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1.
Food Chem ; 368: 130675, 2022 Jan 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34419795

RESUMEN

Human milk (HM) modifications over time represent an important issue. This work proposed to evaluate the changes in HM during one-year storage through total lipids (TL) degradation and portable near-infrared (NIR) spectrometer combined with chemometrics. Colostrum, transition, and mature stages were obtained from donors and considered in the raw and pasteurized forms. Principal component analysis in TL content showed changes in the mature stages for both forms after 75 days. Multivariate curve resolution with alternating least squares in NIR spectral data reveals a decrease in protein and triacylglycerol contents while an increase in free fatty acids (palmitic acid) contents were observed through the storage after around 5-6 months. Therefore, more than 5-6 months of storage suggest possible biochemical changes in the HM nutritional composition. Moreover, the chemometrics investigation was crucial in extracting information, bringing coherent results, and helping to understand the chemical changes in human milk during storage.


Asunto(s)
Calostro , Leche Humana , Femenino , Humanos , Análisis de los Mínimos Cuadrados , Lípidos , Embarazo , Análisis de Componente Principal
2.
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 55(9): 1067-1076, 2021 Sep 06.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34619923

RESUMEN

Objective: To investigate the human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) levels in breast milk of mothers delivering preterm infants and their effects on the early growth and development of infants. Methods: In this prospective cohort study, full-term and preterm newborns whose parents decided to breastfeed were recruited from Peking University Third Hospital between December 1, 2017 and November 30, 2018. The preterm infants were divided based on their gestational ages into extremely preterm (<28 weeks), very preterm (28-31+6 weeks) and moderate to late preterm (32-36+6 weeks) groups. Breast milk was collected from mothers at 7, 14, 28 and 120d postpartum. 368 breast milk samples were collected from 125 mothers in this study, including 54 mothers of full-term infants, 23 mothers of moderate to late preterm infants, 39 mothers of very preterm infants, and 9 mothers of extremely preterm infants. Ultra-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometer (UPLC-MS/MS) was used to determine the concentration of 2'-fucosyllactose (2'FL), 3-fucosyllactose (3FL), 3'-sialyllactose (3'SL), A-tetrasaccharide (P1), lacto-N-tetraose (LNT), lacto-N-neotetraose (LNnT), lacto-N-fucopentaose Ⅱ (LNFP-Ⅱ) and lacto-N-fucopentaose Ⅴ (LNFP-Ⅴ). Secretor status of mothers was defined as 2'-fucosyllactose (2'FL) concentration in colostrum and transitional milk greater than 200 µg/mL. Weight gain and the occurrence of allergic diseases of infants were collected at 120 d(4 months) postpartum. The chi-square test or the Fisher's exact test was used for the comparison of categorical data between groups; Kruskal-Wallis test and Wilcoxon rank sum test were used for comparison of continuous data between groups. Nemenyi test was used for multiple comparison. Results: 79.2% (99/125) of the mothers were secretor. There were no statistical differences between groups in the secretor status of mothers (χ²=1.31,P>0.05). The total concentration of HMOs peaked at 1-2 weeks postpartum. Compared to the preterm milk, the HMOs from the term milk was trending downwards at an earlier time. In the breast milk of secretor mothers on 28 d, total concentration of HMOs significant differed among the three groups of preterm milk and the term milk, with the median value of 4 587.09,4 615.25,5 277.44,5 476.03 µg/mL, respectively (Kruskal-Wallis χ²=8.1234,P=0.044). When analyzed by the median weight gain of the infants (low vs high weight gain) at 4 months postpartum, 2'FL was significantly lower in the high weight gain group at 7 d (1 818.04 µg/mL vs 2 181.67 µg/mL, W=1 386,P=0.018), while LNT & LNnT were significantly higher (1 182.36 µg/mL vs 1 053.62 µg/mL, W=816,P=0.044). The level of 3FL at 120 d was significantly affected by presence of allergic disease in infants, breast milk from mothers of infants with allergic disease had lower 3FL than those from mothers of infants without allergic disease (256.17 µg/mL vs 286.18 µg/mL, W=564,P=0.026). Conclusions: The overall profiles of HMOs in breast milk of mothers delivering preterm infants was basically the same as that of mothers delivering term infants; individual HMOs play a role in weight gain and the development of allergic diseases in preterm infants, but the mechanism is unclear and needs further study.


Asunto(s)
Leche Humana , Madres , Cromatografía Liquida , Femenino , Edad Gestacional , Humanos , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Recien Nacido Prematuro , Oligosacáridos , Estudios Prospectivos , Espectrometría de Masas en Tándem
3.
J Midwifery Womens Health ; 66(5): 631-640, 2021 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34596953

RESUMEN

It is estimated that as many as 1 in 20 women worldwide are unable to successfully breastfeed or provide adequate nutrition for their infants through their breast milk alone. Compromised nutrition in the early stages of life places the infant at risk for insufficient growth as well as serious and potentially disabling or life-threatening complications. This review summarizes risk factors associated with impaired lactation that may result in either delayed lactogenesis or insufficient lactation. The risk factors for insufficient lactation are categorized into preglandular, glandular, and postglandular causes. Impaired lactation can occur despite maternal motivation, knowledge, support, and appropriate breastfeeding technique. Although there is no clear way to predict who will experience impaired lactation, knowledge about the risk factors can enable health care professionals to better identify at-risk mother-infant dyads. Early intervention may help prevent infant complications associated with inadequate nutritional intake.


Asunto(s)
Lactancia Materna , Trastornos de la Lactancia , Femenino , Humanos , Lactante , Lactancia , Trastornos de la Lactancia/etiología , Leche Humana , Madres
4.
Recurso de Internet en Portugués | LIS - Localizador de Información en Salud | ID: lis-48423

RESUMEN

Estudos avaliam a relação entre obesidade em crianças maiores de três anos e tipo de alimentação no início da vida, constando menor frequência de sobrepeso naquela que amamentaram por um período maior. Além disso, foi constatado que elas possuem risco 22% menor de desenvolver obesidade, em comparação com outras crianças da mesma faixa etária e que não foram amamentadas.


Asunto(s)
Lactancia Materna , Obesidad Pediátrica , Sobrepeso , Leche Humana
5.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 21(1): 632, 2021 Sep 17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34535094

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Immunological protection via breastfeeding is well known. The immunological profile of human milk changes during lactation. No clinical trials have been conducted in lactating women with the newest mRNA vaccines against SARS- CoV-2. A Few studies have shown the presence of antibodies in breastmilk after vaccination. The aim of this work is to study possible antibodies transfer via breastmilk and also the immunological characteristics of lactating women compared to non-lactating women, after using the BNT162b2 Pfizer vaccine. METHODS: This is a prospective cohort study with a convenience homogenous sample of 24 healthcare workers (14 lactating and 10 non-lactating women) enrolled at the time of COVID-19 vaccination. Clinical data was registered in a questionnaire. Titers of SARS-CoV-2 spike IgG, IgA and IgM were quantified in post vaccination blood and human milk. Antibody quantification was performed by an in-house ELISA to SARS-CoV-2 trimeric spike protein. RESULTS: All women showed immunity after vaccination with positive antibodies for IgM, IgA and IgG antibodies. The dominant serum antibody response was IgG. Modest levels of antibodies in breastmilk of lactating mothers were observed in this study, especially IgG in 42.9%. There was a moderate association between higher titers of IgG and a longer duration of breastfeeding (R= 0.55, p=0.041). CONCLUSIONS: Evidence of antibody transfer in human milk after COVID-19 vaccination is scarce. The presence of antibodies in human milk is reported, but immunization through breastfeeding is still to be established.


Asunto(s)
Anticuerpos Antivirales/metabolismo , Lactancia Materna , Vacunas contra la COVID-19/inmunología , COVID-19/prevención & control , Lactancia/inmunología , Leche Humana/inmunología , SARS-CoV-2/inmunología , Adulto , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , COVID-19/inmunología , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Ensayo de Inmunoadsorción Enzimática , Femenino , Humanos , Inmunización Pasiva , Estudios Prospectivos
6.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(36): 10749-10759, 2021 Sep 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34474557

RESUMEN

Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) not only has a bad effect on the development of infants but also causes variations in breastmilk composition. This study aims to investigate the changes in the protein profile of colostrum between mothers with GDM and healthy mothers (H) by sequential windowed acquisition of all theoretical fragment ion proteomics techniques. A total of 1295 proteins were detected, with 192 proteins being significantly different between GDM and H. These significantly different proteins were enriched with the carbohydrate and lipid metabolism pathway as well as immunity. Some proteins had an AOC value of 1, such as apolipoprotein E and lipoprotein lipase. In addition, we identified 42 glycated and 93 glycosylated peptides in colostrum without any enrichment, with glycated peptides being upregulated and glycosylated peptides being downregulated in colostrum with GDM. These results help us to better understand the GDM-induced changes in proteomes and glycated and glycosylated level and provide guidance on infant formula adjustment for infants from mothers with GDM.


Asunto(s)
Diabetes Gestacional , Calostro , Femenino , Humanos , Leche Humana , Embarazo , Proteoma , Proteómica
7.
Anal Chim Acta ; 1180: 338878, 2021 Oct 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34538323

RESUMEN

The microbiome and immune system of infants are shaped by various bioactive components of human breastmilk, notably human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs). HMOs represent the third component of breastmilk and exhibit extremely high structural diversity with many isomers. Here, we propose a high throughput and high resolution approach to characterize main oligosaccharides present in breastmilk with high identification level thanks to ion mobility spectrometry. Four pairs of standard HMO isomers, that are (LNT/LNnT), (LNFP I/LNFP V), (3'-SL/6'-SL) and (2'-FL/3-FL), were first investigated under both positive and negative ionization mode using direct introduction-trapped ion mobility spectrometry-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TIMS-TOF). By examining all the ionic species formed (i.e. protonated and deprotonated ions as well as adduct species), every isomer pair could be distinguished through the separation of at least one species, even with a small difference in collision cross section values (as small as 1.5%) thanks to the flexible resolution capacity of the TIMS instrument. Although multiple mobility peaks resulting from different glycan anomeric conformers, open-ring and/or different ionic isomer structures (i.e. various charge site locations), could be observed for some HMO species. The reduction at the reducing-end of HMOs did not significantly facilitate the isomer distinction. Finally, the unambiguous identification of the studied HMOs in a breastmilk sample showed the potential of the approach combining ion mobility separation and MS/MS experiments for high throughput distinction of HMO isomers in complex breastmilk samples without laborious sample preparation.


Asunto(s)
Espectrometría de Movilidad Iónica , Leche Humana , Humanos , Isomerismo , Oligosacáridos , Espectrometría de Masas en Tándem
8.
Breastfeed Med ; 16(9): 697-701, 2021 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34492204

RESUMEN

Background: In December 2020, two novel messenger RNA (mRNA) vaccines for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 received emergency use authorization from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration; however, the early trials excluded lactating women. Methods: Breastfeeding women residing in the United States who received either of the two mRNA vaccines were enrolled into the Mommy's Milk Human Milk Research Biorepository at the University of California, San Diego. From December 14, 2020 to February 1, 2021, 180 women who received two doses of either mRNA vaccine were recruited into the study. Results: Similar proportions of women reported any one or more symptoms following vaccination with either mRNA vaccine. In addition, the frequency by specific type of symptom did not differ by brand. However, following the second dose of vaccine, women who received the Moderna brand were significantly more likely to report symptoms. A small proportion of women following the first dose of either vaccine brand reported a reduction in milk supply, and significantly, more women reported a reduction in milk supply following the second dose of Moderna. Few infant events were reported for either vaccine brand following either dose, and no serious adverse events were reported. Conclusions: These data are reassuring regarding the safety of vaccination in breastfeeding women and their breastfed children with either of the mRNA COVID-19 vaccines.


Asunto(s)
Vacunas contra la COVID-19 , COVID-19 , Lactancia Materna , Niño , Femenino , Humanos , Lactante , Leche Humana , ARN Mensajero , SARS-CoV-2 , Estados Unidos , Vacunación
9.
Braz J Med Biol Res ; 54(11): e10192, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34586325

RESUMEN

Maternal anxiety symptoms in the perinatal period might have long-term health effects on both the mother and the developing child. Valerian is a phytotherapeutic agent that is widely used for the treatment of anxiety. This study investigated the effects of valerian treatment in postpartum rats on maternal care, toxicity, and milk composition. Postnatal development, memory, and anxiety behavior in the offspring were also assessed. Postpartum Wistar rats received the valerian (500, 1000, or 2000 mg·kg-1·day-1) by oral gavage. Clinical and biochemical toxicity was evaluated with commercial kits. Maternal behavior was observed daily. Milk composition was analyzed by colorimetric methods. Physical and neuromotor tests were used to analyze postnatal development. Anxiolytic activity was assessed by the elevated plus maze, and memory was evaluated by the step-down inhibitory avoidance task. Maternal toxicity and care behavior were not altered by the treatment, while only the highest dose promoted a significant increase of lactose, and the doses 1000 and 2000 mg·kg-1·day-1 promoted a reduction of protein contents in milk. Postnatal development was similar in all offspring. Adult offspring did not display altered anxiety behavior, while long-term memory was impaired in the female adult offspring by maternal treatment with 1000 mg·kg-1·day-1. These results suggested that high doses of valerian had significant effects on important maternal milk components and can cause long-term alterations of offspring memory; thus, treatment with high doses of valerian is not safe for breastfeeding Wistar rat mothers.


Asunto(s)
Efectos Tardíos de la Exposición Prenatal , Valeriana , Animales , Humanos , Memoria a Largo Plazo , Leche Humana , Periodo Posparto , Embarazo , Ratas , Ratas Wistar
10.
Nutrients ; 13(9)2021 Aug 26.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34578848

RESUMEN

COVID-19 is an infectious disease caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus that was declared a Public Health Emergency of International Concern by the World Health Organization (WHO). One major problem faced is whether breastfeeding by mothers infected with the virus is safe. The objective of this work is to study the impact that the SARS-CoV-2 virus can have on breastfeeding, and whether the virus or antibodies can be transmitted from mother to child through milk. We carried out a systematic review of studies focusing on the impact of SARS-CoV-2 on breastfeeding by mothers infected with the virus. The bibliographic search was done through Medline (Pubmed), MedlinePlus and Google Scholar. From 292 records, the title and summary of each were examined according to the criteria, and whether they meet the selection criteria was also analysed. A total of 30 articles are included, of which 26 deal with the study of RNA virus in breastmilk and its involvement in breastfeeding and four on the study of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in milk. Most studies have been conducted in China. Breastfeeding by mothers infected with SARS-CoV-2 is highly recommended for infants, if the health of the mother and the infant allow for it. Direct breastfeeding and maintaining appropriate protective measures should be encouraged. Should the mother's health condition not permit direct breastfeeding, infants should be fed with pumped breastmilk or donor milk.


Asunto(s)
Lactancia Materna/efectos adversos , COVID-19/transmisión , Transmisión Vertical de Enfermedad Infecciosa/prevención & control , Leche Humana/inmunología , Complicaciones Infecciosas del Embarazo/virología , COVID-19/inmunología , COVID-19/virología , Femenino , Humanos , Lactante , Leche Humana/virología , Embarazo , SARS-CoV-2/inmunología
11.
Nurs Womens Health ; 25(5): 337-345, 2021 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34478735

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate a statewide initiative to increase the provisioning of human milk in NICUs. DESIGN: A survey of nurses before participation in an educational session, immediately after education, and again 9 months later. SETTING: Nurses from 22 hospitals throughout Florida. PARTICIPANTS: We surveyed 121 participants, including some nurses who had prior breastfeeding education or certification as well as those without specialized breastfeeding training. INTERVENTION: An educational project called the Breastfeeding Resource Nurse Master program was intended to educate NICU nurses to implement the "Ten Steps to Promote and Protect Human Milk and Breastfeeding in Vulnerable Infants." MEASUREMENT: A quantitative needs assessment survey was administered to participants to determine current hospital practices, policies, and perceived areas for improvement. Pre- and immediate posttraining surveys assessed NICU nurses' knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs about human milk feeding of critical care infants and their self-efficacy for implementing the program in their respective NICUs. A follow-up, open-ended survey was administered at 9 months to yield information on program implementation. RESULTS: NICU breastfeeding practices varied widely at baseline. Nurses' scores for knowledge, beliefs, and behavioral intentions improved postsession, but the implementation of practice changes related to the Ten Steps for Vulnerable Infants proved difficult. Nurses identified insufficient time and resources as barriers to educating others and changing practice. CONCLUSIONS: Policies and regulations that make hospitals accountable for increasing human milk provision to vulnerable infants may be necessary to ensure that hospitals devote adequate resources to implementing practice changes in this area.


Asunto(s)
Lactancia Materna , Competencia Clínica , Enfermeras y Enfermeros/psicología , Educación en Enfermería , Femenino , Florida , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Humanos , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Unidades de Cuidado Intensivo Neonatal , Leche Humana , Evaluación de Programas y Proyectos de Salud
13.
Environ Int ; 157: 106855, 2021 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34500360

RESUMEN

The composition of human breast milk is highly variable inter- and intra-individually. Environmental factors are suspected to contribute to such compositional variation, however, their impact on breast milk composition is currently poorly understood. We sought to (1) define the impact of maternal exposure to per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) on lipid composition of human breast milk, and (2) to study the combined impact of maternal PFAS exposure and breast milk lipid composition on the growth of the infants.In a mother-infant study (n = 44) we measured the levels of PFAS and lipids in maternal serum and conducted lipidomics analysis of breast milk collect 2-4 days after the delivery and at 3 months of infant age, by using ultra high performance liquid chromatography combined with quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Gastrointestinal biomarkers fecal calprotectin and human beta defensin 2 were measured in the stool samples at the age of 3, 6, 9, and 12 months. Maternal diet was studied by a validated food frequency questionnaire. PFAS levels were inversely associated with total lipid levels in the breast milk collected after the delivery. In the high exposure group, the ratio of acylated saturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids in triacylglycerols was increased. Moreover, high exposure to PFAS associated with the altered phospholipid composition, which was indicative of unfavorable increase in the size of milk fat globules. These changes in the milk lipid composition were further associated with slower infant growth and with elevated intestinal inflammatory markers. Our data suggest that the maternal exposure to PFAS impacts the nutritional quality of the breast milk, which, in turn, may have detrimental impact on the health and growth of the children later in life.


Asunto(s)
Exposición Materna , Leche Humana , Niño , Dieta , Ácidos Grasos Insaturados , Femenino , Humanos , Lactante , Lípidos
14.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(18)2021 Sep 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34576050

RESUMEN

Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) occurs when brain blood vessels rupture, causing inflammation and cell death. 2-Fucosyllactose (2FL), a human milk oligosaccharide, has potent antiapoptotic and anti-inflammatory effects. The purpose of this study was to examine the protective effect of 2FL in cellular and rodent models of ICH. Hemin was added to a primary rat cortical neuronal and BV2 microglia coculture to simulate ICH in vitro. IBA1 and MAP2 immunoreactivities were used to determine inflammation and neuronal survival. Hemin significantly increased IBA1, while it reduced MAP2 immunoreactivity. 2FL significantly antagonized both responses. The protective effect of 2FL was next examined in a rat ICH model. Intracerebral administration of type VII collagenase reduced open-field locomotor activity. Early post-treatment with 2FL significantly improved locomotor activity. Brain tissues were collected for immunohistochemistry and qRT-PCR analysis. 2FL reduced IBA1 and CD4 immunoreactivity in the lesioned striatum. 2FL downregulated the expression of ER stress markers (PERK and CHOP), while it upregulated M2 macrophage markers (CD206 and TGFß) in the lesioned brain. Taken together, our data support that 2FL has a neuroprotective effect against ICH through the inhibition of neuroinflammation and ER stress. 2FL may have clinical implications for the treatment of ICH.


Asunto(s)
Proteínas de Unión al Calcio/genética , Accidente Cerebrovascular Hemorrágico/tratamiento farmacológico , Proteínas de Microfilamentos/genética , Proteínas Asociadas a Microtúbulos/genética , Trisacáridos/farmacología , Animales , Línea Celular , Técnicas de Cocultivo , Colagenasas/toxicidad , Modelos Animales de Enfermedad , Regulación de la Expresión Génica , Hemina/toxicidad , Accidente Cerebrovascular Hemorrágico/inducido químicamente , Accidente Cerebrovascular Hemorrágico/genética , Accidente Cerebrovascular Hemorrágico/patología , Humanos , Locomoción/efectos de los fármacos , Microglía/efectos de los fármacos , Microglía/patología , Leche Humana/química , Neuronas/efectos de los fármacos , Neuronas/patología , Fármacos Neuroprotectores/química , Fármacos Neuroprotectores/farmacología , Oligosacáridos/química , Oligosacáridos/farmacología , Ratas , Trisacáridos/química
15.
Recurso de Internet en Portugués | LIS - Localizador de Información en Salud | ID: lis-48399

RESUMEN

A equipe do projeto PROTECTCoV-19 recruta grávidas, a partir da 28º semana de gestação, e puérperas, com idade maior ou igual a 18 anos, para participar do estudo, que pretende saber o papel dos anticorpos do leite materno na proteção contra Covid-19


Asunto(s)
Leche Humana/inmunología , COVID-19 , Anticuerpos/inmunología , Mujeres Embarazadas
16.
Recurso de Internet en Portugués | LIS - Localizador de Información en Salud | ID: lis-48310

RESUMEN

A Semana Mundial de Aleitamento Materno 2021 no México foi marcada pela realização do Terceiro Fórum Internacional de Aleitamento Materno. Promovido pela Secretaria de Saúde do Estado de Quintana Roo, o evento virtual reuniu especialistas mexicanos e internacionais que abordaram o cenário atual da amamentação frente aos desafios e mudanças provocados pela pandemia de Covid-19.


Asunto(s)
Lactancia Materna , COVID-19 , Promoción de la Salud , Bancos de Leche , Leche Humana , México
17.
Recurso de Internet en Portugués | LIS - Localizador de Información en Salud | ID: lis-48311

RESUMEN

O Ministério de Saúde Pública (MSP) do Equador realizou um encontro virtual para debater os diversos aspectos envolvidos na proteção, promoção e suporte à amamentação, em celebração à Semana Mundial de Aleitamento Materno. Estavam presentes representantes do MSP, instituições de saúde e da sociedade civil. A Rede Brasileira de Bancos de Leite Humano (rBLH-BR) apresentou sua experiência no enfrentamento da pandemia de Covid-19.


Asunto(s)
Lactancia Materna , COVID-19 , Bancos de Leche , Leche Humana , Ecuador
18.
Recurso de Internet en Portugués | LIS - Localizador de Información en Salud | ID: lis-48314

RESUMEN

Unicef e OMS publicam declaração por ocasião da Semana Mundial de Aleitamento Materno.


Asunto(s)
Lactancia Materna , Promoción de la Salud , Nutrición Materna , Leche Humana
19.
Recurso de Internet en Inglés, Español, Portugués | LIS - Localizador de Información en Salud | ID: lis-48316

RESUMEN

Como reflexo do trabalho em rede e da coletividade, a Rede Global de Bancos de Leite Humano lançou o eBook Doação de Leite Humano - Lições aprendidas durante a pandemia de Covid-19. O que podemos fazer a mais?, produto do Fórum de Cooperação Técnica Internacional, que reuniu 40 países em celebração ao Dia Mundial de Doação de Leite Humano 2021.


Asunto(s)
Lactancia Materna , Bancos de Leche , COVID-19 , Cooperación Técnica , Cooperación Internacional , Leche Humana
20.
Recurso de Internet en Portugués | LIS - Localizador de Información en Salud | ID: lis-48301

RESUMEN

Boletim Temático da Biblioteca do Ministério da Saúde traz uma série de publicações da pasta sobre os cuidados com o primeiro e principal alimento dos bebês.


Asunto(s)
Lactancia Materna , Leche Humana , Promoción de la Salud
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