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1.
Br J Nurs ; 29(6): 358-363, 2020 Mar 26.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32207643

RESUMEN

Work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WRMSDs) continue to be a problem in the health and social care setting, despite staff receiving mandatory manual handling training for many decades. The author discusses WRMSDs, with a focus on various nursing roles. The principle of manual handling as solely 'person moving' or 'transferring' is challenged because a range of activities can cause musculoskeletal problems. The legislation and regulations are explored in relation to practice. The benefits of introducing a specific risk-assessment tool designed for nurses working in neonatal wards is discussed.


Asunto(s)
Movimiento y Levantamiento de Pacientes/efectos adversos , Enfermedades Musculoesqueléticas/etiología , Enfermeras y Enfermeros , Enfermedades Profesionales/etiología , Lugar de Trabajo/estadística & datos numéricos , Unidades Hospitalarias , Humanos , Legislación como Asunto , Enfermeras de Salud Comunitaria , Personal de Enfermería en Hospital , Medición de Riesgo , Reino Unido
3.
Lancet ; 395(10219): 177-178, 2020 01 18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31954450
4.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31281015

RESUMEN

Canada decriminalized abortion, uniquely in the world, 30 years ago. We present the timeline of relevant Canadian legal, political, and policy events before and since decriminalization. We assess implications for clinical care, health service and systems decisions, health policy, and the epidemiology of abortion in the absence of criminal legislation. As the criminal abortion law was struck down, dozens of similar private member's bills, and one government bill, have been proposed, but none were passed. Key findings include that initially Canadian provinces attempted to provide restrictive regulations and legislation, all of which have been revoked and largely replaced with supportive policies that improve equitable, accessible, state-provided abortion service. Abortion rates have been stable over 30 years since decriminalization, and a falling proportion of abortions occur late in the second trimester. Canada demonstrates that abortion care can safely and effectively be regulated as a normal component of usual medical care.


Asunto(s)
Aborto Criminal , Aborto Inducido , Aborto Legal , Política de Salud/legislación & jurisprudencia , Derechos de la Mujer/legislación & jurisprudencia , Canadá , Femenino , Humanos , Legislación como Asunto , Embarazo , Segundo Trimestre del Embarazo
5.
Gesundheitswesen ; 82(2): 157-162, 2020 Feb.
Artículo en Alemán | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31822025

RESUMEN

On July 1, 2017 the German sex workers protection act came into force. Numerous institutions and groups expressed their disagreement towards this action in preceding discussions. A major criticism was the underlying one-sided understanding of prostitution and on the dilution of protective spaces for sex workers resulting from control by the authorities. Nevertheless, the law was adopted. Legal basis As the act is to be implemented by municipalities, the federal states were obliged to implement the laws. In the federal state of Saxony, the adoption was delayed considerably, since initially it was unclear which department had the responsibility to implement the law. Furthermore, there was a long-lasting political need for clarification regarding the burden of additional finances on municipalities. Only on July 26, 2018 was the sex workers protection act implemented in the federal state of Saxony. Experiences In the city of Dresden, structural conditions were established, allowing a clear separation between the processes of health counselling by the Public Health Office and the registration of the sex workers by the Public Order Office. Also, the different services of the Public Health Office are kept physically separate due to competing federal laws. Simultaneously, a new specialist area was created including both counselling centres, which thus prevents different standards in the services provided for sex workers within the Public Health Office. Whether the sex workers protection act serves the intended purpose may be doubted. The city of Dresden has made an attempt to counteract the negative consequences of the law by implementing clear structures and internal standards.


Asunto(s)
Salud Pública , Trabajadores Sexuales , Ciudades , Alemania , Humanos , Legislación como Asunto , Trabajadores Sexuales/legislación & jurisprudencia
6.
J Leg Med ; 39(2): 121-136, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31503528

RESUMEN

Empowered to play a larger role in the delivery and administration of health care, a number of states are attempting to solve the pharmaceutical pricing crisis in creative and varied ways. This essay summarizes three particular states' more activist approaches, including states that have sought to empower their Medicaid programs to limit coverage of certain drugs based on price, attempted to use leverage to impose cost-efficiency requirements, and, in the most dramatic example, relied on new usage of "gouging" laws to bring down the costs of prescription drugs. Although all three approaches have met substantial resistance, they illustrate a new era of state experimentation in an effort to bring down the cost of prescription drugs.


Asunto(s)
Control de Costos , Costos de los Medicamentos/legislación & jurisprudencia , Honorarios Farmacéuticos/legislación & jurisprudencia , Medicamentos bajo Prescripción/economía , Gobierno Estatal , Costos y Análisis de Costo/legislación & jurisprudencia , Política de Salud/economía , Política de Salud/legislación & jurisprudencia , Legislación como Asunto , Maryland , Massachusetts , Medicaid/legislación & jurisprudencia , New York , Activismo Político , Estados Unidos
8.
Artículo en Alemán | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31523755

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The German federal parliament is discussing the implementation of a comprehensive tobacco advertising ban and whether that ban should include alternative nicotine delivery systems (ANDSs), such as e­cigarettes and tobacco heaters. It would be important to know which outcome the general population, and in particular the users of tobacco/ANDSs, would prefer. OBJECTIVE: Assessing public support for a comprehensive advertising ban on ANDSs in the German population, and particularly in tobacco and ANDSs users. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The German Study on Tobacco Use ("Deutsche Befragung zum Rauchverhalten", DEBRA) is an ongoing, representative household survey of persons aged 14 years and older. Data from the June/July 2019 survey wave (n = 2019) were analysed. Participants were interviewed regarding their tobacco smoking status and ANDS use, sociodemographic factors, and their support of an advertising ban on ANDSs. Prevalence rates and associations (odds ratio, OR) between support and sociodemographic factors or use of tobacco/ANDSs are reported. RESULTS: Of the population, 57.0% (95% confidence interval (95%CI) = 54.7-59.1%) support a ban on ANDS advertising; 11.1% (95%CI = 9.8-12.6%) reject it. There is support for the ban from 46.0% (95%CI = 42.2-49.9%) of current tobacco smokers and 42.7% (95%CI = 35.9-49.6%) of ANDS users. Ex-smokers show the highest rates of support (64.8%, 95%CI = 58.9-70.3%). Acceptance among never- and ex-smokers is higher than among current smokers (adjusted OR 2.06, 95%CI = 1.64-2.59 and OR 1.65, 95%CI = 1.23-2.21). CONCLUSIONS: The majority of the German population supports a comprehensive advertising ban on ANDSs. Tobacco smokers and ANDS users are also more in favour of than against such a ban. Thus, only little resistance will be expected within the population if a comprehensive tobacco advertising ban, as currently discussed in parliament, includes e­cigarettes and heated tobacco products.


Asunto(s)
Sistemas Electrónicos de Liberación de Nicotina , Legislación como Asunto , Opinión Pública , Fumar/efectos adversos , Tabaco/efectos adversos , Adolescente , Alemania , Humanos , Política para Fumadores , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Industria del Tabaco/legislación & jurisprudencia , Productos de Tabaco
9.
J Intellect Disabil ; 23(3): 432-445, 2019 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31496387

RESUMEN

This article discusses potential opportunities for best practice in the United Kingdom that may be brought about by the Care Act (2014). Carers in the United Kingdom were given new rights within this legislation with a focus on needs led assessment. The underpinning philosophy of the Care Act is to streamline the previous legislation and offers a framework for carers and people in receipt of care, to enable a more personalized approach to care and support. Offering a discussion of likely opportunities brought about by provisions of the Care Act, this article draws on a small study involving older parent/carers of sons or daughters with intellectual disabilities. Exploring the extent to which such parents of adults with intellectual disabilities were aware of the details of this legislation and the potential impact it may have on their lives highlighted other significant areas, some of which are discussed below. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with five parents over the age of 60 of sons or daughters with intellectual disabilities in North West England. The study adds to the body of knowledge and understanding about parents of adults with intellectual disabilities and explores and provides a deeper understanding of parents' experiences of the implementation of this specific piece of legislation and their perception of the relevance of it to themselves. Findings include some awareness of the legislation and some feelings of optimism about its likely implications, although participants appeared less clear about the specificities and the impact of these upon them and/or their sons or daughters. Findings from the semi-structured interviews also showed parent's articulation of the extent of reciprocal care manifest between them and their son or daughter with an intellectual disability, as well as an awareness of the fragility of their own emotional well-being.


Asunto(s)
Niños Adultos/legislación & jurisprudencia , Cuidadores , Discapacidad Intelectual/enfermería , Legislación como Asunto , Personas con Discapacidad Mental/legislación & jurisprudencia , Padres , Adulto , Anciano , Cuidadores/legislación & jurisprudencia , Cuidadores/psicología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Padres/psicología , Investigación Cualitativa , Reino Unido
10.
Recurso de Internet en Portugués | LIS - Localizador de Información en Salud, LIS-fiocruz-SI | ID: lis-LISBR1.1-46789

RESUMEN

Aprovação da PEC 187/2016 pela Comissão de Constituição e Justiça e de Cidadania da Câmara dos deputados.


Asunto(s)
Legislación como Asunto , Población Indígena
13.
Lima; Perú. Ministerio de Salud; 1 ed; 20190700. 78 p. ilus.
Monografía en Español | LILACS, LIPECS | ID: biblio-1023703

RESUMEN

El compendio contiene las principales normas que enmarcan las intervenciones del sector salud y establecen los mecanismos y procedimientos referidos a la coordinación entre el sector público y privado vinculados a la prevención y control de la tuberculosis, orientados a garantizar los derechos y deberes fundamentales de las personas afectadas por la tuberculosis.


Asunto(s)
Trastornos Respiratorios , Tuberculosis , Prevención de Enfermedades , Normas Técnicas , Legislación como Asunto
14.
Artículo en Portugués | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-51102

RESUMEN

[RESUMO]. Objetivo. Descrever e comparar os marcos regulatórios das políticas de acesso rápido/alternativo a medicamentos (acesso expandido e uso compassivo) em países da América do Sul. Métodos. Realizou-se um estudo exploratório e descritivo, com análise documental. Além de revisão da literatura científica sobre o tema, foram levantadas informações e normas oficiais caso estivessem disponíveis nas páginas eletrônicas das autoridades reguladoras de medicamentos. Foram coletadas informações sobre a forma como cada país define os conceitos de acesso expandido e uso compassivo, fase clínica em que o medicamento fica disponível para esses usos alternativos e obrigações de médicos e patrocinadores. Resultados. A partir dos critérios de inclusão, foram selecionados para o estudo Argentina, Brasil, Chile, Peru e Uruguai. O levantamento de informações mostrou que Argentina e Brasil apresentam um cenário regulatório mais estruturado. O Chile apresenta uma norma sobre acesso expandido e uso compassivo, porém sem definir explicitamente esses conceitos. No Peru e Uruguai, foi constatada a ausência de definições importantes quanto ao acesso expandido. Não foram identificadas quaisquer bases de dados com informações sobre acesso expandido e uso compassivo, corroborando a percepção de escassez de dados empíricos para avaliar os resultados dessas políticas. Conclusões. Todos os países analisados contam com um marco regulatório que permite o acesso rápido/ alternativo a medicamentos por pacientes em situação de risco. Porém, não existem bancos de dados e transparência de informações que permitam caracterizar quais medicamentos e pacientes se beneficiam desse acesso alternativo e avaliar os resultados dessas políticas na América do Sul.


[ABSTRACT]. Objective. To describe and compare the regulatory framework governing policies on rapid/alternative access to medicines (expanded access and compassionate use) in South American countries. Method. An exploratory descriptive study with analysis of documents was performed. In addition to a literature review, official rules issued by regulatory agencies were reviewed if available. Information was collected on how countries define the concepts of expanded access and compassionate use, clinical phase in which the medicine becomes available for these alternative uses, and role of physicians and sponsors. Results. Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Peru, and Uruguay were included in the study. The information obtained revealed that the regulatory scenario is more structured in Argentina and Brazil than in the other countries. In Chile, rules on expanded access and compassionate use are available, however without an explicit definition of these concepts. In Peru and Uruguay, important definitions are missing regarding expanded access. The search did not reveal any databases with information on expanded access and compassionate use programs, supporting the notion that empirical data to evaluate the results of these policies are lacking. Conclusions. All the countries analyzed have a regulatory framework that contemplates rapid/alternative access to medicines by patients at risk. However, databases and transparent information are lacking, preventing a snapshot of the medicines covered and patients benefiting from alternative access programs and assessments of these policies in South America.


[RESUMEN]. Objetivo. Describir y comparar los marcos regulatorios de las políticas de acceso rápido y alternativo a medicamentos (acceso ampliado y uso compasivo) en países de América del Sur. Métodos. Se realizó un estudio exploratorio y descriptivo, con análisis documental. Además de revisión de la bibliografía científica sobre el tema, se obtuvo información sobre las normas oficiales, si estaba disponible en las páginas electrónicas de las autoridades regulatorias de medicamentos. Se recolectó información sobre la forma en que cada país define los conceptos de acceso ampliado y uso compasivo, la fase clínica en que se ofrece el medicamento para uso alternativo y las obligaciones de los médicos y patrocinadores. Resultados. A partir de los criterios de inclusión, se seleccionaron para el estudio Argentina, Brasil, Chile, Perú y Uruguay. La información obtenida mostró que Argentina y Brasil presentan un escenario regulatorio más estructurado en comparación con los demás países del grupo citado. Chile presenta una norma sobre acceso ampliado y uso compasivo, pero sin definir explícitamente esos conceptos. En Perú y Uruguay, se constató la falta de definiciones importantes en cuanto al acceso ampliado. No se encontraron bases de datos con información sobre acceso ampliado y uso compasivo, lo cual corroboró la percepción sobre la escasez de datos empíricos para evaluar los resultados de esas políticas. Conclusiones. Todos los países analizados cuentan con un marco regulatorio que permite el acceso rápido y alternativo a medicamentos de los pacientes en situación de riesgo. Sin embargo, no existen bancos de datos ni información transparente que permitan determinar qué medicamentos y pacientes se benefician de ese acceso alternativo y evaluar los resultados de esas políticas en América del Sur.


Asunto(s)
Ensayos de Uso Compasivo , Registro de Productos , Ensayos de Uso Compasivo , Registro de Productos , Legislación como Asunto , América del Sur , Ensayos de Uso Compasivo , Registro de Productos , América del Sur , Legislación como Asunto , América del Sur , Legislación como Asunto
15.
J Int Bioethique Ethique Sci ; 30(1): 15-60, 2019 05 28.
Artículo en Español | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31210525

RESUMEN

The analysis of the jurisprudence of the Inter-American Court of Human Rights is proof of its importance as an instrument for the protection of the rights of women in a situation of vulnerability. Sentences to the various countries denounced have served to combat stereotypes, even though gender-based violence does not yet find effective methods.


Asunto(s)
Derechos Humanos/normas , Jurisprudencia , Legislación como Asunto , Derechos de la Mujer , Violencia Doméstica , Femenino , Humanos
16.
J Int Bioethique Ethique Sci ; 30(1): 61-81, 2019 05 28.
Artículo en Español | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31210526

RESUMEN

After Cuba, Uruguay is the first country that has adopted a legal regime which allows the abortion. The law is from November 2012 and has presented problems for its interpretation and implementation. Was a correct solution for Uruguay? Were not other alternatives more convenient to be tried before? The author exposes different measures to be taken, that can avoid the abortion from its roots, as well as the effect produced by permissive laws. He also presents the role to be accomplish by Criminal Law in relation with the subject, and if the Uruguayan law has created a new cause of justification, a new right, or a new cause of impunity The abortion can be considered a woman's right? or should we talk about a family right? In the law, it is practically denied the participation of the father of the child, consequently it is transformed as a new instrument for family/domestic violence.


Asunto(s)
Aborto Inducido , Aborto Legal , Legislación como Asunto , Derechos de la Mujer , Niño , Femenino , Humanos , Embarazo , Uruguay
17.
J Int Bioethique Ethique Sci ; 30(1): 83-94, 2019 05 28.
Artículo en Español | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31210527

RESUMEN

Chapter 3. Human Rights, Gender and Protection of Family and Private LifeThe analysis of the case law gives us the vision of an enlightened reality that is complex and full of nuances. In fact, the European Court of Human Rights has not hesitated to transform in the long term the social, legal and medical vision of transsexualism. However, although the Court remains sensitive to social developments, its approach to the relationship between gender and reproduction remains to a large extent dependent on the margin of appreciation it leaves to States.


Asunto(s)
Identidad de Género , Derechos Humanos , Legislación como Asunto , Derechos Sexuales y Reproductivos , Europa (Continente) , Humanos , Transexualismo
18.
J Int Bioethique Ethique Sci ; 30(1): 95-115, 2019 05 28.
Artículo en Español | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31210528

RESUMEN

The issue of equality in diversity and the recognition of the rights of homosexuals has been in recent years an intense and interesting point of debates, interrogations and mutations of the legal world. The case of Argentina is a typical example. On July 15, 2010, Argentina became the first country in Latin America to change its national legislation by the adoption of Law 26 618 to allow themarriage between people of the same sex.


Asunto(s)
Homosexualidad Femenina , Homosexualidad Masculina , Derechos Humanos , Legislación como Asunto , Matrimonio , Argentina , Femenino , Humanos , América Latina , Masculino
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