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1.
Int J Dermatol ; 57(9): 1107-1113, 2018 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29809278

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Various clinical criteria are used to categorize leprosy patients into paucibacillary (PB) and multibacillary (MB), thus aiding in appropriate treatment. However, comprehensive studies validating these criteria are minimal. AIMS: To assess sensitivity and specificity of different clinical criteria individually and in combination for classifying leprosy into PB/MB spectrum. METHOD: A prospective study was conducted wherein 50 newly diagnosed, untreated leprosy cases were recruited and classified into PB and MB using the following clinical criteria: number of skin lesions (NSL), number of body areas affected (NBAA), and size of largest skin lesion (SLSL). Patients with pure neuritic leprosy, diffuse macular type of lepromatous leprosy, and with reactions were excluded. Sensitivity and specificity of these clinical criteria in classification was calculated taking histopathological findings as gold standard. RESULTS: Among 50 patients, 37 were males and 13 were females with a mean age of 32.08 ± 16.55 years. The sensitivity and specificity of NSL, NBAA, and SLSL was 94.74 and 87.1%, 94.74 and 61.29%, and 73.68 and 16.13%, respectively. Combining all three criteria, the sensitivity increased to 100%, but specificity decreased drastically to 12.9%. The ROC curve for NSL, NBAA, and SLSL showed a cutoff of ≥6 skin lesions, ≥3 body areas affected, and ≤2 cm lesion to classify as MB. CONCLUSION: The current WHO system of leprosy classification based on NSL seems to be best among available clinical criteria. Uniform and sensible application of this criteria itself assures appropriate categorizing and leprosy treatment with reasonable sensitivity and specificity.


Asunto(s)
Lepra Multibacilar/clasificación , Lepra Multibacilar/diagnóstico , Lepra Paucibacilar/clasificación , Lepra Paucibacilar/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Adulto , Femenino , Humanos , India , Lepra Multibacilar/patología , Lepra Paucibacilar/patología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estudios Prospectivos , Curva ROC , Centros de Atención Terciaria , Adulto Joven
2.
Rev Soc Bras Med Trop ; 50(2): 208-215, 2017.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28562757

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: : Currently, there are no laboratory tests or sensitive and specific molecular markers for the early diagnosis of leprosy. The aim of this study was to analyze the clinical characteristics of patients with leprosy and investigate their immunological profile, comparing this with the type of lesion and the presence or absence of a Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination scar. METHODS:: Statistical analyzes were performed by employing comparative tests (Pearson´s chi-square) to evaluate the variables in different clinical forms, considering significance at the 5% level. RESULTS: : The study identified a predominance of lepromatous leprosy (26.9%) in patients aged between 34-53 years. Caucasians predominantly had borderline tuberculoid (BT) clinical forms (42%); a predominance of males with borderline lepromatous (19%) and lepromatous leprosy (26.9%) forms was observed; and the presence of BCG vaccination scars (27.5%) and lower limb nerves were more affected (38%) predominantly in the BT clinical form. Significant differences were identified, which included hypochromic lesions predominantly in the BT clinical form (24%); diffuse-type lesions predominantly in the tuberculoid (TT) clinical form (28%); ill-defined lesion border dominance in lepromatous leprosy (LL) clinical forms (30%); an irregular lesion limit predominantly in LL clinical forms (32%); and a predominant Th1 immune response in the BT clinical form (41.7%). CONCLUSIONS: : The evaluation of the immunological profile in leprosy patients may contribute to the more detailed diagnosis and possibly better characterization of the prognosis for these individuals.


Asunto(s)
Lepra Multibacilar/diagnóstico , Lepra Multibacilar/inmunología , Lepra Paucibacilar/diagnóstico , Lepra Paucibacilar/inmunología , Células TH1/inmunología , Células Th2/inmunología , Adolescente , Adulto , Biopsia , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Técnica del Anticuerpo Fluorescente , Humanos , Lepra Multibacilar/clasificación , Lepra Paucibacilar/clasificación , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Células TH1/metabolismo , Adulto Joven
3.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 92(6): 1280-4, 2015 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25940192

RESUMEN

The uniform multidrug therapy clinical trial, Brazil (U-MDT/CT-BR), database was used to describe and report the performance of available tools to classify 830 leprosy patients as paucibacillary (PB) and multibacillary (MB) at baseline. In a modified Ridley and Jopling (R&J) classification, considering clinical features, histopathological results of skin biopsies and the slit-skin smear bacterial load results were used as the gold standard method for classification. Anti-phenolic glycolipid-I (PGL-I) serology by ML Flow test, the slit skin smear bacterial load, and the number of skin lesions were evaluated. Considering the R&J classification system as gold standard, ML Flow tests correctly allocated 70% patients in the PB group and 87% in the MB group. The classification based on counting the number of skin lesions correctly allocated 46% PB patients and 99% MB leprosy cases. Slit skin smears properly classified 91% and 97% of PB and MB patients, respectively. Based on U-MDT/CT-BR results, classification of leprosy patients for treatment purposes is unnecessary because it does not impact clinical and laboratories outcomes. In this context, the identification of new biomarkers to detect patients at a higher risk to develop leprosy reactions or relapse remains an important research challenge.


Asunto(s)
Leprostáticos/uso terapéutico , Lepra/clasificación , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Biopsia , Brasil , Niño , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Lepra/diagnóstico , Lepra/tratamiento farmacológico , Lepra/patología , Lepra Multibacilar/clasificación , Lepra Multibacilar/diagnóstico , Lepra Multibacilar/tratamiento farmacológico , Lepra Multibacilar/patología , Lepra Paucibacilar/clasificación , Lepra Paucibacilar/diagnóstico , Lepra Paucibacilar/tratamiento farmacológico , Lepra Paucibacilar/patología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Piel/microbiología , Piel/patología , Adulto Joven
4.
Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz ; 109(7): 944-7, 2014 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25411000

RESUMEN

The diagnosis of single-lesion paucibacillary leprosy remains a challenge. Reviews by expert dermatopathologists and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) results obtained from 66 single-plaque biopsy samples were compared. Histological findings were graded as high (HP), medium (MP) or low (LP) probability of leprosy or other dermatopathy (OD). Mycobacterium leprae-specific genes were detected using qPCR. The biopsies of 47 out of 57 clinically diagnosed patients who received multidrug therapy were classified as HP/MP, eight of which were qPCR negative. In the LP/OD (n = 19), two out of eight untreated patients showed positive qPCR results. In the absence of typical histopathological features, qPCR may be utilised to aid in final patient diagnosis, thus reducing overtreatment and delay in diagnosis.


Asunto(s)
ADN Bacteriano/análisis , Lepra Paucibacilar/diagnóstico , Mycobacterium leprae/genética , Piel/patología , Biopsia/clasificación , Técnicas de Apoyo para la Decisión , Femenino , Humanos , Lepra Paucibacilar/clasificación , Masculino , Reacción en Cadena de la Polimerasa/métodos , Piel/lesiones , Centros de Atención Terciaria
5.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 109(7): 944-947, 11/2014. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS | ID: lil-728804

RESUMEN

The diagnosis of single-lesion paucibacillary leprosy remains a challenge. Reviews by expert dermatopathologists and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) results obtained from 66 single-plaque biopsy samples were compared. Histological findings were graded as high (HP), medium (MP) or low (LP) probability of leprosy or other dermatopathy (OD). Mycobacterium leprae-specific genes were detected using qPCR. The biopsies of 47 out of 57 clinically diagnosed patients who received multidrug therapy were classified as HP/MP, eight of which were qPCR negative. In the LP/OD (n = 19), two out of eight untreated patients showed positive qPCR results. In the absence of typical histopathological features, qPCR may be utilised to aid in final patient diagnosis, thus reducing overtreatment and delay in diagnosis.


Asunto(s)
Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , ADN Bacteriano/análisis , Lepra Paucibacilar/diagnóstico , Mycobacterium leprae/genética , Piel/patología , Biopsia/clasificación , Técnicas de Apoyo para la Decisión , Lepra Paucibacilar/clasificación , Reacción en Cadena de la Polimerasa/métodos , Piel/lesiones , Centros de Atención Terciaria
6.
Rev Soc Bras Med Trop ; 45(5): 616-9, 2012 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23152346

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Operational classification of leprosy based on the number of skin lesions was conceived to screen patients presenting severe forms of the disease to enable their reception of a more intense multidrug regimen without having to undergo lymph smear testing. We evaluated the concordance between operational classification and bacilloscopy to define multibacillary and paucibacillary leprosy. METHODS: We selected 1,213 records of individuals with leprosy, who were untreated (new cases) and admitted to a dermatology clinic in Recife, Brazil, from 2000 to 2005, and who underwent bacteriological examination at diagnosis for ratification of the operational classification. RESULTS: Compared to bacilloscopy, operational classification demonstrated 88.6% sensitivity, 76.9% specificity, a positive predictive value of 61.8%, and a negative predictive value of 94.1%, with 80% accuracy and a moderate kappa index. Among the bacilloscopy-negative cases, 23% had more than 5 skin lesions. Additionally, 11% of the bacilloscopy-positive cases had up to 5 lesions, which would have led to multibacillary cases being treated as paucibacillary leprosy if the operational classification had not been confirmed by bacilloscopy. CONCLUSIONS: Operational classification has limitations that are more obvious in borderline cases, suggesting that in these cases, lymph smear testing is advisable to enable the selection of true multibacillary cases for more intense treatment, thereby contributing to minimization of resistant strain selection and possible relapse.


Asunto(s)
Técnicas Bacteriológicas/métodos , Lepra Multibacilar/microbiología , Lepra Paucibacilar/microbiología , Mycobacterium leprae/aislamiento & purificación , Enfermedades Desatendidas/microbiología , Piel/microbiología , Adolescente , Adulto , Brasil , Niño , Preescolar , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Lactante , Lepra Multibacilar/clasificación , Lepra Paucibacilar/clasificación , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Enfermedades Desatendidas/clasificación , Estudios Retrospectivos , Sensibilidad y Especificidad , Adulto Joven
7.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 45(5): 616-619, Sept.-Oct. 2012. tab
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS | ID: lil-656218

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Operational classification of leprosy based on the number of skin lesions was conceived to screen patients presenting severe forms of the disease to enable their reception of a more intense multidrug regimen without having to undergo lymph smear testing. We evaluated the concordance between operational classification and bacilloscopy to define multibacillary and paucibacillary leprosy. METHODS: We selected 1,213 records of individuals with leprosy, who were untreated (new cases) and admitted to a dermatology clinic in Recife, Brazil, from 2000 to 2005, and who underwent bacteriological examination at diagnosis for ratification of the operational classification. RESULTS: Compared to bacilloscopy, operational classification demonstrated 88.6% sensitivity, 76.9% specificity, a positive predictive value of 61.8%, and a negative predictive value of 94.1%, with 80% accuracy and a moderate kappa index. Among the bacilloscopy-negative cases, 23% had more than 5 skin lesions. Additionally, 11% of the bacilloscopy-positive cases had up to 5 lesions, which would have led to multibacillary cases being treated as paucibacillary leprosy if the operational classification had not been confirmed by bacilloscopy. CONCLUSIONS: Operational classification has limitations that are more obvious in borderline cases, suggesting that in these cases, lymph smear testing is advisable to enable the selection of true multibacillary cases for more intense treatment, thereby contributing to minimization of resistant strain selection and possible relapse.


INTRODUÇÃO: A classificação operacional da hanseníase baseada no número de lesões de pele foi concebida para selecionar pacientes que apresentam formas graves da doença para receber regime terapêutico mais intenso com múltiplas drogas sem o exame de baciloscopia da linfa. Nós avaliamos a concordância entre a classificação operacional e a baciloscopia para a definição de hanseníase multibacilar e paucibacilar. MÉTODOS: Nós selecionamos 1.213 registros de indivíduos com hanseníase não tratada (casos novos), atendidos em um Ambulatório de Dermatologia, em Recife, Brasil, no período de 2000 a 2005, que foram submetidos a exame bacteriológico ao diagnóstico para a ratificação da classificação operacional. RESULTADOS: Comparando com a baciloscopia, a classificação operacional baseada no número de lesões cutâneas mostrou sensibilidade de 88,6%, especificidade 76,9%, valor preditivo positivo de 61,8% e valor preditivo negativo de 94,1%, com uma precisão de 80% e um moderado índice kappa. Entre os casos com baciloscopia negativa, 23% tinham mais de cinco lesões de pele, recebendo um tratamento mais intensivo. Além disso, 11% dos casos baciloscopia positiva tinham até cinco lesões, o que induziriam casos multibacilares de serem tratados com hanseníase paucibacilar se a classificação operacional não tivesse sido confirmada pela baciloscopia. CONCLUSÕES: Concluímos que a classificação operacional tem limitações mais visíveis nos casos borderline, sugerindo que, nestes casos, o esfregaço seria aconselhável por permitir que os verdadeiros casos multibacilares fossem selecionados para um tratamento mais intenso, contribuindo para minimizar a seleção de cepas resistentes e uma possível recidiva.


Asunto(s)
Adolescente , Adulto , Niño , Preescolar , Femenino , Humanos , Lactante , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Adulto Joven , Técnicas Bacteriológicas/métodos , Lepra Multibacilar/microbiología , Lepra Paucibacilar/microbiología , Mycobacterium leprae/aislamiento & purificación , Enfermedades Desatendidas/microbiología , Piel/microbiología , Brasil , Estudios Transversales , Lepra Multibacilar/clasificación , Lepra Paucibacilar/clasificación , Enfermedades Desatendidas/clasificación , Estudios Retrospectivos , Sensibilidad y Especificidad
8.
Lepr Rev ; 83(4): 354-62, 2012 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23614253

RESUMEN

UNLABELLED: WHO guidelines classify leprosy patients clinically into PB and MB group based on the number of skin lesions (NSL) with > or = 6 skin lesions as a criterion for MB leprosy. Other clinical criteria for classification are based on the number of body areas affected (NBAA) and on size of the largest skin lesions (SLSL). They are also fairly simple and easily practicable in the field. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study is to explore whether sensitivity and specificity of the WHO classification can be improved by addition of clinical criteria based on NBAA and SLSL to WHO classification. STUDY DESIGN: Among 100 newly diagnosed untreated leprosy patients classified into PB and MB group according to WHO classification, the NSL and NBAA were recorded and the size (longest diameter) of largest skin lesion was measured in centimeters. The Receiver Operator Characteristic (ROC) curves were plotted for each parameter to find the best cut off point (with highest sensitivity and specificity). RESULTS: The sensitivity and specificity of the WHO classification tested, using slit-skin smear (SSS) and skin biopsy results as the gold standard, was found to be 63% and 85% respectively. The ROC curve for NSL found the best cut off of three and more lesions for MB group (sensitivity 90% & specificity 80%). Similarly, ROC curves for NBAA and SLSL found the best cut off points for classification into MB group to be two or more (sensitivity 90% & specificity 75%) and 5 cm or more (sensitivity 87% and specificity 65%) respectively. On combining all these criteria together sensitivity was increased to 98.5% with no significant change in specificity, which was 77.5%. CONCLUSION: The study concluded that the sensitivity of the present clinical classification can be further improved by addition of two other clinical criteria.


Asunto(s)
Lepra Multibacilar/clasificación , Lepra Multibacilar/diagnóstico , Lepra Paucibacilar/clasificación , Lepra Paucibacilar/diagnóstico , Piel/patología , Adolescente , Adulto , Biopsia , Niño , Preescolar , Femenino , Humanos , Lactante , Lepra Multibacilar/microbiología , Lepra Multibacilar/patología , Lepra Paucibacilar/microbiología , Lepra Paucibacilar/patología , Masculino , Mycobacterium leprae/aislamiento & purificación , Servicio Ambulatorio en Hospital , Examen Físico , Guías de Práctica Clínica como Asunto , Curva ROC , Estudios Retrospectivos , Piel/microbiología , Organización Mundial de la Salud
9.
Niterói; s.n; 1997. [119] p. tab.
Tesis en Portugués | LILACS | ID: lil-682205

RESUMEN

Foram estudados retrospectivamente 185 pacientes hansenianos do Centro de Referência em Hanseníase do Ministério da Saúde da Fundação Oswaldo Cruz, classificados como paubacilares, que seguindo as recomendações da Organização Mundial de Saúde em 1982, receberam tratamento poliquimioterápico (PQT/OMS) com dose fixa...Através das correlações entre as variações podemos observar que não houve correlação entre o número de lesões cutâneas iniciais e o número de troncos neurais espessados (inicial) e qu eo número de troncos neurais espessados (inicial) não interferiu no grau de incapacidade inicial e final. A evolução clínica das lesões cutâneas e a evolução das lesões neurológicas não sofreram interferência das variáveis estudadas.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Quimioterapia Combinada , Lepra Paucibacilar/clasificación , Lepra Paucibacilar/epidemiología , Lepra Paucibacilar/historia , Lepra Paucibacilar/inmunología , Lepra Paucibacilar/terapia , Lepromina , Lepra Tuberculoide , Salud Pública , Estudios Retrospectivos
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