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1.
Health Rep ; 32(4): 3-14, 2021 04 21.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33881274

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The Canadian government legalized non-medical cannabis use by adults in October 2018 to minimize associated harms and redirect profits from criminals. In October 2019, a wider array of products, including edibles, was legalized, with entry into the legal market beginning in December. DATA AND METHODS: Three quarters (the first quarters of 2018 and 2019 and the fourth quarter of 2020) of the National Cannabis Survey were used to examine changes in cannabis use (overall use and daily or almost daily (DAD) use), consumption methods, products and sources. RESULTS: Cannabis use in the past three months was higher in late 2020 (20.0%) than in 2019 (17.5%) and 2018 (14.0%), and this was particularly the case among: females (for whom rates rose to equal male rates for the first time), adults aged 25 and older, and some provinces. Similarly, DAD use, at 7.9% also increased. Higher percentages of Canadians reported getting at least some of their cannabis from legal sources or growing it, and fewer were relying on friends and family or illegal sources in 2020. DISCUSSION: This study spans three years-from before legalization to about two years after. It provides a more complete picture of the law's impact on cannabis use and related behaviours, given the more established legal cannabis industry better equipped to compete with the black market on price, convenience and selection. Findings demonstrate that change is continuing, and, as before, some cautions and assurances remain. The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on cannabis use continues to be difficult to measure. Monitoring remains important, given the ever-changing provincial retail landscapes; the introduction of new products; and the pressure by the industry to remove or adjust potency limits, and allow widespread delivery, farm-gate sales and cannabis lounges.


Asunto(s)
Cannabis , Legislación de Medicamentos , Fumar Marihuana , Adulto , Canadá , Femenino , Humanos , Legislación de Medicamentos/estadística & datos numéricos , Legislación de Medicamentos/tendencias , Masculino , Fumar Marihuana/economía , Fumar Marihuana/legislación & jurisprudencia , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
4.
Am J Gastroenterol ; 116(3): 609-612, 2021 03 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33657044

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Chronic cannabis use had been associated with hyperemesis. We sought to determine whether cannabis liberalization contributed to increased hospitalizations for hyperemesis. METHODS: Cannabis use and admissions for hyperemesis in legalized states were compared with those of nonlegalized states, before and after cannabis legalization, using state inpatient databases. RESULTS: From 2011 to 2015, cannabis use increased 2.2 times in legalized states and 1.8 times in nonlegalized states. The odds of presentation with hyperemesis were higher in 2015 compared with those of 2011 in all states. DISCUSSION: Recreational legalization may be contributing to rising cannabis use. Hospitalizations for hyperemesis have also increased but did not seem to be solely due to cannabis legalization.


Asunto(s)
Hospitalización/estadística & datos numéricos , Legislación de Medicamentos , Uso de la Marihuana/legislación & jurisprudencia , Vómitos/terapia , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Femenino , Humanos , Uso de la Marihuana/epidemiología , Persona de Mediana Edad , Prevalencia , Adulto Joven
5.
Curr Psychiatry Rep ; 23(4): 17, 2021 03 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33660096

RESUMEN

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To assess how the changing landscape of marijuana use affects the developing brain and mental health of college students. RECENT FINDINGS: Legalization of cannabis may facilitate use in the college population, with 38% of college students, whose brains are still maturing, regularly using marijuana products. Earlier and increased use, higher potency, pre-existing issues, and genetic predispositions increase negative outcomes by precipitating or worsening mental illness and ultimately impacting academic success. In the USA, the sharpest increase in cannabis users following legalization has been in the college age population (18-25 years of age). This population is especially vulnerable to the negative impacts and risks associated with cannabis use, including risk for the onset of major psychiatric illness. College mental health practitioners should remain informed about health effects of cannabis use, assess patient use on a regular basis, provide education and be familiar with interventions to reduce harm.


Asunto(s)
Cannabis , Fumar Marihuana , Adolescente , Adulto , Humanos , Legislación de Medicamentos , Salud Mental , Universidades , Adulto Joven
6.
Milbank Q ; 99(1): 240-272, 2021 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33751664

RESUMEN

Policy Points  Spending on prescription drugs is much higher per capita in the United States than in most other industrialized nations, including France.  Lower prescription drug spending in France is due to different approaches to managing drug prices, volume of prescribing, and global health budgets.  Linking a drug's price to value both at the launch of the drug and over its lifetime is key to controlling spending. Regulations on prescription volume and global spending complement the interventions on prices.  If the United States adopted the French approach to regulating drug pricing, Medicare could potentially save billions of dollars annually on prescription drug spending. CONTEXT: Prescription drug spending per capita in the United States is higher than in most other industrialized countries. Policymakers seeking to lower drug spending often suggest benchmarking prices against other countries, including France, which spends half as much as the United States per capita on prescription drugs. Because differences in drug prices may result from how markets are organized in each nation, we sought to directly compare drug prices and pricing regulations between the United States and France. METHODS: For the six brand-name drugs with the highest gross expenditures in Medicare Part D in 2017, we compared the price dynamics in France and the United States between 2010 and 2018 and analyzed associations between price changes in each country and key regulatory events. We also comprehensively reviewed US and French laws and regulations related to drug pricing. FINDINGS: Prices for the six drugs studied were higher in the United States than in France. In 2018, if Medicare had paid French prices for the brand-name drugs in our cohort, the agency would have saved $5.1 billion. We identified 12 factors that explain why the United States spends more than France on drugs, including variations in unit prices and the volume of prescriptions, driven by use of health technology assessment and value-based pricing in France. CONCLUSIONS: Key drivers of lower drug spending in France compared to the United States are that the French government regulates drug prices when products are launched and prohibits substantial price increases after launch. The regulation of prescription drugs in France is governed by rules that can inform discussions of US prescription drug policy and potential Medicare price negotiations.


Asunto(s)
Ahorro de Costo , Regulación Gubernamental , Medicare Part D/economía , Medicamentos bajo Prescripción/economía , Costos y Análisis de Costo , Costos de los Medicamentos/legislación & jurisprudencia , Francia , Cobertura del Seguro , Legislación de Medicamentos , Estados Unidos
8.
J Stud Alcohol Drugs ; 82(1): 103-111, 2021 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33573728

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: The legalization of recreational marijuana use and retail sales raises concerns about possible effects on marijuana use among adolescents. We evaluated the effects of recreational marijuana legalization (RML) in California in November 2016 on use among adolescents and investigated subgroup differences in these effects. METHOD: We analyzed data from successive cross-sectional samples of 7th, 9th, and 11th grade students (N = 3,330,912) who participated in the California Healthy Kids Survey from 2010-2011 to 2018-2019. Participants reported grade, sex, ethnicity, race, and lifetime and past-30-day marijuana use. RESULTS: Multilevel analyses showed that RML was associated with increases in the likelihood of lifetime (odds ratio = 1.18, 95% CI [1.15, 1.21], p < .01) and past-30-day marijuana use (odds ratio = 1.23, 95% CI [1.20, 1.26], p < .01) relative to previous downward trends. RML was more strongly associated with increases in prevalence of marijuana use among 7th versus 9th and 11th graders, females versus males, non-Hispanic versus Hispanic youth, and White versus African American, American Indian/Native Alaskan, and multiracial youth. Overall, RML was not significantly associated with frequency of past-30-day use among users, although stronger positive associations between RML and frequency of use were found for 11th graders, Asian Americans, and African Americans. The association was weaker for females. CONCLUSIONS: RML in California was associated with an increase in adolescent marijuana use in 2017-2018 and 2018-2019. Demographic subgroup differences in these associations were observed. Evidence-based prevention programs and greater local control on retail marijuana sales may help to reduce marijuana availability and use among adolescents.


Asunto(s)
Comercio/estadística & datos numéricos , Legislación de Medicamentos , Uso de la Marihuana/epidemiología , Adolescente , California , Estudios Transversales , Grupos Étnicos , Femenino , Encuestas Epidemiológicas , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalencia , Estudiantes/estadística & datos numéricos
13.
Sr Care Pharm ; 36(2): 124, 2021 Feb 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33509336
15.
Lakartidningen ; 1182021 01 15.
Artículo en Sueco | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33449354

RESUMEN

While no European country has legalized recreational use of cannabis, several countries, but not Sweden, have decriminalized it. Although we hitherto have a relatively low prevalence of users compared to other countries, Swedish policy is criticized. Strong voices advocate legalization. It is hypothesized that a legalization would minimize adolescent access, ensure quality control, make consumption safer and raise tax revenue. Furthermore, it is assumed to diminish the illicit drug market and drug related crimes. However, the legalization in the US and Canada has instead made cannabis more available to users by innovative marketing and product development, while the illegal market persists. Meanwhile the price of cannabis decreases and potency, which are related to many of the risks, increases. Cannabis-related harms include e.g. cognitive impairment, psychosis and psychosocial problems. The long-term effects from legalization is yet to be seen.


Asunto(s)
Cannabis , Uso de la Marihuana , Adolescente , Canadá , Cannabis/efectos adversos , Europa (Continente) , Humanos , Legislación de Medicamentos , Suecia/epidemiología
18.
Drugs Today (Barc) ; 56(12): 795-802, 2020 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33332486

RESUMEN

This year's annual conference of the Food and Drug Law Institute (FDLI) drew more than 700 attendees, including over 200 from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), and featured 93 speakers. Despite being held virtually for the first time, the event offered a full agenda comprising breakout sessions, award presentations, and opportunities for networking that included postsession roundtable discussions and a sponsor virtual exhibit hall. Not surprisingly, the reality of the COVID-19 public health emergency was a recurrent and emphasized theme throughout the 3 days of the conference. This report summarizes several of the 29 breakout sessions from the event.


Asunto(s)
Legislación de Medicamentos , Preparaciones Farmacéuticas , Humanos , Estados Unidos , United States Food and Drug Administration
19.
N Z Med J ; 133(1524): 111-118, 2020 10 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33119574

RESUMEN

This article discusses the three types of nurse prescriber currently registered in New Zealand (nurse practitioners, registered nurse prescribers (RNP) in primary health and specialty teams and registered nurse prescribers (RNPCH) in community health). It also provides an overview of the evolution of each group, as well as a summary of the current legislation, prescribing restrictions and models of supervision required for each type of prescriber.


Asunto(s)
Prescripciones de Medicamentos , Regulación Gubernamental , Legislación de Medicamentos , Enfermeras Practicantes , Enfermeras y Enfermeros , Pautas de la Práctica en Enfermería , Historia del Siglo XX , Historia del Siglo XXI , Humanos , Legislación de Medicamentos/historia , Nueva Zelanda , Enfermeras Practicantes/legislación & jurisprudencia , Enfermeras y Enfermeros/legislación & jurisprudencia
20.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 45(16): 4004-4008, 2020 Aug.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32893601

RESUMEN

In this paper, we reviewed the history of the registration and classification changes of traditional Chinese medicines(TCM) since the establishment of China's drug regulatory agency, and put forward relevant suggestions. Although China's drug regulatory agency has gone through 22 years, the whole regulatory system was gradually built on the basis of the generic pharmaceutical industry at that time and through continuous exploration and summary of simply experience from foreign regulatory agencies. To a certain extent, the supervision of TCM drugs was also affected by some immature supervision ideas during this period. Based on the newly issued Drug Administration Law and Provisions for Drug Registration, the author puts forward some personal thoughts on the classifications of TCM drug registration. It is hoped that experts in the industry and regulatory agencies will work together to explore and improve the relevant system of TCM registration administration.


Asunto(s)
Medicamentos Herbarios Chinos , Preparaciones Farmacéuticas , China , Legislación de Medicamentos , Medicina China Tradicional
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