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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(10)2024 May 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38791233

RESUMEN

Lions (Panthera leo) play a crucial ecological role in shaping and maintaining fragile ecosystems within Africa. Conservation efforts should focus on genetic variability within wild populations when considering reintroduction attempts. We studied two groups of lions from two conservation sites located in Zambia and Zimbabwe to determine their genetic make-up, information that is usually unknown to the sites. In this study, we analysed 17 specimens for cytb and seven microsatellite markers to ascertain family relationships and genetic diversity previously obtained by observational studies. We then produced a standardised haplogroup phylogeny using all available entire mitogenomes, as well as calculating a revised molecular clock. The modern lion lineage diverged ~151 kya and was divided into two subspecies, both containing three distinct haplogroups. We confirm that Panthera leo persica is not a subspecies, but rather a haplogroup of the northern P.l. leo that exited Africa at least ~31 kya. The progenitor to all lions existed ~1.2 Mya, possibly in SE Africa, and later exited Africa and split into the two cave lion lineages ~175 kya. Species demography is correlated to major climactic events. We now have a detailed phylogeny of lion evolution and an idea of their conservation status given the threat of climate change.


Asunto(s)
Genoma Mitocondrial , Leones , Filogenia , Animales , Leones/genética , Leones/clasificación , Genoma Mitocondrial/genética , Cuevas , Variación Genética , Haplotipos , Repeticiones de Microsatélite/genética , Pradera , Zimbabwe , Evolución Molecular , Zambia , Citocromos b/genética , ADN Mitocondrial/genética
2.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 8088, 2024 04 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38582794

RESUMEN

The Amur tiger is currently confronted with challenges of anthropogenic development, leading to its population becoming fragmented into two geographically isolated groups: smaller and larger ones. Small and isolated populations frequently face a greater extinction risk, yet the small tiger population's genetic status and survival potential have not been assessed. Here, a total of 210 samples of suspected Amur tiger feces were collected from this small population, and the genetic background and population survival potentials were assessed by using 14 microsatellite loci. Our results demonstrated that the mean number of alleles in all loci was 3.7 and expected heterozygosity was 0.6, indicating a comparatively lower level of population genetic diversity compared to previously reported studies on other subspecies. The genetic estimates of effective population size (Ne) and the Ne/N ratio were merely 7.6 and 0.152, respectively, representing lower values in comparison to the Amur tiger population in Sikhote-Alin (the larger group). However, multiple methods have indicated the possibility of genetic divergence within our isolated population under study. Meanwhile, the maximum kinship recorded was 0.441, and the mean inbreeding coefficient stood at 0.0868, both of which are higher than those observed in other endangered species, such as the African lion and the grey wolf. Additionally, we have identified a significant risk of future extinction if the lethal equivalents were to reach 6.26, which is higher than that of other large carnivores. Further, our simulation results indicated that an increase in the number of breeding females would enhance the prospects of this population. In summary, our findings provide a critical theoretical basis for further bailout strategies concerning Amur tigers.


Asunto(s)
Leones , Tigres , Animales , Femenino , Tigres/genética , Especies en Peligro de Extinción , Heterocigoto , Densidad de Población , Repeticiones de Microsatélite/genética , Leones/genética , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Variación Genética
3.
J Zoo Wildl Med ; 55(1): 143-154, 2024 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38453497

RESUMEN

Based upon previous clinical experience with domestic cats (Felis catus), the ability to assess ABC blood types and blood (in-)compatibilities of nondomestic felids, and adequately consider and plan for blood transfusions, may be important. Although nondomestic felids appear to have an ABC blood group system similar to domestic cats, typing with point-of-care kits and by CMAH genotyping for domestic cats have not been reported. In this study, 162 blood samples from 18 different nondomestic felid species (cheetah [Acinonyx jubatus, n = 42], lion [Panthera leo, n = 33], tiger [Panthera tigris, n = 23], Canada lynx [Lynx canadensis, n = 11], snow leopard [Uncia uncia, n = 10], puma [Puma concolor, n = 7], clouded leopard [Neofelis nebulosa, n = 6], serval [Leptailurus serval, n = 5], jaguar [Panthera onca, n = 5], fishing cat [Prionailurus viverrinus, n = 4], Pallas cat [Felis manul, n = 3], bobcat [Lynx rufus, n = 3], ocelot [Leopardus pardalis, n = 3], black footed cat [Felis nigripes, n = 2], leopard [Panthera pardus, n = 2], African wildcat [Felis lybica, n = 1], caracal [Caracal caracal, n = 1], and sand cat [Felis margarita, n = 1]) were ABC blood typed by laboratory and point-of-care tests, genotyped for four known CMAH variants for type B and type C (AB) phenotypes, and crossmatched with one another and domestic type A cats. Traditional tube typing identified blood type A (n = 106), type B (n = 8), type C (n = 43), and no discernible ABC type (n = 4). Several discrepancies were found between point-of-care and traditional typing test results. None of the tested felids possessed the four CMAH variants responsible for type B and C (AB) in domestic cats. Crossmatch incompatibilities (≥2+ agglutination) were identified within and between nondomestic felid species and beyond ABC incompatibilities. Of 26 crossmatches performed between domestic cats and various nondomestic felids, only 7 (27%) were compatible. In conclusion, point-of-care typing kits and CMAH genotyping, successfully used in domestic cats, may not identify the correct ABC blood type in nondomestic felids. Prior crossmatching is recommended to increase the likelihood of compatible transfusions between any nondomestic felids.


Asunto(s)
Acinonyx , Felidae , Felis , Leones , Lynx , Panthera , Tigres , Gatos , Animales , Genotipo , Panthera/genética
4.
J Zoo Wildl Med ; 55(1): 277-284, 2024 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38453512

RESUMEN

Two female (FL 1, FL 2) and one male (ML) 11-wk-old, intact, captive African lion cubs (Panthera leo leo) were presented with a history of mild vestibular signs. Initial serum vitamin A concentrations were low (140 nmol/L) for ML. Calvarial hyperostosis was confirmed using computed tomography (CT) of the head and cervical vertebrae in each cub. CT measurements were adapted in relation to the skull width. ML showed the most pronounced thickening of the tentorium cerebelli and occipital bone, represented by a tentorium cerebelli to skull width ratio (TCR) of 0.08 (FL 1: 0.06, FL 2: 0.05) and a basisphenoid to skull width ratio (BBR) of 0.07 (FL 1: 0.06, FL 2: 0.04). Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed cerebellar herniation and cervical intramedullary T2-weighted hyperintensity from C1, extending caudally for at least two cervical vertebrae in all cubs. Treatment was initiated with subcutaneous vitamin A supplementation and feeding of whole carcasses. Improvement in ataxia was noticed 3 wk later. Follow-up CT and MRI examinations were performed in ML after 3 and 8 mon. The affected bones appeared slightly less thickened and TCR and BBR had decreased to 0.05 after 3 mon. The cerebellum remained mildly herniated, accompanied by amelioration of cervical T2w hyperintensities. After 8 mon, evaluation and diagnostic imaging revealed further improvement regarding the neurologic status and measurements (TCR 0.05, BBR 0.04) despite persistence of a subtle cerebellar herniation. In conclusion, bone remodeling and improvement in clinical signs may be achievable in young lion cubs presented with calvarial hyperostosis and may be attributable to high-dose vitamin A supplementation.


Asunto(s)
Anomalías Craneofaciales , Hiperostosis , Leones , Deficiencia de Vitamina A , Masculino , Femenino , Animales , Vitamina A/uso terapéutico , Deficiencia de Vitamina A/veterinaria , Encefalocele/complicaciones , Encefalocele/tratamiento farmacológico , Encefalocele/veterinaria , Suplementos Dietéticos , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfocitos T
5.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38452851

RESUMEN

Ecometabolomics could be implemented as a powerful tool in molecular ecology studies, but it is necessary to know the baseline of certain metabolites and understand how different traits could affect the metabolome of the animals. Therefore, the main objective of this study was to provide values for the nutritional metabolome profile of different diet groups and animal species, as well as to study the differences in the metabolomic profile due to the effect of diet type and species. To achieve this goal, blood samples were taken from healthy animals (n = 43) of different species: lion (Panthera leo), jaguar (Panthera onca), chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes), bison (Bison bison), gazelle (Gazella cuvieri) and fallow deer (Dama dama), and with different types of diet (carnivore, herbivore and omnivore). Each blood sample was analysed to determine nutritional metabolites. The main results this study provides are the nutritional metabolic profile of these animals based on the type of diet and the animal species. A significant effect of the dietary type was found on nutritional metabolite levels, with those metabolites related to protein metabolism (total protein and creatine) being higher in carnivores. There is also an effect of the species on nutritional metabolites, observing a metabolome differentiation between lion and jaguar. In the case of herbivores, bison showed higher levels of uric acid and cholesterol, and lower urea levels than gazelle and fallow deer. More molecular ecology studies are needed to further the knowledge of the metabolism of these animals.


Asunto(s)
Antílopes , Bison , Ciervos , Leones , Panthera , Animales , Herbivoria , Dieta/veterinaria , Metaboloma
6.
J Vet Diagn Invest ; 36(3): 468-472, 2024 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38465898

RESUMEN

Neoplasia is one of the main causes of euthanasia in geriatric captive nondomestic felids. However, few studies have examined oral tumors in these animals. We describe here the clinicopathologic features of gingival squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) in 2 lions (Panthera leo) from separate zoologic collections. In both cases, the lions had a history of sialorrhea, bloody oral discharge, and anorexia. Autopsy findings in both lions were similar and were characterized by poorly circumscribed, friable, and bloody gingival masses with grossly apparent invasion of the mandibular bone; a pathologic fracture was observed in 1 case. Histologically, the masses consisted of poorly circumscribed, unencapsulated, densely cellular proliferations of neoplastic epithelial cells arranged in irregular islands, cords, and anastomosing trabeculae with formation of keratin pearls, which, coupled with positive immunohistochemistry for pancytokeratin, were diagnostic for SCC. Although no metastases were found in either animal, both lions were ultimately euthanized because of poor prognosis.


Asunto(s)
Carcinoma de Células Escamosas , Neoplasias Gingivales , Leones , Animales , Animales de Zoológico , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/veterinaria , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/patología , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/diagnóstico , Resultado Fatal , Neoplasias Gingivales/veterinaria , Neoplasias Gingivales/patología , Neoplasias Gingivales/diagnóstico
7.
Genome Biol Evol ; 16(2)2024 02 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38302110

RESUMEN

Lions are widely known as charismatic predators that once roamed across the globe, but their populations have been greatly affected by environmental factors and human activities over the last 150 yr. Of particular interest is the Addis Ababa lion population, which has been maintained in captivity at around 20 individuals for over 75 yr, while many wild African lion populations have become extinct. In order to understand the molecular features of this unique population, we conducted a whole-genome sequencing study on 15 Addis Ababa lions and detected 4.5 million distinct genomic variants compared with the reference African lion genome. Using functional annotation, we identified several genes with mutations that potentially impact various traits such as mane color, body size, reproduction, gastrointestinal functions, cardiovascular processes, and sensory perception. These findings offer valuable insights into the genetics of this threatened lion population.


Asunto(s)
Leones , Animales , Humanos , Leones/genética , Etiopía , Genoma
8.
Vet Pathol ; 61(4): 609-620, 2024 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38323378

RESUMEN

Between September and November 2021, 5 snow leopards (Panthera uncia) and 1 lion (Panthera leo) were naturally infected with severe acute respiratory coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and developed progressive respiratory disease that resulted in death. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 sequencing identified the delta variant in all cases sequenced, which was the predominant human variant at that time. The time between initial clinical signs and death ranged from 3 to 45 days. Gross lesions in all 6 cats included nasal turbinate hyperemia with purulent discharge and marked pulmonary edema. Ulcerative tracheitis and bronchitis were noted in 4 cases. Histologically, there was necrotizing and ulcerative rhinotracheitis and bronchitis with fibrinocellular exudates and fibrinosuppurative to pyogranulomatous bronchopneumonia. The 4 cats that survived longer than 8 days had fungal abscesses. Concurrent bacteria were noted in 4 cases, including those with more acute disease courses. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 was detected by in situ hybridization using probes against SARS-CoV-2 spike and nucleocapsid genes and by immunohistochemistry. Viral nucleic acid and protein were variably localized to mucosal and glandular epithelial cells, pneumocytes, macrophages, and fibrinocellular debris. Based on established criteria, SARS-CoV-2 was considered a contributing cause of death in all 6 cats. While mild clinical infections are more common, these findings suggest that some SARS-CoV-2 variants may cause more severe disease and that snow leopards may be more severely affected than other felids.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Animales , COVID-19/veterinaria , COVID-19/virología , COVID-19/patología , COVID-19/mortalidad , Femenino , Masculino , Leones/virología , Panthera/virología , Pulmón/patología , Pulmón/virología , Gatos , Felidae/virología , Enfermedades de los Gatos/virología , Enfermedades de los Gatos/patología
9.
Vet Pathol ; 61(4): 574-581, 2024 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38345009

RESUMEN

Apolipoprotein C-III (ApoC-III) amyloidosis in humans is a hereditary amyloidosis caused by a D25V mutation in the APOC3 gene. This condition has only been reported in a French family and not in animals. We analyzed a 19-year-old white lion (Panthera leo) that died in a Japanese safari park and found renal amyloidosis characterized by severe deposition confined to the renal corticomedullary border zone. Mass spectrometry-based proteomic analysis identified ApoC-III as a major component of renal amyloid deposits. Amyloid deposits were also positive for ApoC-III by immunohistochemistry. Based on these results, this case was diagnosed as ApoC-III amyloidosis for the first time in nonhuman animals. Five additional white lions were also tested for amyloid deposition retrospectively. ApoC-III amyloid deposition was detected in 3 white lions aged 19 to 21 years but not in 2 cases aged 0.5 and 10 years. Genetic analysis of white and regular-colored lions revealed that the APOC3 sequences of the lions were identical, regardless of amyloid deposition. These results suggest that ApoC-III amyloidosis in lions, unlike in humans, may not be a hereditary condition but an age-related condition. Interestingly, lion ApoC-III has a Val30 substitution compared with other species of Panthera that have Met30. Structural predictions suggest that the conformation of ApoC-III with Met30 and ApoC-III with Val30 are almost identical, but this substitution may alter the ability to bind to lipids. As with the D25V mutation in human ApoC-III, the Val30 substitution in lions may increase the proportion of free ApoC-III, leading to amyloid formation.


Asunto(s)
Amiloidosis , Apolipoproteína C-III , Leones , Animales , Amiloidosis/veterinaria , Amiloidosis/patología , Amiloidosis/metabolismo , Apolipoproteína C-III/genética , Apolipoproteína C-III/metabolismo , Masculino , Femenino , Riñón/patología , Secuencia de Aminoácidos , Amiloide/metabolismo , Enfermedades Renales/veterinaria , Enfermedades Renales/patología , Inmunohistoquímica/veterinaria
10.
J Anim Ecol ; 93(4): 417-427, 2024 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38311822

RESUMEN

Many African large carnivore populations are declining due to decline of the herbivore populations on which they depend. The densities of apex carnivores like the lion and spotted hyena correlate strongly with prey density, but competitively subordinate carnivores like the African wild dog benefit from competitive release when the density of apex carnivores is low, so the expected effect of a simultaneous decrease in resources and dominant competitors is not obvious. Wild dogs in Zambia's South Luangwa Valley Ecosystem occupy four ecologically similar areas with well-described differences in the densities of prey and dominant competitors due to spatial variation in illegal offtake. We used long-term monitoring data to fit a Bayesian integrated population model (IPM) of the demography and dynamics of wild dogs in these four regions. The IPM used Leslie projection to link a Cormack-Jolly-Seber model of area-specific survival (allowing for individual heterogeneity in detection), a zero-inflated Poisson model of area-specific fecundity and a state-space model of population size that used estimates from a closed mark-capture model as the counts from which (latent) population size was estimated. The IPM showed that both survival and reproduction were lowest in the region with the lowest density of preferred prey (puku, Kobus vardonii and impala, Aepyceros melampus), despite little use of this area by lions. Survival and reproduction were highest in the region with the highest prey density and intermediate in the two regions with intermediate prey density. The population growth rate ( λ ) was positive for the population as a whole, strongly positive in the region with the highest prey density and strongly negative in the region with the lowest prey density. It has long been thought that the benefits of competitive release protect African wild dogs from the costs of low prey density. Our results show that the costs of prey depletion overwhelm the benefits of competitive release and cause local population decline where anthropogenic prey depletion is strong. Because competition is important in many guilds and humans are affecting resources of many types, it is likely that similarly fundamental shifts in population limitation are arising in many systems.


Asunto(s)
Canidae , Carnívoros , Leones , Animales , Teorema de Bayes , Ecosistema , Densidad de Población , Dinámica Poblacional
11.
Nat Ecol Evol ; 8(3): 363, 2024 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38332028
12.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 121(2): e2310763120, 2024 Jan 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38165928

RESUMEN

Habitat degradation and loss of genetic diversity are common threats faced by almost all of today's wild cats. Big cats, such as tigers and lions, are of great concern and have received considerable conservation attention through policies and international actions. However, knowledge of and conservation actions for small wild cats are lagging considerably behind. The black-footed cat, Felis nigripes, one of the smallest felid species, is experiencing increasing threats with a rapid reduction in population size. However, there is a lack of genetic information to assist in developing effective conservation actions. A de novo assembly of a high-quality chromosome-level reference genome of the black-footed cat was made, and comparative genomics and population genomics analyses were carried out. These analyses revealed that the most significant genetic changes in the evolution of the black-footed cat are the rapid evolution of sensory and metabolic-related genes, reflecting genetic adaptations to its characteristic nocturnal hunting and a high metabolic rate. Genomes of the black-footed cat exhibit a high level of inbreeding, especially for signals of recent inbreeding events, which suggest that they may have experienced severe genetic isolation caused by habitat fragmentation. More importantly, inbreeding associated with two deleterious mutated genes may exacerbate the risk of amyloidosis, the dominant disease that causes mortality of about 70% of captive individuals. Our research provides comprehensive documentation of the evolutionary history of the black-footed cat and suggests that there is an urgent need to investigate genomic variations of small felids worldwide to support effective conservation actions.


Asunto(s)
Felidae , Felis , Leones , Humanos , Animales , Felidae/genética , Genoma , Genómica
13.
J Anim Ecol ; 93(2): 159-170, 2024 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38174381

RESUMEN

Animal social and spatial behaviours are inextricably linked. Animal movements are driven by environmental factors and social interactions. Habitat structure and changing patterns of animal space use can also shape social interactions. Animals adjust their social and spatial behaviours to reduce the risk of offspring mortality. In territorial infanticidal species, two strategies are possible for males: they can stay close to offspring to protect them against rivals (infant-defence hypothesis) or patrol the territory more intensively to prevent rival intrusions (territorial-defence hypothesis). Here, we tested these hypotheses in African lions (Panthera leo) by investigating how males and females adjust their social and spatial behaviours in the presence of offspring. We combined datasets on the demography and movement of lions, collected between 2002 and 2016 in Hwange National Park (Zimbabwe), to document the presence of cubs (field observations) and the simultaneous movements of groupmates and competitors (GPS tracking). We showed a spatial response of lions to the presence of offspring, with females with cubs less likely to select areas close to waterholes or in the periphery of the territory than females without cubs. In contrast, these areas were more selected by males when there were cubs in the pride. We also found social responses. Males spent more time with females as habitat openness increased but the presence of cubs in the pride did not influence the average likelihood of observing males with females. Furthermore, rival males relocated further after an encounter with pride males when cubs were present in the prides, suggesting that the presence of cubs leads to a more vigorous repulsion of competitors. Males with cubs in their pride were more likely to interact with male competitors on the edge of the pride's home range and far from the waterholes, suggesting that they are particularly assiduous in detecting and repelling rival males during these periods. In general, the strategies to avoid infanticide exhibited by male lions supported the territorial-defence hypothesis. Our study contributes to answer the recent call for a behavioural ecology at the spatial-social interface.


Asunto(s)
Leones , Interacción Social , Humanos , Femenino , Masculino , Animales , Leones/fisiología , Infanticidio , Territorialidad , Ecosistema
14.
PeerJ ; 12: e16749, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38282863

RESUMEN

Understanding lions' (Panthera leo) space-use is important for the management of multi-species wildlife systems because lions can have profound impacts on ecosystem-wide ecological processes. Semi-arid savanna landscapes are typically heterogeneous with species space-use driven by the availability and distribution of resources. Previous studies have demonstrated that lions select areas close to water as encounter rates with prey are higher and hunting success is greater in these regions. Where multiple lion prides exist, landscape partitioning is expected to follow a despotic distribution in which competitively superior prides occupy high-quality areas while subordinates select poorer habitats. In this study, Global Positioning System collar data and logistic regression were used to investigate space-use and hunting success among 50% of lion prides at Malilangwe Wildlife Reserve, Zimbabwe. Our findings show that lion space-use was driven by surface water availability and that home range selection was socially hierarchical with the dominant pride occupying habitat in which water was most abundant. In addition, we found that the effect of shrub cover, clay content and soil depth on kill probability was area specific and not influenced by hierarchical dominance. Where multiple lion prides are studied, we recommend treating prides as individual units because pooling data may obscure site and pride specific response patterns.


Asunto(s)
Leones , Animales , Leones/fisiología , Ecosistema , Pradera , Animales Salvajes , Agua
15.
Science ; 383(6681): 433-438, 2024 Jan 26.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38271503

RESUMEN

Mutualisms often define ecosystems, but they are susceptible to human activities. Combining experiments, animal tracking, and mortality investigations, we show that the invasive big-headed ant (Pheidole megacephala) makes lions (Panthera leo) less effective at killing their primary prey, plains zebra (Equus quagga). Big-headed ants disrupted the mutualism between native ants (Crematogaster spp.) and the dominant whistling-thorn tree (Vachellia drepanolobium), rendering trees vulnerable to elephant (Loxodonta africana) browsing and resulting in landscapes with higher visibility. Although zebra kills were significantly less likely to occur in higher-visibility, invaded areas, lion numbers did not decline since the onset of the invasion, likely because of prey-switching to African buffalo (Syncerus caffer). We show that by controlling biophysical structure across landscapes, a tiny invader reconfigured predator-prey dynamics among iconic species.


Asunto(s)
Hormigas , Equidae , Cadena Alimentaria , Leones , Mirmecófitas , Simbiosis , Animales , Hormigas/fisiología , Elefantes , Búfalos
16.
J Am Vet Med Assoc ; 262(3): 1-5, 2024 Mar 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38171093

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To describe the clinical presentation, progression, and diagnosis of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) with neutrophilic differentiation in an African lion (Panthera leo). ANIMAL: A 12-year-old male African lion kept at a zoological institution in Colombia. CLINICAL PRESENTATION, PROGRESSION, AND PROCEDURES: The lion presented for anorexia, pale mucous membranes, and a hind limb lameness of acute onset. Feline leukemia virus testing was negative, and repeated blood samples revealed severe anemia, intermittent thrombocytopenia, lymphopenia, and neutrophilia. Coinfection with Anaplasma and Mycoplasma spp and chronic kidney disease were diagnosed based on clinicopathological findings. TREATMENT AND OUTCOME: The lion received symptomatic treatment, doxycycline, and methylprednisolone or prednisolone. Euthanasia was elected due to clinical deterioration and unresponsive anemia, despite the resolution of Anaplasma and Mycoplasma spp infections. AML with neutrophilic differentiation was diagnosed based on bone marrow cytology, histopathology, and immunohistochemistry. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: AML is a rare, aggressive hematopoietic disorder in domestic cats, although it has not yet been reported in nondomestic cats. This is the first description of the clinicopathological, histological, and immunohistochemical features of AML with neutrophilic differentiation in an FeLV-negative African lion that lacked circulating blasts.


Asunto(s)
Anemia , Enfermedades de los Gatos , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda , Leones , Infecciones por Mycoplasma , Masculino , Gatos , Animales , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/diagnóstico , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/veterinaria , Médula Ósea , Infecciones por Mycoplasma/veterinaria , Anemia/veterinaria
17.
J Am Nutr Assoc ; 43(2): 167-182, 2024 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37561965

RESUMEN

Low mental energy can contribute to decreased productivity, altered life balance, decreased physical performance, and ultimately affect quality of life. As such, there is a great demand for food and beverage products that positively impact mental energy. Numerous products claim to alter mental energy making continued review of the scientific evidence critical. The objective of this study was to conduct a scoping review of randomized controlled trials to evaluate the effect of 18 dietary ingredients on mental energy outcomes in adults without severe disease. Methods: A literature search, completed using PubMed, resulted in the identification of 2261 articles, 190 of which met eligibility from initial abstract review. Full-text review was completed on the 190 studies which resulted in 101 articles that fully met eligibility for inclusion in this study. The search strategy for two ingredients did not yield any eligible studies, leaving studies for 16 ingredients that were extracted and summarized by reported significantly improved outcomes for cognition, mood and perceived feelings, and sleep assessments. The preliminary results for several dietary ingredients directionally suggested a mental energy benefit (≥20% of outcomes), including ashwagandha, chamomile, dark chocolate, ginseng, green tea, lavender, lion's mane mushroom, maca, tart cherries, turmeric, and valerian root. The results of this scoping review suggest that of the 16 dietary ingredients reviewed, 11 may be promising for further exploration on their potential benefits in supporting mental energy. Given consumer demand and market growth for food and beverage products that positively impact mental energy; continued efforts in assessment method alignment and additional evaluation in well-designed trials is warranted.KEY TEACHING POINTSOf the 16 dietary ingredients reviewed, 11 (ashwagandha, chamomile, dark chocolate, ginseng, green tea, lavender, lion's mane mushroom, maca, melatonin foods, turmeric, and valerian root) may be promising for further exploration on their potential mental energy benefits.Dark chocolate, ginseng, ashwagandha, and lion's mane mushroom were the most promising ingredients for further evaluation in the cognition domain of the ingredients evaluated.Turmeric, maca, lavendar, and ashwagandha were the most promising ingredients for further evaluation in the mood and perceived feelings domain of the ingredients evaluated.Ashwagandha, chamomile, green tea, melatonin foods, valerian root were the most promising ingredients for further evaluation in the sleep domain of the ingredients evaluated.Additional, well-designed, consistent, clinical trials and systematic reviews are warranted as the challenge of heterogeneity in mental energy study design remains.


Asunto(s)
Leones , Melatonina , Animales , Melatonina/uso terapéutico , Calidad de Vida , Ensayos Clínicos Controlados Aleatorios como Asunto ,
18.
J Hered ; 115(2): 166-172, 2024 Mar 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37952226

RESUMEN

The illegal poaching of lions for their body parts poses a severe threat to lion populations across Africa. Poaching accounts for 35% of all human-caused lion deaths, with 51% attributed to retaliatory killings following livestock predation. In nearly half of the retaliatory killings, lion body parts are removed, suggesting that high demand for lion body parts may fuel killings attributed to human-lion conflict. Trafficked items are often confiscated in transit or destination countries far from their country of origin. DNA from lion parts may in some cases be the only available means for examining their geographic origins. In this paper, we present the Lion Localizer, a full-stack software tool that houses a comprehensive database of lion mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequences sourced from previously published studies. The database covers 146 localities from across the African continent and India, providing information on the potential provenance of seized lion body parts. Lion mtDNA sequences of 350 or 1,140 bp corresponding to the cytochrome b region can be generated from lion products and queried against the Lion Localizer database. Using the query sequence, the Lion Localizer generates a listing of exact or partial matches, which are displayed on an interactive map of Africa. This allows for the rapid identification of potential regions and localities where lions have been or are presently being targeted by poachers. By examining the potential provenance of lion samples, the Lion Localizer serves as a valuable resource in the fight against lion poaching. The software is available at https://lionlocalizer.org.


Asunto(s)
ADN Mitocondrial , Leones , Animales , Humanos , ADN Mitocondrial/genética , Leones/genética , África , Programas Informáticos
19.
Vet Pathol ; 61(2): 248-255, 2024 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37818973

RESUMEN

This retrospective study aimed to characterize and determine the prevalence of spinal disease in nondomestic felids within a sanctuary population. A review of 304 postmortem examination reports in Panthera species from 2003 to 2021 revealed that 86/304 (28%) were diagnosed with spinal disease. Spinal lesions were categorized according to pathologic process: degenerative (78/86, 91%), developmental (8/86, 9%), inflammatory (6/86, 7%), or neoplastic (8/86, 9%). Degenerative lesions included intervertebral disk disease (IVDD; 66/78, 85%), spondylosis without concurrent IVDD (4/78, 5%), and idiopathic (noncompressive) degenerative myelopathies (8/78, 10%). Fourteen individuals had lesions in more than 1 category. Developmental cases were vertebral (4/8) or spinal cord (3/8) malformations or both (1/8). Inflammatory lesions included meningitis (4/6) and meningomyelitis (2/6). Neoplasia included vertebral multiple myeloma (4/8) and others (4/8). IVDD often involved multiple disks but primarily affected the cervical (41/66, 62%) and thoracic spine (32/66, 48%). A multivariate binary logistic model predicted the diagnosis of IVDD at postmortem examination, where odds of being affected were highest for males, lions (Panthera leo), and geriatric age group (>14 years). The spinal lesions documented in this study provide insight into high-risk signalment categories and predominant associated lesions affecting captive Panthera populations. Specifically, spinal disease, especially cervical IVDD, is common among Panthera species, and lions, males, and older felids are at increased risk.


Asunto(s)
Felidae , Degeneración del Disco Intervertebral , Desplazamiento del Disco Intervertebral , Leones , Panthera , Animales , Masculino , Animales de Zoológico , Degeneración del Disco Intervertebral/veterinaria , Desplazamiento del Disco Intervertebral/epidemiología , Desplazamiento del Disco Intervertebral/veterinaria , Estudios Retrospectivos , Femenino
20.
Prev Vet Med ; 222: 106094, 2024 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38103433

RESUMEN

SARS-CoV-2 has caused 775 outbreaks in 29 animal species across 36 countries, including dogs, cats, ferrets, minks, non-human primates, white-tailed deer, and lions. Although transmission from owners to dogs has been extensively described, no study to date has also compared sheltered, foster home and owner dogs and associated risk factors. This study aimed to identify SARS-CoV-2 infection and anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies from sheltered, fostered, and owned dogs, associated with environmental and management risk factors. Serum samples and swabs were collected from each dog, and an epidemiological questionnaire was completed by the shelter manager, foster care, and owner. A total of 111 dogs, including 222 oropharyngeal and rectal swabs, tested negative by RT-qPCR. Overall, 18/89 (20.22%) dogs presented IgG antibodies against the N protein of SARS-CoV-2 by magnetic ELISA, while none showed a reaction to the Spike protein. SARS-CoV-2 antibodies showed an age-related association, with 4.16 chance of positivity in adult dogs when compared with young ones. High population density among dogs and humans, coupled with repeated COVID-19 exposure, emerged as potential risk factors in canine virus epidemiology. Dogs exhibited higher seropositivity rates in these contexts. Thus, we propose expanded seroepidemiological and molecular studies across species and scenarios, including shelter dogs.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Enfermedades de los Gatos , Ciervos , Enfermedades de los Perros , Leones , Perros , Animales , Gatos , COVID-19/epidemiología , COVID-19/veterinaria , SARS-CoV-2 , Estudios Seroepidemiológicos , Hurones , Anticuerpos Antivirales , Visón , Enfermedades de los Perros/epidemiología
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