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1.
Nat Genet ; 54(1): 84-93, 2022 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34992267

RESUMEN

Apomixis, the clonal formation of seeds, is a rare yet widely distributed trait in flowering plants. We have isolated the PARTHENOGENESIS (PAR) gene from apomictic dandelion that triggers embryo development in unfertilized egg cells. PAR encodes a K2-2 zinc finger, EAR-domain protein. Unlike the recessive sexual alleles, the dominant PAR allele is expressed in egg cells and has a miniature inverted-repeat transposable element (MITE) transposon insertion in the promoter. The MITE-containing promoter can invoke a homologous gene from sexual lettuce to complement dandelion LOSS OF PARTHENOGENESIS mutants. A similar MITE is also present in the promoter of the PAR gene in apomictic forms of hawkweed, suggesting a case of parallel evolution. Heterologous expression of dandelion PAR in lettuce egg cells induced haploid embryo-like structures in the absence of fertilization. Sexual PAR alleles are expressed in pollen, suggesting that the gene product releases a block on embryogenesis after fertilization in sexual species while in apomictic species PAR expression triggers embryogenesis in the absence of fertilization.


Asunto(s)
Apomixis/genética , División Celular/genética , Genes de Plantas , Lechuga/genética , Taraxacum/genética , Alelos , Repeticiones Palindrómicas Cortas Agrupadas y Regularmente Espaciadas , Lechuga/crecimiento & desarrollo , Óvulo/citología , Transcriptoma , Dedos de Zinc/genética
2.
Plant J ; 109(1): 182-195, 2022 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34724596

RESUMEN

Lettuce (Lactuca sativa) is one of the most important vegetable crops in the world. As a leafy vegetable, the polymorphism of lettuce leaves from dark to pale green is an important trait. However, the genetic and molecular mechanisms underlying such variations remain poorly understood. In this study, one major locus controlling the polymorphism of dark- and pale-green leaves in lettuce was identified using genome-wide association studies (GWAS). This locus was then fine mapped to an interval of 5375 bp on chromosome 4 using a segregating population containing 2480 progeny. Only one gene, homologous to the GLK genes in Arabidopsis and other plants, is present in the candidate region. A complementation test confirmed that the candidate gene, LsGLK, contributes to the variation of dark- and pale-green leaves. Sequence analysis showed that a CACTA transposon of 7434 bp was inserted 10 bp downstream of the stop codon of LsGLK, followed by a duplication of a 1826-bp fragment covering exons 3-6 of the LsGLK gene. The transposon insertion did not change the expression level of the LsGLK gene. However, because of alternative splicing, only 6% of the transcripts produced from the transposon insertion were wild-type transcripts, which led to the production of pale-green leaves. An evolutionary analysis revealed that the insertion of the CACTA transposon occurred in cultivated lettuce and might have been selected in particular cultivars to satisfy the diverse demands of consumers. In this study, we demonstrated that a transposon insertion near a gene may affect its splicing and consequently generate phenotypic variations.


Asunto(s)
Empalme Alternativo , Lechuga/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Cloroplastos/metabolismo , Productos Agrícolas , Elementos Transponibles de ADN/genética , Sitios Genéticos/genética , Lechuga/crecimiento & desarrollo , Mutagénesis Insercional , Fenotipo , Pigmentos Biológicos/metabolismo , Hojas de la Planta/genética , Hojas de la Planta/crecimiento & desarrollo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética
3.
J Antibiot (Tokyo) ; 75(1): 44-47, 2022 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34522026

RESUMEN

A rare actinomycetal strain of the genus Actinomycetospora was found to produce a new tryptophan derivative, designated mycetoindole (1). The structure of 1 was determined to be N-3-methylcrotonoyl (Z)-dehydrotryptophan by NMR and MS analytical methods. Compound 1 reduced the root growth of lettuce Lactuca sativa seedlings at concentrations above 0.1 µM and almost completely inhibited seed germination at 10 µM.


Asunto(s)
Actinobacteria/metabolismo , Actinobacteria/química , Animales , Bacterias/efectos de los fármacos , Fermentación , Germinación/efectos de los fármacos , Humanos , Lechuga/efectos de los fármacos , Lechuga/crecimiento & desarrollo , Espectroscopía de Resonancia Magnética , Espectrometría de Masas , Pruebas de Sensibilidad Microbiana , Raíces de Plantas/efectos de los fármacos , Raíces de Plantas/crecimiento & desarrollo , Plantones , Triptófano/análogos & derivados , Triptófano/biosíntesis
4.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 24408, 2021 12 23.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34949763

RESUMEN

Some forest trees have been polyploidized to improve their traits and to supply new germplasms for breeding programs. As trees have a long juvenile stage, the early characterization of the chromosome set doubling effects is crucial for previous selection. Thus, we aimed to characterize the chemical variability of essential oils from diploid and autotetraploid germplasms (autotetraploid A and B) of Eucalyptus benthamii, as well as to evaluate their larvicidal and allelopathic effects. Autotetraploid A showed a higher essential oil yield than diploid and autotetraploid B, which did not differ quantitatively. Aromadendrene, viridiflorol and α-pinene were the major compounds in the diploid essential oil. In contrast, compounds were present in autotetraploids, such as 1,8-cineole, limonene, α-terpineol, and α-terpinyl-acetate. Essential oils from the diploid at 50-200 ppm were twice as larvicidal than those from autotetraploids against Aedes aegypti larvae. Considering the phytotoxicity bioassays using Lactuca sativa, essential oils from both ploidy levels affected root growth. Moreover, the essential oils inhibited shoot growth at all concentrations tested (187.5; 375; 750; 1500; and 3000 ppm). Autotetraploid A and B had the same effect on shoot growth as glyphosate. The essential oils had no cytogenotoxic effect on root meristematic cells of L. sativa, whereas phytotoxic potential was identified mainly in shoot growth. This work demonstrated a dramatic change in secondary metabolism (terpene composition) related to an increase in the ploidy level in Eucalyptus germplasms. In addition, we report the novelty of the chemical composition of essential oils among germplasms and their potential use as larvicidal and post-emergence weed control agents.


Asunto(s)
Aceite de Eucalipto/química , Aceite de Eucalipto/farmacología , Eucalyptus/química , Eucalyptus/genética , Herbicidas , Insecticidas , Aceites Volátiles/química , Aceites Volátiles/farmacología , Tetraploidía , Aedes/efectos de los fármacos , Alelopatía/efectos de los fármacos , Animales , Bioensayo , Relación Dosis-Respuesta a Droga , Larva/efectos de los fármacos , Lechuga/efectos de los fármacos , Lechuga/crecimiento & desarrollo , Fitomejoramiento , Brotes de la Planta/efectos de los fármacos , Brotes de la Planta/crecimiento & desarrollo
5.
Molecules ; 26(24)2021 Dec 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34946527

RESUMEN

L. indica L. cv. Mengzao, a medicinal plant of the Ixeris genus, is rich in flavonoids. In order to thoroughly analyze the the distribution and dynamic change of major flavonoids in its various parts from different growth periods, the flavonoids extracted from L. indica L. cv. Mengzao were identified and quantitatively analyzed by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography mass spectrometer (LC-MS/MS). Results indicated that 15 flavonoids were identified from L. indica L. cv. Mengzao, and rutin, luteolin, luteolin-7-O-glucoside, kaempferol, quercetin, and apigenin are the major flavonoids in L. indica L. cv. Mengzao. In general, the total flavonoids' content in different parts of L. indica L. cv. Mengzao followed the order flowers > leaves > stems > roots. Flowers and leaves are the main harvesting parts of L. indica L. cv. Mengzao, and the flowering period is the most suitable harvesting period. This study provides valuable information for the development and utilization of L. indica L. cv. Mengzao and determined the best part to harvest and the optimal time for harvesting.


Asunto(s)
Flavonoides/análisis , Lechuga , Componentes Aéreos de las Plantas , Raíces de Plantas , Plantas Medicinales , Lechuga/química , Lechuga/crecimiento & desarrollo , Componentes Aéreos de las Plantas/química , Componentes Aéreos de las Plantas/crecimiento & desarrollo , Raíces de Plantas/química , Raíces de Plantas/crecimiento & desarrollo , Plantas Medicinales/química , Plantas Medicinales/crecimiento & desarrollo
6.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 22465, 2021 11 17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34789815

RESUMEN

After a century of investigations, the function of the obligate betaproteobacterial endosymbionts accommodated in leaf nodules of tropical Rubiaceae remained enigmatic. We report that the α-D-glucose analogue (+)-streptol, systemically supplied by mature Ca. Burkholderia kirkii nodules to their Psychotria hosts, exhibits potent and selective root growth inhibiting activity. We provide compelling evidence that (+)-streptol specifically affects meristematic root cells transitioning to anisotropic elongation by disrupting cell wall organization in a mechanism of action that is distinct from canonical cellulose biosynthesis inhibitors. We observed no inhibitory or cytotoxic effects on organisms other than seed plants, further suggesting (+)-streptol as a bona fide allelochemical. We propose that the suppression of growth of plant competitors is a major driver of the formation and maintenance of the Psychotria-Burkholderia association. In addition to potential agricultural applications as a herbicidal agent, (+)-streptol might also prove useful to dissect plant cell and organ growth processes.


Asunto(s)
Alelopatía/fisiología , Burkholderia/metabolismo , Ciclohexanoles/farmacología , Feromonas/farmacología , Extractos Vegetales/farmacología , Hojas de la Planta/química , Hojas de la Planta/microbiología , Psychotria/química , Psychotria/microbiología , Simbiosis/fisiología , Arabidopsis/efectos de los fármacos , Arabidopsis/crecimiento & desarrollo , Germinación/efectos de los fármacos , Lechuga/efectos de los fármacos , Lechuga/crecimiento & desarrollo , Meristema/efectos de los fármacos , Meristema/crecimiento & desarrollo , Planta de la Mostaza/efectos de los fármacos , Planta de la Mostaza/crecimiento & desarrollo , Filogenia , Hojas de la Planta/metabolismo , Psychotria/metabolismo , Plantones/efectos de los fármacos , Plantones/crecimiento & desarrollo , Semillas/efectos de los fármacos , Semillas/crecimiento & desarrollo
7.
BMC Plant Biol ; 21(1): 485, 2021 Oct 23.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34688264

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: GROWTH-REGULATING FACTORs (GRFs), a type of plant-specific transcription factors, play important roles in regulating plant growth and development. Although GRF gene family has been identified in various plant species, a genome-wide analysis of this family in lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) has not been reported yet. RESULTS: Here we identified 15 GRF genes in lettuce and performed comprehensive analysis of them, including chromosomal locations, gene structures, and conserved motifs. Through phylogenic analysis, we divided LsaGRFs into six groups. Transactivation assays and subcellular localization of LsaGRF5 showed that this protein is likely to act as a transcriptional factor in the cell nucleus. Furthermore, transgenic lettuce lines overexpressing LsaGRF5 exhibited larger leaves, while smaller leaves were observed in LsaMIR396a overexpression lines, in which LsaGRF5 was down-regulated. CONCLUSIONS: These results in lettuce provide insight into the molecular mechanism of GRF gene family in regulating leaf growth and development and foundational information for genetic improvement of the lettuce variations specialized in leaf character.


Asunto(s)
Lechuga/crecimiento & desarrollo , Lechuga/genética , Desarrollo de la Planta/genética , Reguladores del Crecimiento de las Plantas/genética , Hojas de la Planta/anatomía & histología , Hojas de la Planta/crecimiento & desarrollo , Hojas de la Planta/genética , China , Productos Agrícolas/genética , Productos Agrícolas/crecimiento & desarrollo , Regulación de la Expresión Génica de las Plantas , Genes de Plantas , Genoma de Planta , Filogenia , Factores de Transcripción
8.
J Nat Prod ; 84(11): 2904-2913, 2021 11 26.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34670365

RESUMEN

A dereplication strategy using UPLC-QTOF/MSE, the HMAI method, and NMR spectroscopy led to the identification of five main steroidal saponins (1-5), including three previously unknown compounds named macroacanthosides A-C (3-5), in a bioactive fraction of Agave macroacantha. The major saponins were isolated, and some of them together with the saponin-rich fraction were then evaluated for phytotoxicity on a standard target species, Lactuca sativa. The inhibition values exhibited by the pure compounds were confirmed to be in agreement with the phytotoxicity of the saponin-rich fraction, which suggests that the saponin fraction could be applied successfully as an agrochemical without undergoing any further costly and/or time-consuming purification processes. The NMR data of the pure compounds as well as of those corresponding to the same compounds in the fraction were comparable, which indicated that the main saponins could be identified by means of this replication workflow and that no standards are required.


Asunto(s)
Agave/química , Saponinas/aislamiento & purificación , Lechuga/efectos de los fármacos , Lechuga/crecimiento & desarrollo , Espectroscopía de Resonancia Magnética , Saponinas/química , Saponinas/toxicidad
9.
Pak J Biol Sci ; 24(7): 773-779, 2021 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34486296

RESUMEN

<b>Background and Objective:</b> Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR) are a group of bacteria that colonize plant roots and enhance the growth and productivity of plants. However, only those PGPR that is acclimatized to the local soil conditions performs well. The present study aims to pick up effective PGPR isolates from local soil and utilize them as potential bio-inoculants to enhance lettuce plant growth. <b>Materials and Methods:</b> Rhizospheric soil samples were obtained from each of six desert plant species in the Qassim region and 45 bacterial isolates were obtained. Four of them were identified and tested for growth-promoting activities by application to the soil in which lettuce was grown under greenhouse conditions. <b>Results:</b> The selected bacterial isolates were identified as <i>Bacillus cereus</i> BW-201B, <i>Pseudomonas aeruginosa</i> AMU1, <i>Pseudomonas putida</i> CNE30 and <i>Enterobacter</i> sp. CZGRY7. Application of these four isolates to the soil in which lettuce was grown under greenhouse conditions resulted in significant increases in shoot height, shoot weight, chlorophyll levels and the percentages of N, P and K compared with those of control treatment. <b>Conclusion:</b> These findings suggest that local soil bacterial strains represent excellent bioinoculants for growth and yield increase in lettuce under local agro-climatic conditions in Saudi Arabia. Our approach might offer a good alternative for the chemical-free farming of lettuce.


Asunto(s)
Lechuga/crecimiento & desarrollo , Raíces de Plantas/microbiología , Raíces de Plantas/crecimiento & desarrollo , Rizosfera , Arabia Saudita , Microbiología del Suelo
10.
J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 31(9): 1241-1255, 2021 Sep 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34373438

RESUMEN

This study was carried out to explore a non-chemical strategy for enhancing productivity by employing some antagonistic rhizobacteria. One hundred eighteen bacterial isolates were obtained from the rhizospheric zone of various crop fields of Gangwon-do, Korea, and screened for antifungal activity against Fusarium wilt (Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lactucae) in lettuce crop under in vitro and in vivo conditions. In broth-based dual culture assay, fourteen bacterial isolates showed significant inhibition of mycelial growth of F. oxysporium f. sp. lactucae. All of the antagonistic isolates were further characterized for the antagonistic traits under in vitro conditions. The isolates were identified on the basis of biochemical characteristics and confirmed at their species level by 16S rRNA gene sequencing analysis. Arthrobacter sulfonivorans, Bacillus siamensis, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens, Pseudomonas proteolytica, four Paenibacillus peoriae strains, and Bacillus subtilis were identified from the biochemical characterization and 16S rRNA gene sequencing analysis. The isolates EN21 and EN23 showed significant decrease in disease severity on lettuce compared to infected control and other bacterial treatments under greenhouse conditions. Two bacterial isolates, EN4 and EN21, were evaluated to assess their disease reduction and growth promotion in lettuce in field conditions. The consortium of EN4 and EN21 showed significant enhancement of growth on lettuce by suppressing disease caused by F. oxysporum f. sp. lactucae respectively. This study clearly indicates that the promising isolates, EN4 (P. proteolytica) and EN21 (Bacillus siamensis), can be commercialized and used as biofertilizer and/or biopesticide for sustainable crop production.


Asunto(s)
Fenómenos Fisiológicos Bacterianos , Fusarium , Lechuga/crecimiento & desarrollo , Enfermedades de las Plantas/prevención & control , Inoculantes Agrícolas , Antibiosis , Antifúngicos/metabolismo , Bacterias/clasificación , Bacterias/genética , Bacterias/aislamiento & purificación , Bacterias/metabolismo , Agentes de Control Biológico , Productos Agrícolas/crecimiento & desarrollo , Productos Agrícolas/microbiología , Fusarium/crecimiento & desarrollo , Fusarium/patogenicidad , Lechuga/microbiología , Micelio/crecimiento & desarrollo , Enfermedades de las Plantas/microbiología , Reguladores del Crecimiento de las Plantas/metabolismo , ARN Ribosómico 16S/genética , Rizosfera
11.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(15)2021 Jul 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360584

RESUMEN

Trichostatin A (TSA) is a representative histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor that modulates epigenetic gene expression by regulation of chromatin remodeling in cells. To investigate whether the regulation of chromatin de-condensation by TSA can affect the increase in the efficiency of Cas9 protein-gRNA ribonucleoprotein (RNP) indel formation from plant cells, genome editing efficiency using lettuce and tobacco protoplasts was examined after several concentrations of TSA treatments (0, 0.1, 1 and 10 µM). RNP delivery from protoplasts was conducted by conventional polyethylene glycol (PEG) transfection protocols. Interestingly, the indel frequency of the SOC1 gene from TSA treatments was about 3.3 to 3.8 times higher than DMSO treatment in lettuce protoplasts. The TSA-mediated increase of indel frequency of the SOC1 gene in lettuce protoplasts occurred in a concentration-dependent manner, although there was not much difference. Similar to lettuce, TSA also increased the indel frequency by 1.5 to 1.8 times in a concentration-dependent manner during PDS genome editing using tobacco protoplasts. The MNase test clearly showed that chromatin accessibility with TSA treatments was higher than that of DMSO treatment. Additionally, TSA treatment significantly increased the level of histone H3 and H4 acetylation from lettuce protoplasts. The qRT-PCR analysis showed that expression of cell division-related genes (LsCYCD1-1, LsCYCD3-2, LsCYCD6-1, and LsCYCU4-1) was increased by TSA treatment. These findings could contribute to increasing the efficiency of CRISPR/Cas9-mediated genome editing. Furthermore, this could be applied for the development of useful genome-edited crops using the CRISPR/Cas9 system with plant protoplasts.


Asunto(s)
Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Edición Génica/métodos , Ácidos Hidroxámicos/farmacología , Lechuga/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Protoplastos/metabolismo , Tabaco/metabolismo , División Celular , Genoma de Planta , Lechuga/efectos de los fármacos , Lechuga/genética , Lechuga/crecimiento & desarrollo , Células Vegetales , Proteínas de Plantas/antagonistas & inhibidores , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Inhibidores de la Síntesis de la Proteína/farmacología , Protoplastos/efectos de los fármacos , Tabaco/efectos de los fármacos , Tabaco/genética , Tabaco/crecimiento & desarrollo
12.
Genes (Basel) ; 12(6)2021 06 21.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34205694

RESUMEN

Lettuce plants tend to undergo floral initiation by elongation of flower stalks (bolting) under high-temperature and long-day conditions, which is a serious problem for summer lettuce production. Our objective was to generate a high-density genetic map using SNPs obtained from genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) analysis of F5 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) and to map QTLs involved in stem growth and flowering time in lettuce. A set of 127 intra-specific RIL mapping populations derived from a cross between two varieties, green and red leaf lettuce, were used to identify QTLs related to the number of days from sowing to bolting (DTB), to flowering of the first flower (DTF), to seed-setting of the first flower (DTS), and the total number of leaves (LN), plant height (PH), and total number of branches of main inflorescence (BN) for two consecutive years. Of the 15 QTLs detected, one that controls DTB, DTF, DTS, LN, and PH detected on LG 7, and another QTL that controls DTF, DTS, and PH detected on LG 1. Analysis of the genomic sequence corresponding to the QTL detected on LG 7 led to the identification of 22 putative candidate genes. A consistent QTL related to bolting and flowering time, and corresponding candidate genes has been reported. This study will be valuable in revealing the genetic basis of stem growth and flowering time in lettuce.


Asunto(s)
Lechuga/genética , Sitios de Carácter Cuantitativo , Flores/genética , Flores/crecimiento & desarrollo , Estudio de Asociación del Genoma Completo , Técnicas de Genotipaje , Lechuga/crecimiento & desarrollo , Tallos de la Planta/genética , Tallos de la Planta/crecimiento & desarrollo
13.
Theor Appl Genet ; 134(10): 3319-3337, 2021 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34196730

RESUMEN

KEY MESSAGE: Photoperiod and temperature conditions elicit different genetic regulation over lettuce bolting and flowering. This study identifies environment-specific QTLs and putative genes and provides information for genetic marker assay. Bolting, defined as stem elongation, marks the plant life cycle transition from vegetative to reproductive stage. Lettuce is grown for its leaf rosettes, and premature bolting may reduce crop quality resulting in economic losses. The transition to reproductive stage is a complex process that involves many genetic and environmental factors. In this study, the effects of photoperiod and ambient temperature on bolting and flowering regulation were studied by utilizing a lettuce mapping population to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) and by gene expression analyses of genotypes with contrasting phenotypes. A recombinant inbred line (RIL) population, derived from a cross between PI 251246 (early bolting) and cv. Salinas (late bolting), was grown in four combinations of short (8 h) and long (16 h) days and low (20 °C) and high (35 °C) temperature. QTL models revealed both genetic (G) and environmental (E) effects, and GxE interactions. A major QTL for bolting and flowering time was found on chromosome 7 (qFLT7.2), and two candidate genes were identified by fine mapping, homology, and gene expression studies. In short days and high temperature conditions, qFLT7.2 had no effect on plant development, while several small-effect loci on chromosomes 2, 3, 6, 8, and 9 were associated with bolting and flowering. Of these, the QTL on chromosome 2, qBFr2.1, co-located with the Flowering Locus T (LsFT) gene. Polymorphisms between parent genotypes in the promotor region may explain identified gene expression differences and were used to design a genetic marker which may be used to identify the late bolting trait.


Asunto(s)
Mapeo Cromosómico/métodos , Cromosomas de las Plantas/genética , Flores/crecimiento & desarrollo , Regulación de la Expresión Génica de las Plantas , Lechuga/crecimiento & desarrollo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Sitios de Carácter Cuantitativo , Flores/genética , Lechuga/genética , Fenotipo , Fotoperiodo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética
14.
Biomolecules ; 11(6)2021 06 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34205142

RESUMEN

Lettuce (Lactuca sativa) was grown using a foliar spray with whey protein hydrolysate (WPH) as opposed to normal nitrate fertilization. Lettuce juice was prepared from lettuce cultivated without any fertilization, nitrate fertilization, or WPH. Sixty weaned, 4-week-old male V-line rabbits with an average 455 ± 6 g body weight were randomly divided into 4 groups (n = 15) and administered different lettuce juices. Rabbits administered WPH-fertilized lettuce showed significantly higher (n = 5, p < 0.05) body weight and carcass weight than those receiving nitrate-fertilized lettuce. Rabbits administered nitrate-fertilized lettuce were associated with significantly (p < 0.05) higher levels of liver enzyme activities (AST, ALT, and ALP), bilirubin (total, direct, and indirect), and kidney biomarkers (creatinine, urea, and uric acid). Rabbits administered WPH-fertilized lettuce avoided such increases and exhibited normal levels of serum proteins. Rabbits administered nitrate-fertilized lettuce manifested significantly (p < 0.05) lower RBCs and Hb levels than that of the other groups, while those receiving WPH-fertilized lettuce showed the highest levels. Liver and kidney sections of rabbits receiving WPH-fertilized lettuce witnessed the absence of the histopathological changes induced by feeding on nitrate-fertilized lettuce and produced higher quality meat. WPH-lettuce can substitute nitrate-fertilized lettuce in feeding rabbits for better performance and health aspects.


Asunto(s)
Peso Corporal/efectos de los fármacos , Lechuga/efectos de los fármacos , Carne/normas , Nitratos/toxicidad , Hidrolisados de Proteína/administración & dosificación , Proteína de Suero de Leche/administración & dosificación , Animales , Peso Corporal/fisiología , Suplementos Dietéticos , Lechuga/crecimiento & desarrollo , Carne/análisis , Conejos
15.
Molecules ; 26(14)2021 Jul 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34299471

RESUMEN

Phenylphenalenones, metabolites found in Schiekia timida (Haemodoraceae), are a class of specialized metabolites with many biological activities, being phytoalexins in banana plants. In the constant search to solve the problem of glyphosate and to avoid resistance to commercial herbicides, this work aimed to investigate the phytotoxic effect of the methanolic extract of S. timida seeds. The chemical composition of the seed extract was directly investigated by NMR and UPLC-QToF MS and the pre- and post-emergence phytotoxic effect on a eudicotyledonous model (Lactuca sativa) and a monocotyledonous model (Allium cepa) was evaluated through germination and seedling growth tests. Three concentrations of the extract (0.25, 0.50, and 1.00 mg/mL) were prepared, and four replicates for each of them were analyzed. Three major phenylphenalenones were identified by NMR spectroscopy: 4-hydroxy-anigorufone, methoxyanigorufone, and anigorufone, two of those reported for the first time in S. timida. The presence of seven other phenylphenalenones was suggested by the LC-MS analyses. The phenylphenalenone mixture did not affect the germination rate, but impaired radicle and hypocotyl growth on both models. The effect in the monocotyledonous model was statistically similar to glyphosate in the lowest concentration (0.25 mg/mL). Therefore, although more research on this topic is required to probe this first report, this investigation suggests for the first time that phenylphenalenone compounds may be post-emergence herbicides.


Asunto(s)
Lechuga/crecimiento & desarrollo , Musa/química , Cebollas/crecimiento & desarrollo , Fenalenos/toxicidad , Extractos Vegetales/toxicidad , Semillas/química , Germinación , Lechuga/efectos de los fármacos , Cebollas/efectos de los fármacos , Toxinas Biológicas/toxicidad
16.
Metallomics ; 13(7)2021 07 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34100933

RESUMEN

The influence of morphology on the biological effects of nanomaterials (NMs) has not been well understood. In the present study, we compared the phytotoxicity of rod-shaped nano-cerium dioxide (R-CeO2) and nano-cerium phosphate (R-CePO4) to lettuce plants. The results showed that R-CeO2 significantly inhibited the root elongation of lettuce, induced oxidative damages, and caused cell death, while R-CePO4 was nontoxic to lettuce. The different distribution and speciation of Ce in plant tissues were determined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray absorption near edge spectroscopy (XANES) combined with linear combination fitting (LCF). The results showed that in the R-CeO2 group, part of Ce was transformed from Ce(IV) to Ce(III), while only Ce(III) was present in the R-CePO4 group. When interacting with plants, R-CeO2 is easier to be dissolved and transformed than R-CePO4, which might be the reason for their different phytotoxicity. Although both are Ce-based NMs and have the same morphology, the toxicity of R-CeO2 seems to come from the released Ce3+ ions rather than its shape. This research emphasizes the importance of chemical composition and reactivity of NMs to their toxicological effects.


Asunto(s)
Cerio/toxicidad , Lechuga/crecimiento & desarrollo , Nanopartículas del Metal/toxicidad , Estrés Oxidativo , Fosfatos/toxicidad , Raíces de Plantas/crecimiento & desarrollo , Lechuga/efectos de los fármacos , Raíces de Plantas/efectos de los fármacos
17.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2317: 267-281, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34028775

RESUMEN

The interest in producing pharmaceutical proteins in a nontoxic plant host has led to the development of an approach to express such proteins in transplastomic lettuce (Lactuca sativa). A number of therapeutic proteins and vaccine antigen candidates have been stably integrated into the lettuce plastid genome using biolistic DNA delivery. High levels of accumulation and retention of biological activity suggest that lettuce may provide and ideal platform for the production of biopharmaceuticals.


Asunto(s)
Biolística/métodos , Ingeniería Genética/métodos , Lechuga/genética , Hojas de la Planta/genética , Plantas Modificadas Genéticamente/genética , Plastidios/genética , Transformación Genética , Productos Biológicos/administración & dosificación , Lechuga/crecimiento & desarrollo , Hojas de la Planta/crecimiento & desarrollo , Plantas Modificadas Genéticamente/crecimiento & desarrollo
18.
Plant Signal Behav ; 16(7): 1913845, 2021 07 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33955335

RESUMEN

To determine the effect of the serine/threonine protein kinase (STPK) gene on leaf lettuce bolting, we utilized virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) using the TRV vector to silence the target gene. The 'GB30' leaf lettuce cultivar was the test material, and the methods included gene cloning, bioinformatics analysis, quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) and VIGS. LsSTPK, was cloned from the 'GB30' leaf lettuce cultivar via reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). qRT-PCR analysis showed that the expression of LsSTPK in the stem of leaf lettuce was significantly greater than that in the roots and leaves, and after high-temperature treatment, the gene expression in the stems in the experimental group was markedly lower than that in the control groups. Following LsSTPK silencing via the VIGS method, the stem length in the treatment group was significantly greater than that in the blank and negative control groups, and the contents of auxin (IAA), GA3 and abscisic acid (ABA) in the treatment group were greater than those in the other two groups. Flower bud differentiation occurred in the treatment group but not in the control group. The above findings suggested that LsSTPK inhibits the bolting of leaf lettuce under high-temperature conditions.


Asunto(s)
Silenciador del Gen , Lechuga/crecimiento & desarrollo , Virus de Plantas/genética , /genética , Clonación Molecular , Genes de Plantas , Vectores Genéticos , Calor , Lechuga/enzimología , Lechuga/genética , Lechuga/virología , Reacción en Cadena en Tiempo Real de la Polimerasa
19.
Molecules ; 26(7)2021 Mar 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33808049

RESUMEN

Cyclic imides belong to a well-known class of organic compounds with various biological activities, promoting a great interest in compounds with this functional group. Due to the structural complexity of some molecules and their spectra, it is necessary to use several spectrometric methods associated with auxiliary tools, such as the theoretical calculation for the structural elucidation of complex structures. In this work, the synthesis of epoxy derivatives of 5-methylhexahydroisoindole-1,3-diones was carried out in five steps. Diels-Alder reaction of isoprene and maleic anhydride followed by reaction with m-anisidine afforded the amide (2). Esterification of amide (2) with methanol in the presence of sulfuric acid provided the ester (3) that cyclized in situ to give imides 4 and 4-ent. Epoxidation of 4 and 4-ent with meta-chloroperbenzoic acid (MCPBA) afforded 5a and 5b. The diastereomers were separated by silica gel flash column chromatography, and their structures were determined by analyses of the spectrometric methods. Their structures were confirmed by matching the calculated 1H and 13C NMR chemical shifts of (5a and 5b) with the experimental data of the diastereomers using MAE, CP3, and DP4 statistical analyses. Biological assays were carried out to evaluate the potential herbicide activity of the imides. Compounds 5a and 5b inhibited root growth of the weed Bidens pilosa by more than 70% at all the concentrations evaluated.


Asunto(s)
Compuestos Epoxi , Herbicidas , Imidas , Semillas/crecimiento & desarrollo , Bidens/crecimiento & desarrollo , Cucumis sativus/crecimiento & desarrollo , Compuestos Epoxi/síntesis química , Compuestos Epoxi/química , Herbicidas/síntesis química , Herbicidas/química , Imidas/síntesis química , Imidas/química , Lechuga/crecimiento & desarrollo , Estructura Molecular , Sorghum/crecimiento & desarrollo
20.
J Sci Food Agric ; 101(14): 5888-5897, 2021 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33797092

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Urban agriculture contributes to meeting the growing food production demand in cities. In the context of low water availability, it is important to consider alternatives that are able to maintain production. Through a circular economy vision, this study aimed to assess the use of substrates made from local materials as an alternative for urban agriculture in periods of low water availability, due to water supply cuts. The substrates used were coir commercial organic substrate, vegetable compost from urban organic waste and perlite commercial standard substrate; a mixture of the urban compost and perlite (1:1) was used for three consecutive crop cycles of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. var. crispa). The crop cycles were performed in the spring and summer periods of 2018 to observe the performance during warmer periods of the year in an integrated rooftop greenhouse near Barcelona. Each substrate was assessed under conventional irrigation (0-5 kPa) and temporary water restricted conditions (irrigation stopped until the water tension reached -20 kPa perlite). RESULTS: In terms of yield, our results show that the compost and mixture were similar to those obtained from perlite (11.5% and 3.7% more production under restricted water conditions). Organic substrates increased the crop's resilience to water restriction, in contrast to the perlite. In particular, water loss took longer in coir (one- and two-crop cycle); however, when dryness began, it occurred quickly. CONCLUSION: The vegetable compost and the substrate mixture presented tolerance to temporary water restriction when water restriction reached -20 kPa. © 2021 Society of Chemical Industry.


Asunto(s)
Producción de Cultivos/métodos , Lechuga/crecimiento & desarrollo , Ciudades , Producción de Cultivos/instrumentación , Sequías , Lechuga/metabolismo , Región Mediterránea , Suelo/química , Agua/análisis , Agua/metabolismo
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