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1.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 10046, 2022 Jun 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35710561

RESUMEN

In this study, we observed the effect of the application of soil dust enriched with risk elements (Cd, Pb, As and Zn) to leaf surfaces of lettuce (Lactuca sativa var. capitata) while it was grown under hydroponic conditions. This study aimed to determine how low soil dust particulate matter (PM) doses affected the activity of or damaged the photosynthetic apparatus and how the uptake of risk elements was associated with both epigenetic changes (5-methylcytosine content, i.e., 5mC) and stress metabolism. During the study, we obtained many results pertaining to risk element contents and biochemical (total phenolic content (TPC), malondialdehyde (MDA) content and the amount of free amino acids (AAs)) and physiological (photosynthesis parameters: net photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate, intercellular CO2 concentration, stomatal conductance, instantaneous water-use efficiency, maximum quantum yield of PSII, chlorophyll and carotenoid contents, and leaf water potential (WP)) plant features. The results showed an increase in MDA and 5mC. However, the transpiration rate, WP and free AAs decreased. In conclusion, contamination by very low doses of soil dust PM had no direct or significant effect on plant fitness, as shown by the TPC and 5mC content, which indicates that plants can overcome the oxidative stress caused by the accumulation of risk elements. From the above, we propose the use of epigenetic changes as biomarkers of potential changes in the activation of plant metabolism under stress caused by environmental pollution.


Asunto(s)
Polvo , Material Particulado , Clorofila/metabolismo , Contaminación Ambiental , Lechuga/metabolismo , Material Particulado/metabolismo , Fotosíntesis , Hojas de la Planta/metabolismo , Plantas/metabolismo , Suelo/química , Agua/metabolismo
2.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 9852, 2022 Jun 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35701518

RESUMEN

Large amounts of nitrogen fertilizers applied during lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) production are lost due to leaching or volatilization, causing severe environmental pollution and increased costs of production. Developing lettuce varieties with high nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) is the eco-friendly solution to reduce nitrogen pollution. Hence, in-depth knowledge of nitrogen metabolism and assimilation genes and their regulation is critical for developing high NUE varieties. In this study, we performed comparative transcriptomic analysis of the cultivated lettuce (L. sativa L.) and its wild progenitor (L. serriola) under high and low nitrogen conditions. A total of 2,704 differentially expressed genes were identified. Key enriched biological processes included photosynthesis, oxidation-reduction process, chlorophyll biosynthetic process, and cell redox homeostasis. The transcription factors (TFs) belonging to the ethylene responsive factor family and basic helix-loop-helix family were among the top differentially expressed TFs. Using weighted gene co-expression network analysis we constructed nine co-expression modules. Among these, two modules were further investigated because of their significant association with total nitrogen content and photosynthetic efficiency of photosystem II. Three highly correlated clusters were identified which included hub genes for nitrogen metabolism, secondary metabolites, and carbon assimilation, and were regulated by cluster specific TFs. We found that the expression of nitrogen transportation and assimilation genes varied significantly between the two lettuce species thereby providing the opportunity of introgressing wild alleles into the cultivated germplasm for developing lettuce cultivars with more efficient use of nitrogen.


Asunto(s)
Lechuga , Transcriptoma , Fertilizantes , Lechuga/metabolismo , Nitrógeno/metabolismo , Fotosíntesis/genética
3.
Environ Pollut ; 304: 119240, 2022 Jul 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35367504

RESUMEN

The fungal species Fusarium can cause devastating disease in agricultural crops. Phenamacril is an extremely specific cyanoacrylate fungicide and a strobilurine analog that has excellent efficacy against Fusarium. To date, information on the mechanisms involved in the uptake, accumulation, and metabolism of phenamacril in plants is scarce. In this study, lettuce and radish were chosen as model plants for a comparative analysis of the absorption, accumulation, and metabolic characteristics of phenamacril from a polluted environment. We determined the total amount of phenamacril in the plant-water system by measuring the concentrations in the solution and plant tissues at frequent intervals over the exposure period. Phenamacril was readily taken up by the plant roots with average root concentration factor ranges of 60.8-172.7 and 16.4-26.9 mL/g for lettuce and radish, respectively. However, it showed limited root-to-shoot translocation. The lettuce roots had a 2.8-12.4-fold higher phenamacril content than the shoots; whereas the radish plants demonstrated the opposite, with the shoots having 1.5 to 10.0 times more phenamacril than the roots. By the end of the exposure period, the mass losses from the plant-water systems reached 72.0% and 66.3% for phenamacril in lettuce and radish, respectively, suggesting evidence of phenamacril biotransformation. Further analysis confirmed that phenamacril was metabolized via hydroxylation, hydrolysis of esters, demethylation, and desaturation reactions, and formed multiple transformation products. This study furthers our understanding of the fate of phenamacril when it passes from the environment to plants and provides an important reference for its scientific use and risk assessment.


Asunto(s)
Fungicidas Industriales , Raphanus , Productos Agrícolas , Cianoacrilatos/metabolismo , Cianoacrilatos/farmacología , Fungicidas Industriales/metabolismo , Lechuga/metabolismo , Raíces de Plantas/metabolismo , Raphanus/metabolismo , Agua/metabolismo
4.
Biotechnol Bioeng ; 119(7): 1781-1791, 2022 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35394653

RESUMEN

Concanavalin A (ConA), a mannose (Man)-specific leguminous lectin isolated from the jack bean (Canavalia ensiformis) seed extracts, was discovered over a century ago. Although ConA has been extensively applied in various life science research, recombinant mature ConA expression has not been fully established. Here, we aimed to produce recombinant ConA (rConA) in lettuce (Lactuca sativa) using an Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transient expression system. rConA could be produced as a fully active form from soluble fractions of lettuce leaves and purified by affinity chromatography. From 12 g wet weight of lettuce leaves, 0.9 mg rConA could be purified. The glycan-binding properties of rConA were then compared with that of the native ConA isolated from jack bean using glycoconjugate microarray and frontal affinity chromatography. rConA demonstrated a glycan-binding specificity similar to nConA. Both molecules bound to N-glycans containing a terminal Man residue. Consistent with previous reports, terminal Manα1-6Man was found to be an essential unit for the high-affinity binding of rConA and nConA, while bisecting GlcNAc diminished the binding of rConA and nConA to Manα1-6Man-terminated N-glycans. These results demonstrate that the fully active rConA could be produced using the A. tumefaciens-mediated transient expression system and used as a recombinant substitute for nConA.


Asunto(s)
Lechuga , Polisacáridos , Cromatografía de Afinidad , Concanavalina A/metabolismo , Humanos , Lechuga/genética , Lechuga/metabolismo , Hojas de la Planta/metabolismo , Polisacáridos/metabolismo
5.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35270194

RESUMEN

Arsenic (As) in leafy vegetables may harm humans. Herein, we assessed As accumulation in leafy vegetables and the associated physiological resistance mechanisms using soil pot and hydroponic experiments. Garland chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum coronarium L.), spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.), and lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) were tested, and the soil As safety threshold values of the tested leafy vegetables were 91.7, 76.2, and 80.7 mg kg-1, respectively, i.e., higher than the soil environmental quality standard of China. According to growth indicators and oxidative stress markers (malondialdehyde, the ratio of reduced glutathione to oxidized glutathione, and soluble protein), the order of As tolerance was: GC > SP > LE. The high tolerance of GC was due to the low transport factor of As from the roots to the shoots; the high activity of superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and catalase; and the high content of phytochelatin in the roots. Results of this work shed light on the use of As-contaminated soils and plant tolerance of As stress.


Asunto(s)
Arsénico , Contaminantes del Suelo , Arsénico/análisis , Humanos , Lechuga/metabolismo , Suelo , Contaminantes del Suelo/análisis , Spinacia oleracea , Verduras/metabolismo
6.
Plant Sci ; 316: 111175, 2022 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35151458

RESUMEN

Bolting, which is a serious problem during lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) production, is responsible for substantial annual yield and quality losses. Gibberellin plays a critical role in the regulation of lettuce bolting. Additionally, DELLA proteins negatively regulate the gibberellin signaling pathway. However, it is unclear if DELLA proteins are involved in the regulation of lettuce bolting. Therefore, in this study, we identified four DELLA-encoding genes in lettuce, including LsRGL1, which was highly expressed in the stem and negatively correlated with bolting. Knocking down this gene in lettuce promoted bolting, whereas its overexpression inhibited bolting and the biosynthesis of gibberellin and auxin. A transcriptome analysis revealed that genes involved in gibberellin and auxin biosynthesis and flowering were affected in the LsRGL1-overexpressing lines. The yeast two-hybrid and yeast one-hybrid assay results indicated that LsRGL1 can interact with LsGA3ox and the LsYUC4 promoter region. Considered together, the results of this study suggest LsRGL1 negatively regulates lettuce bolting. Furthermore, its function may depend on modifications to gibberellin and auxin levels mediated at the transcript and protein levels.


Asunto(s)
Giberelinas , Lechuga , Perfilación de la Expresión Génica , Regulación de la Expresión Génica de las Plantas , Ácidos Indolacéticos , Lechuga/genética , Lechuga/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo
7.
Sci Total Environ ; 820: 153271, 2022 May 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35074371

RESUMEN

Arsenic (As) contamination has become a global problem, especially in developing countries, where a significant percentage of the population depends on groundwater for drinking. Arsenic toxicity depends on its chemical form. Herein, we evaluated the phytotoxicity of arsenite [As(III)], including As accumulation and adverse physiological responses (e.g., growth inhibition, oxidative stress, and metabolic disturbances). Furthermore, this result was compared with the mechanism of the phytotoxicity of arsenate [As(V)] that we previously explored. As accumulated mainly in the roots (29.33-88.73 mg/kg) of lettuce, only a small amount was transferred to the leaves (0.08-0.22 mg/kg); arsenic mainly existed in the form of As(III) in plants. As(III) was positively correlated with Mn in the leaves and roots and negatively correlated with Ca in roots and Mg in leaves, consistent with the increase in SOD activity and the destruction of the chloroplast membrane. Plants responded differently to As(III) and As(V) in terms of the antioxidant response and metabolic response. CAT activity in leaves was reduced following As(III) exposure and increased upon As(V) exposure. Furthermore, As(III) decreased the levels of some products of the tricarboxylic acid cycle and induced abnormal metabolism of secondary metabolites, such as phenol and niacin. The present study explored arsenic accumulation induced by As(III), the related physiological and biochemical responses and subsequent metabolite redistribution, and provided insights into the effects of different As species on plants.


Asunto(s)
Arsénico , Arsenitos , Arsénico/metabolismo , Arsenitos/metabolismo , Arsenitos/toxicidad , Lechuga/metabolismo , Hojas de la Planta/metabolismo , Raíces de Plantas/metabolismo
8.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 29(28): 42913-42928, 2022 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35092588

RESUMEN

To investigate the molecular mechanism of Cd-accumulating difference between Lactuca sativa cultivars, full-length transcriptome comparison, as well as biochemical validation, have been conducted between Cd pollution-safe cultivar (Cd-PSC, cv. LYDL) and high-Cd-accumulating cultivar (cv. HXDWQ). The full-length transcriptome of L. sativa cultivars was achieved for the first time. The results showed high Cd compartmentalization in the cell wall of cv. LYDL was ascribed to the enhanced cell wall biosynthesis under Cd stress, which was consistent with the high cellular debris Cd level (32.10-43.58%). The expression levels of transporter genes in cv. HXDWQ were about 1.19 to 1.21-fold higher than those in cv. LYDL, which was in accordance with the high ratio of easy migrative Cd chemical forms (68.59-81.98%), indicating the high Cd accumulation in the shoot of cv. HXDWQ was ascribed to the higher transportation capacity in cv. HXDWQ. Moreover, the Cd-induced endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress was associated with the higher Cd detoxification and tolerance in cv. HXDWQ rather than in cv. LYDL. The study provides new insights into the Cd-induced transcriptomic difference between L. sativa cultivars and further contributes to the molecular breeding of L. sativa Cd-PSC.


Asunto(s)
Cadmio , Contaminantes del Suelo , Cadmio/análisis , Celulosa/metabolismo , Lechuga/genética , Lechuga/metabolismo , Raíces de Plantas/metabolismo , Contaminantes del Suelo/análisis
9.
Environ Geochem Health ; 44(5): 1649-1665, 2022 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34676509

RESUMEN

A study was carried out to evaluate the absorption of potentially toxic elements from mining Technosols by three types of vegetable plants (broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica), lettuce (Lactuca sativa) and onion (Allium cepa)), the different parts of which are intended for human and farm animal consumption (leaves, roots, edible parts). The preliminary results obtained highlight the importance of the design of the mining Technosols used for agricultural purposes, obtained from soils and sediments of mining origin and amended with residues of high calcium carbonate concentrations (limestone filler and construction and demolition wastes). The experiment was carried out in a greenhouse, and the total metal(loid)s concentration (As, Pb, Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn) of the soil, rhizosphere, aqueous leachates and plant samples was monitored, the translocation and bioconcentration factors (TF and BCF, respectively) being calculated. The characterization of the soils included a mobilization study in media simulating different environmental conditions that can affect these soils and predicting the differences in behavior of each Technosol. The results obtained showed that the levels of potentially toxic elements present in the cultivated species are within the range of values mentioned in the literature when they were cultivated in soils with calcareous amendments. However, when the plants were grown in contaminated soils, the potentially toxic elements levels varied greatly according to the species, being higher in onions than in lettuce. Experiments with the use of lime filler or construction and demolition wastes for soil remediation result in crops that, in principle, do not present health risks and are similar in development to those grown on non-contaminated soil.


Asunto(s)
Metales Pesados , Contaminantes del Suelo , Lechuga/metabolismo , Metales Pesados/análisis , Minería , Plantas Comestibles , Suelo/química , Contaminantes del Suelo/análisis
10.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 171: 26-37, 2022 Jan 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34971953

RESUMEN

In order to assist sustainable agriculture, new strategies and methods are being used based on the utilization of new natural molecules. These natural compounds can be used as potential natural crop protectors and growth promoters, and the elucidation of their modes/mechanisms of action can represent a big step towards cleaner agriculture free of agrochemicals. In the present paper, the mechanisms underlying the effects of exogenous resveratrol (R), a natural phytoalexin found in plants, on Lactuca sativa metabolism were investigated through physiological and metabolomic approaches. The results highlighted that R stimulates the growth of lettuce. A reduction of the O2⋅- production in R-treated seedlings and an increase in the photosynthesis efficiency was observed, indicated by a higher Fv/Fm. The metabolomic analysis of lettuce seedlings treated with R identified 116 metabolites related to galactose, amino acids, sugar and nucleotide sugar, and ascorbate and aldarate metabolisms. Increased content of some polyamines and several metabolites was also observed, which may have contributed to scavenging free radicals and activating antioxidant enzymes, thus reducing oxidative damage and improving PSII protection in R-treated seedlings.


Asunto(s)
Lechuga , Plantones , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Lechuga/metabolismo , Fotosíntesis , Resveratrol/farmacología , Plantones/metabolismo
11.
Environ Pollut ; 292(Pt A): 118354, 2022 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34648839

RESUMEN

Contamination of microcystins (MCs) in plant-soil system have become a serious problem worldwide, however, it remains largely unknown how to alleviate the potential risk of consuming MCs-contaminated plants. In the present study, attapulgite, biochar and peat were used as soil amendments to reduce MCs bioaccumulation in lettuce. Lettuce irrigated with 10 µg L-1 microcystin-LR (MC-LR) were growing in two different kinds of soils with or without soil amendments. Results showed that all soil amendments effectively reduced MC-LR bioaccumulation in lettuce roots and leaves. Compared with the control treatment, the MC-LR concentrations in leaves in treatments with attapulgite, biochar and peat decreased by 41.5%, 30.6%, 57.0% in soil A and 38.9%, 43.2%, 54.7% in soil B, respectively. Peat application was most effective in reducing MC-LR bioaccumulation. The decreased soil free MC-LR concentrations were positively correlated with MC-LR concentrations in lettuce, indicating decreased bioavailability of MC-LR by soil amendments. It is noteworthy that soil total MC-LR concentration in peat treatment significantly decreased by 33.3% and 29.4% in soil A and soil B, respectively, compared with the controls. According to the results from high-throughput sequencing, peat amendment increased the α-diversity of soil bacterial community and boosted the abundance of Sphingomonas and Methylobacillus (dozens of MC-degrading bacteria belong to these genera). This was in line with the results of soil total MC-LR concentration. It can be speculated that peat application directly and/or indirectly promoted microbial degradation of MC-LR in soils. This work proposed an effective way to alleviate the potential risks of MCs contamination in plant-soil system.


Asunto(s)
Lechuga , Microcistinas , Bioacumulación , Lechuga/metabolismo , Toxinas Marinas , Microcistinas/metabolismo , Suelo
12.
Molecules ; 26(23)2021 Dec 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34885984

RESUMEN

Three different LED spectra (W: White light; WFR: W + far-red light; WB: W + blue light) with similar photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD) were designed to explore the effects of supplementary far-red and blue lights on leaf color, biomass and phytochemicals of two cultivars of red-leaf lettuce ("Yanzhi" and "Red Butter") in an artificial lighting plant factory. Lettuce plants under WB had redder leaf color and significantly higher contents of pigments, such as chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, chlorophyll (a + b) and anthocyanins. The accumulation of health-promoting compounds, such as vitamin C, vitamin A, total phenolic compounds, total flavonoids and anthocyanins in the two lettuce cultivars were obviously enhanced by WB. Lettuce under WFR showed remarkable increase in fresh weight and dry weight; meanwhile, significant decreases of pigments, total phenolic compounds, total flavonoids and vitamin C were found. Thus, in the plant factory system, the application of WB can improve the coloration and quality of red leaf lettuce while WFR was encouraged for the purpose of elevating the yield of lettuce.


Asunto(s)
Biomasa , Lechuga/clasificación , Lechuga/metabolismo , Iluminación , Fitoquímicos/análisis , Pigmentos Biológicos/análisis , Antocianinas/análisis , Antocianinas/biosíntesis , Ácido Ascórbico/análisis , Ácido Ascórbico/biosíntesis , Clorofila/análisis , Clorofila A/análisis , Flavonoides/análisis , Flavonoides/biosíntesis , Lechuga/química , Fenoles/análisis , Fotosíntesis , Fitoquímicos/biosíntesis , Vitamina A/análisis , Vitamina A/biosíntesis
13.
PLoS One ; 16(11): e0258920, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34739485

RESUMEN

Weed infestation is a persistent problem for centuries and continues to be major yield reducing issue in modern agriculture. Chemical weed control through herbicides results in numerous ecological, environmental, and health-related issues. Moreover, numerous herbicides have evolved resistance against available herbicides. Plant extracts are regarded as an alternative to herbicides and a good weed management option. The use of plant extracts is environmentally safe and could solve the problem of herbicide resistance. Therefore, laboratory and wire house experiments were conducted to evaluate the phytotoxic potential of three Fabaceae species, i.e., Cassia occidentalis L. (Coffee senna), Sesbania sesban (L.) Merr. (Common sesban) and Melilotus alba Medik. (White sweetclover) against seed germination and seedling growth of some broadleaved weed species. Firstly, N-hexane and aqueous extracts of these species were assessed for their phytotoxic effect against lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.). The extracts found more potent were further tested against germination and seedling growth of four broadleaved weed species, i.e., Parthenium hysterophorus L. (Santa-Maria), Trianthema portulacastrum L. (Pigweed), Melilotus indica L (Indian sweetclover). and Rumex dentatus L. (Toothed dock) in Petri dish and pot experiments. Aqueous extracts of all species were more toxic than their N-hexane forms for seed germination and seedling growth of lettuce; therefore, aqueous extracts were assessed for their phytotoxic potential against four broadleaved weed species. Aqueous extracts of all species proved phytotoxic against T. portulacastrum, P. hysterophorus, M. indica and R. dentatus and retarder their germination by 57, 90, 100 and 58%, respectively. Nevertheless, foliar spray of C. occidentalis extract was the most effective against T. portulacastrum as it reduced its dry biomass by 72%, while M. alba was effective against P. hysterophorus, R. dentatus and M. indica and reduced their dry biomass by 55, 68 and 81%, respectively. It is concluded that aqueous extracts of M. alba, S. sesban and C. occidentalis could be used to retard seed germination of T. portulacastrum, P. hysterophorus, M. indica and R. dentatus. Similarly, aqueous extracts of C. occidentalis can be used to suppress dry biomass of T. portulacastrum, and those of M. alba against P. hysterophorus, R. dentatus. However, use of these extracts needs their thorough testing under field conditions.


Asunto(s)
Fabaceae/química , Extractos Vegetales/química , Plantones/metabolismo , Fabaceae/metabolismo , Germinación , Herbicidas/química , Herbicidas/metabolismo , Hexanos/química , Lechuga/química , Lechuga/metabolismo , Melilotus/química , Melilotus/metabolismo , Partenogénesis , Extractos Vegetales/metabolismo , Rumex/química , Rumex/metabolismo , Semillas , Agua/química
14.
Molecules ; 26(20)2021 Oct 18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34684872

RESUMEN

Recent studies in the agronomic field indicate that the exogenous application of polyphenols can provide tolerance against various stresses in plants. However, the molecular processes underlying stress mitigation remain unclear, and little is known about the impact of exogenously applied phenolics, especially in combination with salinity. In this work, the impacts of exogenously applied chlorogenic acid (CA), hesperidin (HES), and their combination (HES + CA) have been investigated in lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) through untargeted metabolomics to evaluate mitigation effects against salinity. Growth parameters, physiological measurements, leaf relative water content, and osmotic potential as well as gas exchange parameters were also measured. As expected, salinity produced a significant decline in the physiological and biochemical parameters of lettuce. However, the treatments with exogenous phenolics, particularly HES and HES + CA, allowed lettuce to cope with salt stress condition. Interestingly, the treatments triggered a broad metabolic reprogramming that involved secondary metabolism and small molecules such as electron carriers, enzyme cofactors, and vitamins. Under salinity conditions, CA and HES + CA distinctively elicited secondary metabolism, nitrogen-containing compounds, osmoprotectants, and polyamines.


Asunto(s)
Ácido Clorogénico/farmacología , Hesperidina/farmacología , Lechuga/efectos de los fármacos , Estrés Salino/efectos de los fármacos , Lechuga/metabolismo , Metaboloma/efectos de los fármacos , Fotosíntesis , Hojas de la Planta/efectos de los fármacos , Hojas de la Planta/metabolismo , Tolerancia a la Sal/efectos de los fármacos
15.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(15)2021 Jul 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360584

RESUMEN

Trichostatin A (TSA) is a representative histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor that modulates epigenetic gene expression by regulation of chromatin remodeling in cells. To investigate whether the regulation of chromatin de-condensation by TSA can affect the increase in the efficiency of Cas9 protein-gRNA ribonucleoprotein (RNP) indel formation from plant cells, genome editing efficiency using lettuce and tobacco protoplasts was examined after several concentrations of TSA treatments (0, 0.1, 1 and 10 µM). RNP delivery from protoplasts was conducted by conventional polyethylene glycol (PEG) transfection protocols. Interestingly, the indel frequency of the SOC1 gene from TSA treatments was about 3.3 to 3.8 times higher than DMSO treatment in lettuce protoplasts. The TSA-mediated increase of indel frequency of the SOC1 gene in lettuce protoplasts occurred in a concentration-dependent manner, although there was not much difference. Similar to lettuce, TSA also increased the indel frequency by 1.5 to 1.8 times in a concentration-dependent manner during PDS genome editing using tobacco protoplasts. The MNase test clearly showed that chromatin accessibility with TSA treatments was higher than that of DMSO treatment. Additionally, TSA treatment significantly increased the level of histone H3 and H4 acetylation from lettuce protoplasts. The qRT-PCR analysis showed that expression of cell division-related genes (LsCYCD1-1, LsCYCD3-2, LsCYCD6-1, and LsCYCU4-1) was increased by TSA treatment. These findings could contribute to increasing the efficiency of CRISPR/Cas9-mediated genome editing. Furthermore, this could be applied for the development of useful genome-edited crops using the CRISPR/Cas9 system with plant protoplasts.


Asunto(s)
Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Edición Génica/métodos , Ácidos Hidroxámicos/farmacología , Lechuga/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Protoplastos/metabolismo , Tabaco/metabolismo , División Celular , Genoma de Planta , Lechuga/efectos de los fármacos , Lechuga/genética , Lechuga/crecimiento & desarrollo , Células Vegetales , Proteínas de Plantas/antagonistas & inhibidores , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Inhibidores de la Síntesis de la Proteína/farmacología , Protoplastos/efectos de los fármacos , Tabaco/efectos de los fármacos , Tabaco/genética , Tabaco/crecimiento & desarrollo
16.
Plant Sci ; 310: 110977, 2021 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34315593

RESUMEN

Lettuce is commonly consumed around the world, spurring the cultivation of green- and red-leaf varieties in indoor farms. One common consideration for indoor cultivation is the light wavelengths/spectrum, which is an important factor for regulating growth, development, and the accumulation of metabolites. Here, we show that Batavia lettuce (Lactuca sativa cv. "Batavia") grown under a combination of red (R) and blue (B) light (RB, R:B = 3:1) displayed better growth and accumulated more anthocyanin than lettuce grown under fluorescent light (FL). Anthocyanin concentration was also higher in mature stage than early stage lettuce. By performing a comparative transcriptome analysis of early and mature stage lettuce grown under RB or FL (RB or FL-lettuce), we found that RB induced the expression of genes related to oxidation-reduction reaction and secondary metabolite biosynthesis. Furthermore, plant age affected the transcriptome response to RB, as mature RB-lettuce had six times more differentially expressed genes than early RB-lettuce. Also, genes related to the accumulation of secondary metabolites such as flavonoids and anthocyanins were more induced in mature RB-lettuce. A detailed analysis of the anthocyanin biosynthesis pathway revealed key genes that were up-regulated in mature RB-lettuce. Concurrently, branching pathways for flavonol and lignin precursors were down-regulated.


Asunto(s)
Antocianinas/metabolismo , Lechuga/metabolismo , Luz , Hojas de la Planta/metabolismo , Hojas de la Planta/efectos de la radiación , Regulación de la Expresión Génica de las Plantas/efectos de la radiación , Lechuga/efectos de la radiación , Fotosíntesis/efectos de la radiación , Transcriptoma/genética
17.
Photochem Photobiol Sci ; 20(6): 761-771, 2021 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34048001

RESUMEN

Photodynamic inactivation (PDI) is a fast and effective non-heat sterilization technology. This study established an efficient blue light-emitting diode (LED) PDI with the photosensitizer sodium magnesium chlorophyllin (SMC) to eradicate Staphylococcus aureus in food. The antibacterial mechanisms were determined by evaluating DNA integrity, protein changes, morphological alteration, and the potency of PDI to eradicate S. aureus on lettuce was evaluated. Results showed that planktonic S. aureus could not be clearly observed on the medium after treatment with 5.0 µmol/L SMC for 10 min (1.14 J/cm2). Bacterial cell DNA and protein were susceptible to SMC-mediated PDI, and cell membranes were found to be disrupted. Moreover, SMC-mediated PDI effectively reduced 8.31 log CFU/mL of S. aureus on lettuce under 6.84 J/cm2 radiant exposure (30 min) with 100 µmol/L SMC, and PDI displayed a potent ability to restrain the weight loss as well as retard the changes of color difference of the lettuce during 7 day storage. The study will enrich our understanding of the inactivation of S. aureus by PDI, allowing for the development of improved strategies to eliminate bacteria in the food industry.


Asunto(s)
Antibacterianos/farmacología , Lechuga/efectos de los fármacos , Fármacos Fotosensibilizantes/farmacología , Staphylococcus aureus/efectos de los fármacos , Antibacterianos/química , Clorofilidas/química , Clorofilidas/farmacología , Lechuga/metabolismo , Lechuga/microbiología , Magnesio/química , Magnesio/farmacología , Pruebas de Sensibilidad Microbiana , Fármacos Fotosensibilizantes/química , Sodio/química , Sodio/farmacología
18.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 9701, 2021 05 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33958645

RESUMEN

Cultivation practice using organic amendments is plausible to ensure global food security. However, plant abiotic stress due to the presence of metals and organic microcontaminants (OMCs) in fertilization products cannot be overlooked. In this study, we monitored lettuce metabolism and phenotypic response following the application of either sewage sludge (SS), the organic fraction of municipal solid waste, swine manure (SM), chemical fertilizers (CF), or no amendment (C) in a greenhouse facility. The experimental set-up consisted of five treatments with five replicates (25 experimental units randomly distributed). All fertilizers were supplied at the equivalent agronomic total nitrogen dose, but the occurrence of trace metals and/or OMCs was greater in the SS and SM than the rest. Non-target metabolomic analysis (high-resolution mass spectrometry coupled with partial least squares regression) identified more than 300 plant metabolites (amino acids, organic acids, sugar alcohols, and sugars), 55 of which showed significant changes in their relative abundances depending on the type of amendment. Functional analysis indicated that the use of CF or SS increased the levels of metabolites involved in carbohydrate and nitrogen metabolism. Therefore, although SS and SM fertilizers had a greater presence of heavy metals and/or OMCs, our results indicate that they did not induce measurable adverse effects in the lettuce phenotype or metabolism. Metabolic changes between fertilizers (CF and SS vs. C and SM) were mainly due to nitrogen availability.


Asunto(s)
Fertilizantes , Lechuga/química , Metabolómica , Contaminación de Alimentos/análisis , Lechuga/metabolismo , Metales Pesados/metabolismo
19.
J Sci Food Agric ; 101(14): 5888-5897, 2021 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33797092

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Urban agriculture contributes to meeting the growing food production demand in cities. In the context of low water availability, it is important to consider alternatives that are able to maintain production. Through a circular economy vision, this study aimed to assess the use of substrates made from local materials as an alternative for urban agriculture in periods of low water availability, due to water supply cuts. The substrates used were coir commercial organic substrate, vegetable compost from urban organic waste and perlite commercial standard substrate; a mixture of the urban compost and perlite (1:1) was used for three consecutive crop cycles of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. var. crispa). The crop cycles were performed in the spring and summer periods of 2018 to observe the performance during warmer periods of the year in an integrated rooftop greenhouse near Barcelona. Each substrate was assessed under conventional irrigation (0-5 kPa) and temporary water restricted conditions (irrigation stopped until the water tension reached -20 kPa perlite). RESULTS: In terms of yield, our results show that the compost and mixture were similar to those obtained from perlite (11.5% and 3.7% more production under restricted water conditions). Organic substrates increased the crop's resilience to water restriction, in contrast to the perlite. In particular, water loss took longer in coir (one- and two-crop cycle); however, when dryness began, it occurred quickly. CONCLUSION: The vegetable compost and the substrate mixture presented tolerance to temporary water restriction when water restriction reached -20 kPa. © 2021 Society of Chemical Industry.


Asunto(s)
Producción de Cultivos/métodos , Lechuga/crecimiento & desarrollo , Ciudades , Producción de Cultivos/instrumentación , Sequías , Lechuga/metabolismo , Región Mediterránea , Suelo/química , Agua/análisis , Agua/metabolismo
20.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 28(33): 45920-45932, 2021 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33881698

RESUMEN

Carbamazepine (CBZ) is a widely used anti-epileptic drug that has been detected in wastewaters from sewage treating plants and thus appears in rivers, streams and other water bodies. As plants can absorb this compound, it can also appear in edible plants like lettuce, entering the food chain. In this study, the effect of carbamazepine in lettuce plants grown in hydroponic solution is analyzed. CBZ was detected both in roots and in leaves and is shown to induce oxidative stress. Hydrogen peroxide levels increased both in leaves and in roots while malondialdehyde increased only in leaves. Regarding the activity of antioxidative enzymes in the leaves, it is shown that superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), guaiacol peroxidase (GPOD) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) have a relevant role in quenching reactive oxygen species induced by oxidative stress. In roots, the only enzymes that showed increased activity were CAT, GPOD and glutathione reductase (GR). Ascorbate and glutathione also appear to have an important role as antioxidants in response to increased concentrations of carbamazepine. Although the roots are in direct contact with the contaminant, the leaves showed the strongest oxidative effects.


Asunto(s)
Antioxidantes , Lechuga , Ascorbato Peroxidasas/metabolismo , Carbamazepina , Catalasa/metabolismo , Peróxido de Hidrógeno , Lechuga/metabolismo , Estrés Oxidativo , Hojas de la Planta/metabolismo , Superóxido Dismutasa/metabolismo
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