teeth and 162 successive permanent teeth. Statistical Analysis: The results were developed using the Proportion Test and the Chi-square test at the 5% significance level. Results: Injuries to hard tissue prevailed (57%), with emphasis on coronary enamel fracture (49.1%). After clinical and radiographic examinations, 78% of traumatized primary teeth maintained pulpal vitality. At the clinical evaluation, the frequency of the developmental disorders observed in permanent successors was 10.5%, with enamel hypocalcification being the most common sequela. 17.3% of the clinical changes in the successor permanent teeth were caused by trauma to the supporting tissue, with the intrusive dislocation being responsible for the largest number of damages (37.5%). Conclusion: Based on the results found, it was concluded that the trauma occurring in the primary dentition were recorded and monitored more precisely and about the evaluated successive permanent teeth, except for the prevalence of sequelae found, the other factors are in agreement with the findings in the literature.


Asunto(s)
Hipoplasia del Esmalte Dental , Avulsión de Diente , Niño , Preescolar , Dentición Permanente , Humanos , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Estudios Longitudinales , Diente Primario
17.
J Indian Soc Pedod Prev Dent ; 38(3): 311-314, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33004731

RESUMEN

Eruption of the first tooth at 6 months of age is a significant stage in a child's life. However, the presence of a tooth in the oral cavity of a newborn can lead to a lot of delusions. Natal and neonatal teeth are of utmost importance not only to a dentist but also for a pediatrician due to parental anxiety, folklore superstitions, and numerous complications associated with it. The present case report describes a 1.5 cm × 1.5 cm, slow-growing, soft-tissue gingival mass which developed following the extraction of a tooth-like structure in a 4-month-old male patient. Histological examination revealed that it contained a tooth-like hard tissue intermingled with bone and fibrous tissue. Based on clinical and histological findings, the present case was diagnosed as gingival hyperplasia with displaced tooth buds of 71 and 81, which might be due to chronic irritation or traumatic extraction of the neonatal teeth. No abnormal recurrence of the lesion was detected during the follow-up period. However, postoperative clinical and radiographic photographs further reconfirmed the absence of tooth in relation to 71 and 81.


Asunto(s)
Dientes Neonatales/cirugía , Extracción Dental/efectos adversos , Huesos , Niño , Encía , Humanos , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Masculino , Erupción Dental
18.
J Indian Soc Pedod Prev Dent ; 38(3): 211-215, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33004717

RESUMEN

Context: Delayed tooth eruption might be the primary or sole manifestation of local or systemic pathology. Aims: The aim of the study was to correlate Vitamin D level and eruption status of primary teeth. The objectives also included the assessment of the association between Vitamin D levels and socioeconomic status, infant's sun exposure, maternal sun exposure during pregnancy and religion. Settings and Design: A cross-sectional, observational study conducted on 96 infants aged 12-15 months. Materials and Methods: Ninety-six infants, aged 12-15 months were selected after obtaining parental consent. Blood samples were assessed for Vitamin D3 levels using the Vitamin D ELISA Kit. The eruption status of the teeth was recorded in all the 96 infants. The obtained data were subjected to the statistical analysis. Statistical Analysis Used: The obtained data were subjected to relevant statistical analysis such as Analysis of Variance, unpaired t-test, Kruskal-Wallis test, and Mann-Whitney U test, Chi-square Test, Tukey HSD, and Fisher's exact Test. Results: A significant correlation was found in the Vitamin D levels and the eruption timing (P < 0.001). The difference in mean Vitamin D levels among the three socio economic groups was not statistically significant (P = 0.088). A significant association was found between the infant's sun exposure and mother's sun exposure during pregnancy and religion on the Vitamin D levels (P = 0.002, P = 0.042, P = 0.002). Conclusions: Vitamin D deficiency can be considered as an etiological factor for delayed eruption. A strong association exists between the socioeconomic status, infant's sun exposure, maternal sun exposure during pregnancy, and religion with Vitamin D levels.


Asunto(s)
Erupción Dental , Deficiencia de Vitamina D , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Lactante , Embarazo , Diente Primario , Vitamina D
19.
J Indian Soc Pedod Prev Dent ; 38(3): 319-322, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33004733

RESUMEN

Melanotic neuroectodermal tumor is a rare benign congenital neoplasm involving the head-and-neck region found in infants <1 year of age. The lesion most commonly affects the maxilla. We report the case of a 4-month-old male child with a tumor involving the anterior region of the maxilla along with a brief review of literature, differential diagnosis, and treatment.


Asunto(s)
Tumor Neuroectodérmico Melanótico , Niño , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Humanos , Lactante , Masculino , Maxilar , Tumor Neuroectodérmico Melanótico/diagnóstico , Tumor Neuroectodérmico Melanótico/diagnóstico por imagen , Tumor Neuroectodérmico Melanótico/cirugía
20.
J Indian Soc Pedod Prev Dent ; 38(3): 315-318, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33004732

RESUMEN

A 7-month-old female child born to nonconsanguineous parents with a history of global developmental delay, since early infancy had reported to the department with facial features of mild dysmorphism. History of finger sucking and finger biting was evident, as there was a massive scab tissue over the dorsal aspect of the index finger, above the finger nail bed. A huge ulcer was evident on the right side of the dorsal aspect of anterior two-thirds of the tongue. Genetic evaluation through targeted gene sequencing confirmed the diagnosis as hereditary sensory, autonomic neuropathy Type VIII (Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man - 616488). A homozygous missense variation in exon 3 of PRDM12 was detected. A multidisciplinary approach was planned for the management of the child. A soft splint on the maxilla was fabricated and stabilized with an adhesive. However, the final diagnosis was confirmed by a DNA genomic sequencing test, namely a multigene panel testing or comprehensive genomic sequencing.


Asunto(s)
Neuropatías Hereditarias Sensoriales y Autónomas/diagnóstico , Neuropatías Hereditarias Sensoriales y Autónomas/genética , Neuropatías Hereditarias Sensoriales y Autónomas/terapia , Proteínas Portadoras , Niño , Femenino , Succión del Dedo , Genómica , Humanos , Lactante , Proteínas del Tejido Nervioso , Lengua
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