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1.
Fontilles, Rev. leprol ; 32(6): 441-449, sept.-dic. 2020. tab, graf
Artículo en Español | IBECS | ID: ibc-199933

RESUMEN

OBJETIVOS: La clasificación de nuevos casos de lepra en los grupos Paucibacilar (PB) o Multibacilar (MB) es importante ya que determina la duración del tratamiento farmacológico y predice tanto las complicaciones de la enfermedad como el riesgo de infección en contactos. Durante las últimas cuatro décadas han variado los criterios. Se han revisado las estadísticas de lepra globales para descubrir cualquier cambio temporal significativo en la proporción de casos PB. RESULTADOS: Los datos globales publicados por la OMS durante los últimos 40 años presentan una disminución continua en el porcentaje de nuevos casos de lepra clasificados como paucibacilares (PB) desde casi un 80% hasta el 40% del total. Se necesita una validación independiente y consistente de la clasificación. CONCLUSIONES: La disminución de casos PB puede ser un artefacto más que un fenómeno epidemiológico. Mientras que no podamos estar seguros, sospechamos que hay una combinación de cambios en criterios y "sobreclasificación" respecto al grupo MB por el personal sanitario en el campo


OBJECTIVES: Classification of new cases of leprosy into Paucibacillary (PB) or Multibacillary (MB) groups is important as it determines the duration of the treatment regimen, and predicts both complications of leprosy and risk of infection to contacts. Criteria have changed over the past 4 decades. We studied the published global leprosy statistics to reveal any major temporal changes in the proportion of PB cases. RESULTS: Global data published by WHO over the past 40 years demonstrate a continuous decrease in the proportion of newly reported leprosy cases who are classified as paucibacillary (PB) from nearly 80% to around 40%. Independent validation of consistent and accurate classification is lacking. CONCLUSIONS: The decrease in PB proportion may be an artefactual, rather than an epidemiological, phenomenon. Whilst it is impossible to be certain, we suspect that a combination of changes in criteria and "overclassifying" to the MB group by field staff is the cause


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Lepra Paucibacilar/epidemiología , Lepra Multibacilar/epidemiología , Incidencia , Factores de Tiempo , Notificación de Enfermedades/estadística & datos numéricos , Organización Mundial de la Salud , Salud Global/estadística & datos numéricos
2.
Skinmed ; 17(4): 261-265, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31627788

RESUMEN

In Type II lepromatous reaction, there is exacerbation of humoral immunity, classified as Gell & Coombs Type III hypersensitivity reaction. It is more common in lepromatous borderline (LB) and lepromatous lepromatous (LL) patients. Our objective was to study the clinical and laboratorial expressions of lepromatous Type II reactions, establishing concordances between them, and for this the medical records of leprosy patients observed at the Clementino Fraga Filho University Hospital of the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (HUCFF/UFRJ) were reviewed. There were a total of 358 leprosy cases over a period of 12 years. Demographic, clinical, and laboratory data of 133 patients with Type II reaction were collected. Among the 133 patients, 19 were classified as borderline borderline (BB), 15 (11.3%) as LB, and 97 (72.9%) as LL. Mitsuda intradermal reaction was negative in all the 49 patients who underwent this test. Histopathologic study confirmed the diagnosis. Lepromatous patients (LP) presented positive bacilloscopy more frequently (73.91% of 68 patients) than borderline patients (BP) (26.9% of 24 patients). Among BP, 44% presented erythema nodosum leprosum (ENL), which was seen in 71% of LP. Erythema multiforme (EM) occurred in 32% of BP and 13% of LP. Lucio phenomenon (LPh) was observed in 8 of 34 BP (23.6%), and 15 of 97 LP (15.4%). The understanding of the laboratorial and clinical presentations of reactional episodes are relevant to the development of preventive and therapeutic strategies, in order to avoid potential complications and comorbidities that cause disability, paralysis, deformities, and stigma of leprosy.


Asunto(s)
Lepra Multibacilar/inmunología , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Brasil/epidemiología , Niño , Femenino , Humanos , Lepra Lepromatosa/sangre , Lepra Lepromatosa/clasificación , Lepra Lepromatosa/epidemiología , Lepra Lepromatosa/inmunología , Lepra Multibacilar/sangre , Lepra Multibacilar/clasificación , Lepra Multibacilar/epidemiología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Adulto Joven
3.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 13(10): e0007713, 2019 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31603913

RESUMEN

Few investigations to date have analyzed the epidemiology of Hansen's disease (leprosy) in the United States, and in particular, if birth location is related to multibacillary versus paucibacillary leprosy. We collected data on 123 patients diagnosed with leprosy in Georgia from the National Hansen's Disease Program from 1923-January 2018. A logistic regression model was built to examine the relationship between country of origin (U.S.-born or immigrant) and the type of leprosy. While the model showed no significant relationship between country of origin and type of leprosy, being Asian or Pacific Islander was associated with a higher odds of multibacillary disease (aOR = 5.71; 95% CI: 1.25-26.29). Furthermore, since the early 1900s, we found an increasing trend of leprosy reports in Georgia among both domestic born and immigrant residents, despite the overall decrease in cases in the United States during the same time period. More research is therefore necessary to further evaluate risk for multibacillary leprosy in certain populations and to create targeted interventions and prevention strategies.


Asunto(s)
Lepra/epidemiología , Lepra/historia , Emigrantes e Inmigrantes , Grupos Étnicos , Femenino , Georgia/epidemiología , Historia del Siglo XX , Historia del Siglo XXI , Humanos , Lepra/prevención & control , Lepra Multibacilar/epidemiología , Lepra Multibacilar/historia , Lepra Multibacilar/prevención & control , Lepra Paucibacilar/epidemiología , Lepra Paucibacilar/historia , Lepra Paucibacilar/prevención & control , Masculino , Estados Unidos
4.
Enferm. glob ; 18(56): 119-132, oct. 2019. tab
Artículo en Español | IBECS | ID: ibc-188268

RESUMEN

Objetivo: Evaluar el grado de deterioro de la calidad de vida de las personas con enfermedad de Hansen, de acuerdo con las variables sociodemográficas y clínicas Método: Estudio descriptivo, transversal, cuantitativo, que involucró a 45 pacientes de un hospital de referencia en João Pessoa, Paraíba, Brasil. Para la obtención de datos, las entrevistas se realizaron a partir de un cuestionario semiestructurado que incluyó las variables sociodemográficas y clínicas de los participantes; para evaluar su calidad de vida se utilizó el instrumento Dermatology Life Quality Index, luego de su aprobación en el Comité de Ética en Investigación de la Universidad Federal de Paraíba. En el análisis de los datos, se utilizó la Prueba no paramétrica del Qui-cuadrado de Pearson con un nivel de significación del 5% (p <0,05), usándose la continuidad de corrección de Yates, cuando fue necesario. Resultados: Se destaca la prevalencia de individuos varones, pardos, solteros, de entre 18 y 40 años, con ingresos familiares inferiores a tres salarios mínimos y baja escolaridad. De este total, el 88,9% presentó la forma clínica multibacilar de la enfermedad de Hansen y el 60% de ellos, con un nivel de deterioro de la calidad de vida que varía entre moderado y muy grave, según los puntajes del instrumento utilizado. Conclusión: Se confirma el importante impacto de la enfermedad de Hansen en la calidad de vida de sus portadores, como lo indican los altos puntajes obtenidos en la aplicación del DLQI


Objective: Evaluate the degree of impairment of the quality of life of people with Hansen's disease, according to social demographic and clinical variables Method: Descriptive, transversal, quantitative study, involving 45 patients from a reference hospital located in João Pessoa, Paraíba, Brazil. For obtaining data, interviews were performed based on a semi-structured questionnaire, including social demographic and clinic variables of the participants; to evaluate their life quality the instrument Dermatology Life Quality Index was used, after approval in the Committee of Ethics in Research of the Federal University of Paraíba. In the data analysis, the non-parametric Test of the Chi-square of Pearson was used with level of significance of 5% (p<0,05), being used the Yates correction continuity, when necessary. Results: It is highlighted a prevalence of male, brown, single, aged 18 to 40 individuals, with family income lower than three minimum salaries and low schooling. From this total, 88,9% presented the clinical multibacillary form of the Hansen's disease and 60% of them, with level of impairment of quality of life varying between moderate and very serious, according to scores of the instrument used. Conclusion: It is reassured the important impact of the Hansen's disease in the quality of life of their carriers, as indicated by the high scores obtained in the application of the DLQI


Objetivo: Avaliar o grau de comprometimento da qualidade de vida de pessoas com hanseníase, segundo variáveis sociodemográficas e clínicas. Método: Estudo descritivo, transversal, quantitativo, envolvendo 45 pacientes de um hospital de referência, localizado em João Pessoa, Paraíba, Brasil. Para obtenção dos dados, realizou-se entrevistas a partir de questionário semiestruturado, contemplando variáveis sociodemográficas e clínicas dos participantes; para avaliar sua qualidade de vida foi utilizado o instrumento Dermatology Life Quality Index, após aprovação do Comitê de Ética em Pesquisa da Universidade Federal da Paraíba. Na análise dos dados, utilizou-se o Teste não-paramétrico do Qui-quadrado de Pearson com nível de significância de 5% (p<0,05), sendo utilizado a Correção de Continuidade de Yates, quando necessário. Resultados: Evidencia-se uma prevalência dos indivíduos do sexo masculino, pardos, solteiros, com idade entre 18 e 40 anos, com renda familiar inferior a três salários mínimos e baixa escolaridade. Desse total, 88,9% apresentavam a forma clínica multibacilar da hanseníase e 60% deles, com grau de comprometimento da qualidade de vida vaiando de moderado a muito grave, segundo escores do instrumento utilizado. Conclusão: Reafirma-se o importante impacto da hanseníase na qualidade de vida de seus portadores, tal como indicado pelos altos escores obtidos na aplicação do DLQI


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Lepra/epidemiología , Calidad de Vida/psicología , Cuestionario de Salud del Paciente/estadística & datos numéricos , Psicometría/instrumentación , Atención de Enfermería/métodos , Brasil/epidemiología , Perfil de Impacto de Enfermedad , Lepra Multibacilar/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Lepra Paucibacilar/epidemiología
5.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 13(9): e0007696, 2019 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31525196

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Killer-cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs) are a group of regulatory molecules able to activate or inhibit natural killer cells upon interaction with human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I molecules. Combinations of KIR and HLA may contribute to the occurrence of different immunological and clinical responses to infectious diseases. Leprosy is a chronic neglected disease, both disabling and disfiguring, caused mainly by Mycobacterium leprae. In this case-control study, we examined the influence of KIRs and HLA ligands on the development of multibacillary leprosy. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Genotyping of KIR and HLA genes was performed in 264 multibacillary leprosy patients and 518 healthy unrelated controls (238 healthy household contacts and 280 healthy subjects). These are unprecedented results in which KIR2DL2/KIR2DL2/C1/C2 and KIR2DL3/2DL3/C1/C1 indicated a risk for developing lepromatous and borderline leprosy, respectively. Concerning to 3DL2/A3/A11+, our study demonstrated that independent of control group (contacts or healthy subjects), this KIR receptor and its ligand act as a risk factor for the borderline clinical form. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our finding suggests that synergetic associations of activating and inhibitory KIR genes may alter the balance between these receptors and thus interfere in the progression of multibacillary leprosy.


Asunto(s)
Predisposición Genética a la Enfermedad , Antígenos HLA/genética , Lepra Multibacilar/genética , Receptores KIR/genética , Adulto , Anciano , Brasil/epidemiología , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Femenino , Genotipo , Humanos , Lepra Multibacilar/epidemiología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Enfermedades Desatendidas
6.
Epidemiol. serv. saúde ; 28(1): e2018065, 2019. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés, Portugués | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001959

RESUMEN

Objetivo: descrever a tendência e a distribuição espacial da hanseníase no estado da Bahia, Brasil, em 2001-2015. Métodos: estudo ecológico misto dos indicadores epidemiológicos da hanseníase; na análise temporal, utilizou-se a regressão Joinpoint, e a estatística de varredura espacial na identificação de clusters da doença; a tendência foi classificada como estacionária, crescente ou decrescente; calculou-se a variação percentual anual (APC: annual percent change) e a variação percentual anual média (AAPC: average annual percent change). Resultados: houve redução da prevalência (AAPC = -5,6; p<0,001), do abandono (AAPC = -13,7; p<0,001) e de mulheres doentes (AAPC = -0,6; p<0,001); o coeficiente de casos novos de grau II (AAPC = 2,7; p<0,001) e a proporção de casos multibacilares (AAPC = 2,2; p<0,001) apresentaram tendência crescente; revelou-se distribuição espacial heterogênea, concentrada em três regiões destacadas (norte, oeste e sul do estado), e variação entre indicadores. Conclusão: sugere-se persistência da transmissão da hanseníase no estado, diagnóstico tardio e elevada prevalência oculta.


Objetivo: describir la tendencia y distribución espacial de la lepra en el estado de Bahia, Brasil, en 2001-2015. Métodos: estudio ecológico mixto de los indicadores epidemiológicos de la lepra; se utilizó la regresión Joinpoint para el análisis temporal y la estadística espacial para la identificación de clusters de la enfermedad; la tendencia se clasificó en estacionaria, creciente o decreciente; se calculó el cambio porcentual anual (APC: annual percent change) y la variación porcentual anual promedio (AAPC: average annual percent change). Resultados: se ha reducido la prevalencia (AAPC = -5,6; p<0,001), el abandono (AAPC = -13,7; p<0,001) y las mujeres enfermas (AAPC = -0,6; p<0,001); la tasa de nuevos casos de grado II (AAPC = 2,7; p<0,001) y la proporción de casos multibacilares (AAPC = 2,2; p<0,001) presentaron una tendencia de crecimiento; la distribución espacial fue heterogénea, con concentración en tres regiones de destaque (norte, oeste y sur del estado) y variación entre indicadores. Conclusión: sugiere persistencia de la transmisión de la lepra en el estado, diagnóstico tardío y elevada prevalencia oculta.


Objective: to describe the trend and the spatial distribution of leprosy in the state of Bahia, Brazil, 2001-2015. Methods: this was a mixed ecological study of epidemiological indicators of leprosy; Jointpoint regression was used for the temporal analysis, while spatial scan statistics were used to identify clusters of the disease; the trend was classified as stationary, increasing or decreasing; we calculated the annual percent change (APC) and average annual percent change (AAPC). Results: there was a reduction in prevalence (AAPC = -5.6; p<0,001), treatment dropout (AAPC = -13.7; p<0.001), and females with leprosy (AAPC = -0.6; p<0.001); the new grade II case coefficient (AAPC = 2.7; p<0.001) and the proportion of multibacillary cases (AAPC = 2,2; p<0.001) showed a growing trend; spatial distribution was heterogeneous and concentrated in three regions in particular (north, west and south of the state), with variation between the indicators. Conclusion: persisting leprosy transmission in the state, late diagnosis and high hidden prevalence is suggested.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Lepra Multibacilar/diagnóstico , Lepra Multibacilar/epidemiología , Enfermedades Desatendidas/epidemiología , Lepra/transmisión , Lepra/epidemiología , Brasil/epidemiología , Estudios de Series Temporales , Estudios Ecológicos , Análisis Espacio-Temporal , Regresión Espacial , Mycobacterium leprae/clasificación
7.
Rev Soc Bras Med Trop ; 51(6): 789-794, 2018.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30517532

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: The Integrated Program of Leprosy Control was initiated in the municipality of Buriticupu, Maranhão, Brazil, an area considered hyperendemic for leprosy in 2003. It aims at assessing the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of the disease to reduce the detection rate of new cases until 2015. Here, we present the evolution of the indicators of leprosy within the period from 2003 to 2015. METHODS: We conducted a descriptive analytical study based on the active search for and voluntary referral of cases of leprosy. The detection rate of new cases was analyzed over time. We included individuals diagnosed with leprosy between January 2003 and December 2015. The association between categorical variables was assessed using the chi-square test of independence, considering a level of significance of 5%. When the association was significant, the detection rate (with a confidence interval of 95%) was calculated. RESULTS: Overall, 879 new leprosy cases were detected; the majority of the affected individuals were men (65.9%). Multibacillary leprosy was the most common type of the disease, according to the operational classification (55.5%); it showed the strongest association with an age ≥60 years. We also detected an association between the male sex and both, lepromatous and multibacillary leprosy. The detection rate reduced from 211.09/100,000 population in 2003 to 50.26/100,000 population in 2015. CONCLUSIONS: We found an improvement in leprosy control, with a reduction in the detection rate and the absolute number of cases. Strengthening of disease control measures should be prioritized to eliminate leprosy as a public health concern in this municipality.


Asunto(s)
Lepra Multibacilar/epidemiología , Lepra Paucibacilar/epidemiología , Adolescente , Adulto , Brasil/epidemiología , Femenino , Educación en Salud , Humanos , Incidencia , Lepra Multibacilar/prevención & control , Lepra Paucibacilar/prevención & control , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Evaluación de Programas y Proyectos de Salud , Adulto Joven
9.
An. bras. dermatol ; 93(6): 824-828, Nov.-Dec. 2018. graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS | ID: biblio-973623

RESUMEN

Abstract: Background: Leprosy is a chronic infectious disease that is endemic in Brazil and little studied in patients over 60 years old. Objective: The aim of this study was the epidemiological and clinical description of cases of leprosy in individuals older than 60 years, notified in the State of Espírito Santo - Brazil. Methods: It was an observational, descriptive and retrospective study of leprosy patients notified between 2001 and 2011. Results: Out of 16,025 notifications, 2,510 (15.6%) were of patients over 60 years of age; the distribution among the period was egalitarian except in the last 2 years, when there was a mild reduction of cases; the average was 70 years of age (±7 years); 46% were women, being 62% of those paucibacillary cases; 1,145 (50.5%) were dark-skined people in particular among paucibacillary cases; 1,638 (72.9%) were illiterates or poorly instructed n particular among multibacillary cases (P=0.022); 59.9% patients were clinically multibacillary cases and 37.4% had positive bacilloscopy; 37.9% patients had clinical alterations on peripheral nerves, 36.7% of all the multibacillary cases were classified as grade I and 15.3% as grade in assessment of disability. Study limitations: This was a retrospective study, which used secondary data generated by physicians and notified by other professionals, whar could have enabled possible errors on original data. Conclusions: Leprosy in this age group suggests a long incubation period with reactivation of latent focus or late infection. Men were more affected, as well as the afro descendent race was statistically significant in the paucibacillary cases (P=0.000) and illiterate/poor education in multibacillary cases (P=0.022). Nearly 40% of patients had positive bacilloscopy and grade I/II disability, demonstrating a late diagnosis.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Lepra Multibacilar/epidemiología , Lepra Paucibacilar/epidemiología , Índice de Severidad de la Enfermedad , Brasil/epidemiología , Estudios Retrospectivos , Distribución por Edad , Notificación de Enfermedades
10.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 51(6): 789-794, Nov.-Dec. 2018. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS | ID: biblio-977096

RESUMEN

Abstract INTRODUCTION: The Integrated Program of Leprosy Control was initiated in the municipality of Buriticupu, Maranhão, Brazil, an area considered hyperendemic for leprosy in 2003. It aims at assessing the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of the disease to reduce the detection rate of new cases until 2015. Here, we present the evolution of the indicators of leprosy within the period from 2003 to 2015. METHODS: We conducted a descriptive analytical study based on the active search for and voluntary referral of cases of leprosy. The detection rate of new cases was analyzed over time. We included individuals diagnosed with leprosy between January 2003 and December 2015. The association between categorical variables was assessed using the chi-square test of independence, considering a level of significance of 5%. When the association was significant, the detection rate (with a confidence interval of 95%) was calculated. RESULTS: Overall, 879 new leprosy cases were detected; the majority of the affected individuals were men (65.9%). Multibacillary leprosy was the most common type of the disease, according to the operational classification (55.5%); it showed the strongest association with an age ≥60 years. We also detected an association between the male sex and both, lepromatous and multibacillary leprosy. The detection rate reduced from 211.09/100,000 population in 2003 to 50.26/100,000 population in 2015. CONCLUSIONS: We found an improvement in leprosy control, with a reduction in the detection rate and the absolute number of cases. Strengthening of disease control measures should be prioritized to eliminate leprosy as a public health concern in this municipality.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Adolescente , Adulto , Adulto Joven , Lepra Multibacilar/epidemiología , Lepra Paucibacilar/epidemiología , Brasil/epidemiología , Educación en Salud , Incidencia , Lepra Multibacilar/prevención & control , Lepra Paucibacilar/prevención & control , Persona de Mediana Edad
11.
Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo ; 60: e67, 2018 Nov 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30427402

RESUMEN

Leprosy remains a public health problem in Brazil, and the Mato Grosso do Sul State (MS) had the seventh highest rate of detection of new cases in the country in 2015 (26.59 per 100,000 inhabitants) which was classified as very high. This work aimed to determine the epidemiological characteristics of leprosy in MS. Descriptive statistics were performed with data from the Information System on Diseases of Compulsory Declaration (SINAN) between 2001 and 2015, with all patients included in the system serving as the sample. Clinical forms of multibacillary (MB) leprosy predominated in MS during the study period, with a clear positive trend from 2009 to 2015 and a peak in the detection rate of new cases (NCDR) in 2014 corresponding to 40.39 per 100,000 population (p<0.001). The most affected groups were men (56.7%) aged 20-59 years (70.52%), an economically active population. We observed that Northern MS had the highest overall NCDR in the State. In cities bordering other countries, NCDRs were significantly lower than in those of other analyzed cities. There was no dependency ratio correlating NCDRs in cities with higher or lower indexes with basic care coverage (p=0.799) and human development index (p=0.887). In conclusion, the large number of patients with MB leprosy indicates that the diagnosis of leprosy is delayed in MS, perhaps due to difficulties related to diagnostic methods. This situation contributes to the continuing prevalence of leprosy in MS.


Asunto(s)
Lepra Multibacilar/epidemiología , Adolescente , Adulto , Brasil/epidemiología , Niño , Preescolar , Diagnóstico Tardío , Métodos Epidemiológicos , Femenino , Humanos , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Lepra Multibacilar/diagnóstico , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Adulto Joven
12.
An Bras Dermatol ; 93(6): 824-828, 2018.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30484526

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Leprosy is a chronic infectious disease that is endemic in Brazil and little studied in patients over 60 years old. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was the epidemiological and clinical description of cases of leprosy in individuals older than 60 years, notified in the State of Espírito Santo - Brazil. METHODS: It was an observational, descriptive and retrospective study of leprosy patients notified between 2001 and 2011. RESULTS: Out of 16,025 notifications, 2,510 (15.6%) were of patients over 60 years of age; the distribution among the period was egalitarian except in the last 2 years, when there was a mild reduction of cases; the average was 70 years of age (±7 years); 46% were women, being 62% of those paucibacillary cases; 1,145 (50.5%) were dark-skined people in particular among paucibacillary cases; 1,638 (72.9%) were illiterates or poorly instructed n particular among multibacillary cases (P=0.022); 59.9% patients were clinically multibacillary cases and 37.4% had positive bacilloscopy; 37.9% patients had clinical alterations on peripheral nerves, 36.7% of all the multibacillary cases were classified as grade I and 15.3% as grade in assessment of disability. STUDY LIMITATIONS: This was a retrospective study, which used secondary data generated by physicians and notified by other professionals, whar could have enabled possible errors on original data. CONCLUSIONS: Leprosy in this age group suggests a long incubation period with reactivation of latent focus or late infection. Men were more affected, as well as the afro descendent race was statistically significant in the paucibacillary cases (P=0.000) and illiterate/poor education in multibacillary cases (P=0.022). Nearly 40% of patients had positive bacilloscopy and grade I/II disability, demonstrating a late diagnosis.


Asunto(s)
Lepra Multibacilar/epidemiología , Lepra Paucibacilar/epidemiología , Distribución por Edad , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Brasil/epidemiología , Notificación de Enfermedades , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estudios Retrospectivos , Índice de Severidad de la Enfermedad
14.
Cad Saude Publica ; 34(11): e00007818, 2018 11 23.
Artículo en Portugués | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30484557

RESUMEN

The project Palmas Free of Leprosy was implemented to improve indicators and deal with the disease, since the capital of Tocantins State is the most hyperendemic state capital in Brazil. This study measures the impact of the project's intervention through trend analysis of the priority indicators in Palmas, from 2002 to 2016. The study was based on an analysis of data from the Brazilian Information System for Notifiable Diseases (SINAN) and reports of applied training courses with problem-solving methodology. The indicators for new leprosy cases in Palmas residents were investigated, and the trends were identified by joinpoint regression analysis to assess the results. In the year the intervention project was implemented (2016), the detection rate for new cases in the overall population was 236.3/100,000 inhabitants, and this indicator showed a significant decrease of -7.5% from 2002 to 2014. From 2014 to 2016, there was a significant increase of 104.6% in overall detection. The detection rate in individuals under 15 years of age also showed a reduction of -4.6%, but in the years 2014, 2015, and 2016 there was an increase of 111.1%, together with detection rates for grades 0, 1, and 2, with 59.3%, 225.2%, and 121.7%, respectively. The proportion of cases detected by contact assessment showed a significant increase of 201.1% from 2014 to 2016. The data proved the effectiveness and potentiality of the project's intervention strategy for the diagnosis and control of leprosy in Palmas. The study provided evidence that timely diagnosis by primary care services results in indicators that reflect the real incidence of cases.


Asunto(s)
Lepra Multibacilar/epidemiología , Lepra Multibacilar/prevención & control , Lepra Paucibacilar/epidemiología , Lepra Paucibacilar/prevención & control , Atención Primaria de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Evaluación de Programas y Proyectos de Salud , Brasil/epidemiología , Enfermedades Endémicas , Femenino , Sistemas de Información en Salud , Personal de Salud/educación , Humanos , Incidencia , Masculino , Prevalencia , Valores de Referencia , Análisis de Regresión , Índice de Severidad de la Enfermedad , Factores de Tiempo
15.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 98(6): 1609-1613, 2018 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29611495

RESUMEN

Neural pain is a frequent symptom in leprosy disease. There is a paucity of data regarding neural pain diagnostics resulting in common prescriptive errors when neuritis is confused with neuropathic or mixed nociceptive-neuropathic pain. The present study identified important demographic, clinical, and neurophysiological features of 42 leprosy neuropathy patients presenting neuropathic pain (NP). During routine evaluations, patients were selected asking if they had ever experienced neural pain. Data analyses of their pain characteristics, clinical examination results, and both the Douleur Neuropathique 4 Questionnaire and Hamilton Depression Scale scores were used to classify these patients. The most common word they used to describe the sensation of pain for 25 (60%) of these patients was "burning." In the early stages of the disease and before leprosy diagnosis, 19 (45%) had already complained about NP and leprosy treatment was unable to prevent its occurrence in 15 (36%). Leprosy reactions, considered NP risk factors, occurred in 32 (76%) cases. Knowledge of typical NP characteristics could be used to develop more effective therapeutic approaches for a notoriously difficult-to-treat pain condition.


Asunto(s)
Lepra/complicaciones , Neuralgia/fisiopatología , Adulto , Anciano , Femenino , Humanos , Lepra/epidemiología , Lepra/fisiopatología , Lepra Multibacilar/complicaciones , Lepra Multibacilar/epidemiología , Lepra Multibacilar/fisiopatología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Trastornos Motores/epidemiología , Trastornos Motores/etiología , Conducción Nerviosa/fisiología , Neuralgia/epidemiología , Neuralgia/etiología , Dolor , Dimensión del Dolor , Trastornos de la Sensación/epidemiología , Trastornos de la Sensación/etiología , Adulto Joven
16.
Cad. Saúde Pública (Online) ; 34(11): e00007818, 2018. tab, graf
Artículo en Portugués | LILACS, Sec. Est. Saúde SP, HANSEN, SESSP-ILSLPROD, Sec. Est. Saúde SP, SESSP-ILSLACERVO, Sec. Est. Saúde SP | ID: biblio-974592

RESUMEN

Resumo: O projeto Palmas Livre da Hanseníase foi implementado para o incremento dos indicadores e o enfrentamento da doença, visto que a capital do Tocantins é a mais hiperendêmica do país. Este estudo mede o impacto da intervenção do projeto por meio da análise da tendência de indicadores prioritários em Palmas, 2002-2016. Baseia-se em análise de dados advindos do Sistema de Informação de Agravos de Notificação (SINAN) e de relatórios de capacitações aplicadas com metodologia de problematização. Os indicadores dos casos novos de hanseníase residentes em Palmas foram investigados, e suas tendências foram identificadas por análise de regressão joinpoint para avaliação dos resultados. No ano de implementação do projeto de intervenção (2016), o coeficiente de detecção de casos novos na população geral foi de 236,3/100 mil habitantes, e esse indicador apresentava decréscimo significativo de -7,5% no período de 2002 a 2014. Nos anos entre 2014 e 2016, houve aumento significativo de 104,6% para a detecção geral. O coeficiente de detecção em menores de 15 anos também apresentava queda de -4,6%, mas nos anos de 2014, 2015 e 2016, houve aumento de 111,1%, juntamente com os coeficientes de detecção de casos com grau 0, 1 e 2, com 59,3%, 225,2% e 121,7%, respectivamente. A proporção de casos detectados por avaliação de contatos teve acréscimo significativo de 201,1% no período de 2014 a 2016. Os dados comprovaram a efetividade e potencialidade da estratégia de intervenção do projeto para as ações de diagnóstico e controle da hanseníase em Palmas. Trouxe evidências de que a agilidade diagnóstica dos serviços de atenção primária resulta em indicadores que refletem a incidência real de casos.


Abstract: The project Palmas Free of Leprosy was implemented to improve indicators and deal with the disease, since the capital of Tocantins State is the most hyperendemic state capital in Brazil. This study measures the impact of the project's intervention through trend analysis of the priority indicators in Palmas, from 2002 to 2016. The study was based on an analysis of data from the Brazilian Information System for Notifiable Diseases (SINAN) and reports of applied training courses with problem-solving methodology. The indicators for new leprosy cases in Palmas residents were investigated, and the trends were identified by joinpoint regression analysis to assess the results. In the year the intervention project was implemented (2016), the detection rate for new cases in the overall population was 236.3/100,000 inhabitants, and this indicator showed a significant decrease of -7.5% from 2002 to 2014. From 2014 to 2016, there was a significant increase of 104.6% in overall detection. The detection rate in individuals under 15 years of age also showed a reduction of -4.6%, but in the years 2014, 2015, and 2016 there was an increase of 111.1%, together with detection rates for grades 0, 1, and 2, with 59.3%, 225.2%, and 121.7%, respectively. The proportion of cases detected by contact assessment showed a significant increase of 201.1% from 2014 to 2016. The data proved the effectiveness and potentiality of the project's intervention strategy for the diagnosis and control of leprosy in Palmas. The study provided evidence that timely diagnosis by primary care services results in indicators that reflect the real incidence of cases.


Resumen: El proyecto Palmas Libre de Hanseniasis se implementó para el incremento de indicadores y combate a la enfermedad, dado que la capital de Tocantins es la más hiperendémica de Brasil. Este estudio mide el impacto de la intervención del proyecto, mediante el análisis de la tendencia de indicadores prioritarios en Palmas, 2002-2016. Se basa en un análisis de datos procedentes del Sistema de Información sobre Enfermedades de Notificación Obligatoria (SINAN por sus siglas en portugués) y de informes de capacitaciones, aplicadas con metodología de problematización. Se investigaron los indicadores de casos nuevos de hanseniasis, en residentes de Palmas, y se identificaron sus tendencias mediante análisis de regresión joinpoint para la evaluación de los resultados. En el año de implementación del proyecto de intervención (2016), el coeficiente de detección de casos nuevos en la población general fue de 236,3/100 mil habitantes, y ese indicador presentaba una disminución significativa de un -7,5%, durante el período de 2002 a 2014. Entre los años de 2014 a 2016, hubo un aumento significativo de un 104,6% en la detección general. El coeficiente de detección en menores de 15 años también presentaba una bajada de -4,6%, pero durante los años de 2014, 2015 y 2016, hubo un aumento de 111,1%, junto a los coeficientes de detección de casos con grado 0, 1 y 2, con un 59,3%, 225,2% y 121,7%, respectivamente. La proporción de casos detectados por la evaluación de contactos tuvo un aumento significativo de un 201,1%, durante el período de 2014 a 2016. Los datos comprobaron la efectividad y potencialidad de la estrategia de intervención del proyecto para las acciones de diagnóstico y control de la hanseniasis en Palmas. Hubo evidencias de que la agilidad diagnóstica de los servicios de atención primaria se traduce en indicadores que reflejan la incidencia real de casos.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Evaluación de Programas y Proyectos de Salud , Lepra Multibacilar/prevención & control , Lepra Multibacilar/epidemiología , Lepra Paucibacilar/prevención & control , Lepra Paucibacilar/epidemiología , Atención Primaria de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Valores de Referencia , Factores de Tiempo , Índice de Severidad de la Enfermedad , Brasil/epidemiología , Incidencia , Prevalencia , Análisis de Regresión , Personal de Salud/educación , Enfermedades Endémicas , Sistemas de Información en Salud
17.
Clin. biomed. res ; 38(4): 348-355, 2018.
Artículo en Portugués | LILACS | ID: biblio-1023937

RESUMEN

Introdução: A hanseníase é de grande importância para a saúde pública, devido à sua epidemiologia e a seu poder incapacitante. A eficiência no diagnóstico desta doença é limitada. O objetivo deste estudo foi o de analisar o desempenho de um teste rápido imunocromatográfico para hanseníase multibacilar (MB) e paucibacilar (PB), em amostras positivas e negativas pela baciloscopia de raspado dérmico em pacientes diagnosticados com hanseníase, comparando analiticamente com os critérios da Organização Mundial da Saúde (OMS). Métodos: O estudo foi realizado no município de Ji-Paraná/RO, entre 2015 e 2016, sendo avaliados 140 indivíduos. A análise comparativa entre os métodos foi realizada pelo cálculo de sensibilidade e especificidade utilizando o software SPSS®. Foi estimado o índice de Kappa (k) para avaliação da concordância entre os métodos. Valores de p <0,05 foram considerados significativos. Resultados: O índice de concordância entre o teste rápido e a classificação da OMS foi de k= 0,94 (p <0,01). Quando comparado a baciloscopia de indivíduos com hanseníase PB e o teste rápido, foi verificada concordância não significante (k= 0,01; p= 0,59). Comparando a concordância entre a baciloscopia de indivíduos com hanseníase MB e o teste rápido, foi detectado um índice de k= 0,64 (p <0,01). Além disso, sensibilidade de 94% e especificidade de 98% foram detectadas para hanseníase PB. Para hanseníase MB a sensibilidade foi de 95% e a especificidade de 98%. Conclusão: O teste rápido avaliado é uma ferramenta útil, rápida e eficaz no auxílio do diagnóstico da hanseníase. (AU)


Introduction: Leprosy is of great importance for public health because of its epidemiology and disabling power. Efficiency in the diagnosis of this disease is limited. The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of a rapid immunochromatographic test for multibacillary (MB) and paucibacillary (BP) leprosy, in positive and negative samples by skin smear examination in patients with leprosy, and to compare the rapid test analytically with World Health Organization (WHO) criteria. Methods: The study was conducted in the municipality of Ji-Paraná/RO, Brazil, between 2015 and 2016. In total, 140 individuals were evaluated. For a comparative analysis of the methods, sensitivity and specificity were calculated using SPSS® software. The Kappa (k) index was used to evaluate agreement between the methods. A p-value < 0.05 was considered significant. Results: Regarding agreement between the rapid test and WHO classification, k index was 0.94 (p < 0.01). When skin smear of individuals with BP leprosy was compared to the rapid test, agreement was non-significant (k = 0.01; p = 0.59). For agreement between skin smear of individuals with MB leprosy and the rapid test, a k index of 0.64 (p < 0.01) was detected. In addition, for PB leprosy sensitivity was 94% and specificity was 98%, while for MB leprosy sensitivity was 95% and specificity was 98%. Conclusion: The rapid test is a useful tool, fast and effective in aiding the diagnosis of leprosy. (AU)


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Lepra Multibacilar/diagnóstico , Lepra Multibacilar/epidemiología , Lepra Paucibacilar/diagnóstico , Lepra Paucibacilar/epidemiología , Brasil/epidemiología
18.
Fontilles, Rev. leprol ; 31(3): 167-175, sept.-dic. 2017. graf, tab
Artículo en Español | IBECS | ID: ibc-170808

RESUMEN

La lepra es una enfermedad incluida en el grupo de enfermedades desatendidas según la Organización Mundial de la Salud, en Cuba la enfermedad dejó de ser un problema de salud desde 1993. En La Habana se notifican cada año casos de lepra de forma tardía con diferentes grados de discapacidad. El objetivo de este estudio fue caracterizar a los enfermos notificados de lepra tardíamente en La Habana. Se realizó un estudio longitudinal, descriptivo y retrospectivo de los casos de lepra diagnosticados tardíamente en la provincia entre 2008 y 2016, se incluyeron 96 casos a los cuales se revisó la Encuesta Epidemiológica para enfermos de lepra para evaluar variables como edad, sexo, tiempo transcurrido entre los primeros síntomas y el diagnóstico, grado de discapacidad al diagnóstico, formas clínicas y especialidades involucrados en el diagnóstico tardío. El grupo de edad más afectado fue el de 25 a 59 años, los municipios más afectados fueron Lisa y Arroyo Naranjo, predominó la forma clínica multibacilar, y la discapacidad grado ll se presentó en el 18% de los casos. Se evidenció la importancia de un diagnóstico precoz para evitar la aparición de discapacidades y que los municipios periféricos tienen la mayor posibilidad de diagnosticar casos tardíos


Leprosy is a disease included in the group of neglected diseases by The World Health Organization. In Cuba, the disease has ceased to be a health problem since 1993. In Havana, each year cases of late leprosy are reported with various grades of disability. The aim of this study was to characterize the behavior of patient whom reported with late leprosy in Havana. We conducted a longitudinal, descriptive and retrospective study of the leprosy cases diagnosed late in the province between 2008 and 2016. We included 96 cases in which the epidemiological survey for leprosy patients was carried out, variables such as age, sex, time elapsed between the first symptoms and the diagnosis, degree of disability at diagnosis, clinical forms, and specialties involved in the late diagnosis were evaluated. The most affected age group was between 25-59 years old, the most affected municipalities were Lisa and Arroyo Naranjo, the multibacillary clinical form predominated, and the grade II disability was present in 18% of the cases. The importance of an early diagnosis to avoid the appearance of disability in the patients was put in evidence by the series studied and the most peripheral municipalities are the one with the greatest possibility of diagnosing late cases


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Lepra/epidemiología , Mycobacterium leprae/patogenicidad , Enfermedades Desatendidas/epidemiología , Diagnóstico Tardío , Cuba/epidemiología , Lepra Multibacilar/epidemiología , Tiempo de Tratamiento/tendencias , Personas con Discapacidad
19.
Pan Afr Med J ; 27: 174, 2017.
Artículo en Francés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28904702

RESUMEN

Leprosy is an infectious and transmissible disease. According to the WHO, the number of new cases of leprosy in children in Senegal has risen moderately since 2013. This study aimed to analyze the epidemiological, clinical, therapeutic and evolutionary features of leprosy in children in the geographical areas of two social rehabilitation villages in the region of Thiès. We conducted a retrospective study over a period of 3 years (2013-2015). All new cases of Hansen's disease aged 0 -15 years were included. Over the three year period, 39 children were included in the study, with a boy predominance (n=23, 59%). Among these children, 27 (66.7%) came from a social rehabilitation village for leprosy patients. One family member was affected by leprosy in 27 cases (69.2%). More than half of the children (23 cases, 58.9%) had multibacillary leprosy (lepromatous-lepromatous). All children underwent a 12-month treatment, at the end of which thirty-six (92.3%) children were healed. Leprosy is still present in Senegal despite the efforts made by the national programme to combat leprosy. In the light of these results, it is important to emphasize the role of active screening strategy targeted to children, which seems to have shown its effectiveness in the region. Early detection, contact tracing and early treatment are important factors in the reduction of the contagiousity of leprosy.


Asunto(s)
Leprostáticos/administración & dosificación , Lepra Multibacilar/epidemiología , Lepra/epidemiología , Programas Nacionales de Salud , Adolescente , Niño , Preescolar , Femenino , Humanos , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Lepra/tratamiento farmacológico , Lepra/prevención & control , Lepra Multibacilar/tratamiento farmacológico , Lepra Multibacilar/prevención & control , Masculino , Recurrencia , Estudios Retrospectivos , Senegal/epidemiología , Resultado del Tratamiento
20.
Fontilles, Rev. leprol ; 31(2): 119-132, mayo-ago. 2017. ilus, tab, graf, mapas
Artículo en Español | IBECS | ID: ibc-167626

RESUMEN

Objetivos: El objetivo del estudio es describir los patrones y tendencias de la lepra autóctona en la Comunidad Valenciana (España). Métodos: Se incluyeron todos los casos nuevos d lepra de la Comunidad Valenciana entre los años 1940 y 2015. Se excluyeron pacientes de otros países u otras regiones españolas. Los nuevos casos se analizaron por edad, sexo, forma clínica, ocupación y distribución geográfica. Resultados: Se incluyeron 442 pacientes presumiblemente autóctonos. La incidencia disminuye de forma constante a lo largo del período de estudio. La edad media al comienzo de la enfermedad aumenta desde 34·2 años durante el período 1940-1949 hasta 59·5 años durante 2000-2015. No se detectaron nuevos casos desde 2006 y ningún caso nacidos después de 1973. Los pacientes eran mayoritariamente hombres (57·7%) y el 85·4% con tipo multibacilar. La proporción de casos multibacilares aumentó gradualmente después de 1970. La mayoría de los pacientes varones (67·9%) desarrollaban labores en el campo. La mayoría de los casos, sobre todo en los últimos períodos, se concentran en las regiones costeras. Conclusiones: Nuestros resultados concuerdan con otros estudios de otras regiones con características semejantes y sugieren que la transmisión de M. leprae en esta área ha sido interrumpida. La lepra autóctona ha sido mayoritariamente masculina con muchos casos multibacilares. Hay que investigar más porque su distribución geográfica y la elevada incidencia en trabajadores del campo sugieren posibles causas medioambientales


Objectives: The aim of this study was to describe the patterns and trends of autochthonous leprosy in the Valencia Region (Spain). Methods: : We included all new leprosy cases originating from the Valencia Region between the years 1940 and 2015. Patients originating from other countries or other Spanish regions were excluded. New cases were analysed by age, sex, clinical type, occupation, and geographic distribution.Results: A total of 442 patients with presumably autochthonous leprosy were included. Incidence rates consistently declined over the study period. Mean age at onset gradually increased from 34·2 years during the period 1940-1949 to 59·5 years during 2000-2015. There were no cases with clinical onset after 2006 and no cases born after 1973. Patients were predominantly males (57·7%) and 85·4% had multibacillary leprosy. The proportion of multibacillary cases increased gradually after 1970. The majority of male patients (67·9%) worked in agriculture. Most of the cases, especially during the later periods, were concentrated in the coastal regions. Conclusions: Our findings are consistent with trends described in other regions with declining leprosy incidence rates and suggest that the transmission of M. leprae infection in this area may well have now stopped. Autochthonous leprosy in this region has had a male predominance and a high proportion of multibacillary cases. The geographic distribution and the high incidence in agricultural workers suggest that environmental factors should be further explored (AU)


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Lepra/epidemiología , Mycobacterium leprae/aislamiento & purificación , Distribución por Edad y Sexo , Lepra Multibacilar/epidemiología , Población Rural/estadística & datos numéricos
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