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1.
Recurso de Internet en Portugués | LIS - Localizador de Información en Salud | ID: lis-LISBR1.1-47229

RESUMEN

Produzido pela Editora Caras, com o apoio do Facebook Journalism Project e do ICFJ – Internacional Center for Journalists, o documentário ‘Hanseníase Ontem e Hoje’ traz histórias emocionantes para abordar um tema que deve ser divulgado e debatido por conta da dificuldade que ainda existe em se diagnosticar a doença precocemente no Brasil e no mundo.


Asunto(s)
Lepra , Historia , Lepra/historia , Aislamiento Social , Estigma Social
2.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 13(10): e0007713, 2019 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31603913

RESUMEN

Few investigations to date have analyzed the epidemiology of Hansen's disease (leprosy) in the United States, and in particular, if birth location is related to multibacillary versus paucibacillary leprosy. We collected data on 123 patients diagnosed with leprosy in Georgia from the National Hansen's Disease Program from 1923-January 2018. A logistic regression model was built to examine the relationship between country of origin (U.S.-born or immigrant) and the type of leprosy. While the model showed no significant relationship between country of origin and type of leprosy, being Asian or Pacific Islander was associated with a higher odds of multibacillary disease (aOR = 5.71; 95% CI: 1.25-26.29). Furthermore, since the early 1900s, we found an increasing trend of leprosy reports in Georgia among both domestic born and immigrant residents, despite the overall decrease in cases in the United States during the same time period. More research is therefore necessary to further evaluate risk for multibacillary leprosy in certain populations and to create targeted interventions and prevention strategies.


Asunto(s)
Lepra/epidemiología , Lepra/historia , Emigrantes e Inmigrantes , Grupos Étnicos , Femenino , Georgia/epidemiología , Historia del Siglo XX , Historia del Siglo XXI , Humanos , Lepra/prevención & control , Lepra Multibacilar/epidemiología , Lepra Multibacilar/historia , Lepra Multibacilar/prevención & control , Lepra Paucibacilar/epidemiología , Lepra Paucibacilar/historia , Lepra Paucibacilar/prevención & control , Masculino , Estados Unidos
3.
Ann Hum Biol ; 46(2): 120-128, 2019 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31137975

RESUMEN

Context: Tuberculosis and leprosy are readily recognised in human remains due to their typical palaeopathology. Both Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) and Mycobacterium leprae (ML) are obligate pathogens and have been detected in ancient human populations. Objective: To demonstrate historical tuberculosis and leprosy cases in Europe and beyond using molecular methods, as human populations are associated with different mycobacterial genotypes. Methods: MTB and ML ancient DNA (aDNA) has been detected by DNA amplification using PCR, or by whole genome sequencing. Mycobacterial cell wall lipids also provide specific markers for identification. Results: In 18th century Hungary, the European indigenous MTB genotype 4 strains have been found. However, many individuals were co-infected with up to three MTB sub-genotypes. In 8th-14th century Europe significant differences in ML genotypes were found between northwest Europe compared with central, southern, or eastern Europe. In addition, several co-infections of MTB and ML were detected in historical samples. Conclusion: Both MTB and ML strain types differ between geographically separate populations. This is associated with ancient human migration after an evolutionary bottleneck and clonal expansion. The absence of indigenous leprosy in Europe today may be due to the greater mortality of tuberculosis in individuals who are co-infected with both organisms.


Asunto(s)
ADN Antiguo/análisis , Migración Humana/historia , Lepra/historia , Mycobacterium leprae/genética , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/genética , Tuberculosis/historia , Europa (Continente) , Genotipo , Historia del Siglo XVII , Historia del Siglo XVIII , Historia Medieval , Humanos , Lepra/microbiología , Paleopatología , Reacción en Cadena de la Polimerasa , Tuberculosis/microbiología , Secuenciación Completa del Genoma
5.
Anthropol Anz ; 76(2): 149-166, 2019 Jun 24.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30942817

RESUMEN

The consequences of urbanization, such as increased exposure to pathogens, have long been considered detrimental to human health. During the first half of the Danish medieval period, towns were established and throughout the period population increased. The following study analyzes the relationship between urbanization and disease frequency - specifically leprosy and tuberculosis - in four skeletal samples from medieval Denmark using a paleoepidemiological approach. Skeletons from two urban sites (Ole Wormsgade and Ribe Grey Friary) and two rural sites (Øm Kloster and Sejet), all located in the Jutland region of Denmark, were selected for this analysis (n = 204). All skeletons included date to the middle part of the Danish medieval period (AD 1200-1400). Six skeletal leprosy indicators and six skeletal tuberculosis indicators were analyzed, and disease frequencies in the samples were estimated using a probabilistic approach based on lesion sensitivity and specificity. The effect of tuberculosis on survival in urban and rural samples was evaluated using Kaplan-Meier survival analyses. The frequency of leprosy at death varied between four and 19 percent among the four cemeteries with Ole Wormsgade having the highest frequency. The estimated frequency of tuberculosis at death varied between 39 and 69 percent. Here, Sejet cemetery had the highest frequency. There were significant differences in survival for those with and without tuberculosis-related lesions between sites, but there were no significant differences between urban and rural sites. The analyses presented in this paper suggest that disease prevalence in skeletal samples cannot be sufficiently explained by urbanization alone; rather, there are likely other biological and behavioral sources of heterogeneity that are contributing factors to past disease experience.


Asunto(s)
Lepra , Tuberculosis , Urbanización , Huesos , Dinamarca/epidemiología , Historia Medieval , Humanos , Lepra/epidemiología , Lepra/historia , Prevalencia , Tuberculosis/epidemiología , Tuberculosis/historia
6.
Anthropol Anz ; 76(2): 167-187, 2019 Jun 24.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30942818

RESUMEN

During the 12th and 13th centuries, numerous leprosy hospitals were founded in Europe. Given that leprosy was not considered infectious, this may reflect social dimensions of the disease. Aiming at exploring the impact of leprosy on medieval people and the organisation of the Danish leprosarium at Næstved, we reconstructed the diet of twenty patients using stable isotopes, and compared our results with relevant historical data. The isotope results revealed a terrestrial C3 diet with a small contribution of aquatic foods. Contrary to historical evidence of daily fish consumption in the leprosy hospital, only six individuals consumed relatively large amounts of freshwater fish. Leprosaria have been considered monastic institutions, and thus a varied diet, poor in aquatic protein, questions the monastic nature of the hospital and points to a social stratification. A multi-isotope analysis of a larger sample set would add to our understanding of the diet of the leprosy patients, as well as their treatment in the leprosarium.


Asunto(s)
Huesos , Dieta , Lepra , Animales , Dinamarca/epidemiología , Europa (Continente) , Historia Medieval , Humanos , Lepra/historia , Proyectos Piloto
8.
Rev. pesqui. cuid. fundam. (Online) ; 11(1): 47-52, jan.-mar. 2019.
Artículo en Inglés, Portugués | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermería | ID: biblio-968649

RESUMEN

Objetivo: Averiguar a compreensão que familiares de ex-doentes de hanseníase tratados em hospitais colônia têm sobre a doença. Método: Estudo qualitativo, enfocando a história oral temática. Os 52 familiares de ex-doentes de lepra que foram segregados no Hospital Colônia São Francisco de Assis compuseram a colônia. A rede foi constituída por 10 colaboradores, ambos os sexos, com idade entre 44 a 76 anos. A coleta de dados foi norteada por questões abertas que direcionaram as lembranças dos colaboradores para o propósito do estudo. As entrevistas foram gravadas, transcrita e analisadas pela análise temática de conteúdo. A pesquisa foi aprovada pelo Comitê de Ética em Pesquisa da Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, CAAE 25922214.3.0000.5537. Resultados: Identificaram-se duas categorias: a história no passado e a história no presente. Conclusão: Os entrevistados refletiram sobre política de controle da lepra no passado, assim como a adotada no presente frente à hanseníase


Objective: To assess the understanding that relatives of former leprosy patients treated in hospitals colony have about the disease. Method: Qualitative study, focusing on oral history. The 52 relatives of former leprosy patients who were segregated in Cologne Hospital São Francisco de Assis composed the colony. The network consisted of 10 employees, both sexes, aged 44-76 years. Data collection was guided by guiding questions that directed the memories of employees for the purpose of the study. The interviews were recorded, transcribed and analyzed for thematic content analysis. The research was approved by the Research Ethics Committee of the Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte, CAAE 25922214.3.0000.5537. Results: Resulting in two categories: The story and the last story in this. Conclusion: Respondents reflected rise leprosy control policy in the past, as well as adopted in the present front of the disease


Objetivo: Conocer el entendimiento de que los familiares de los ex pacientes de lepra tratados en hospitales colonia tienen sobre la enfermedad. Método: Estudio cualitativo, centrándose en la historia oral. Los 52 familiares de los ex pacientes de lepra segregados en Colonia Hospital São Francisco de Assis componen la colonia. La red se formó por 10 empleados, de ambos sexos, con edades entre 44-76 años. La recolección de datos fue guiado por preguntas abiertas se centraron en el propósito del estudio. Las entrevistas fueron grabadas, transcritas, analizadas para el análisis de contenido temático. Fue aprobado por el Comité de Ética de la Universidad Federal de Rio Grande do Norte, CAAE 25922214.3.0000.5537. Resultados: Lo que resulta en dos categorías: La historia y la última historia en esto. Conclusión: Los encuestados reflejaron suba política de control de la lepra en el pasado, así como adoptó en el presente frente a la enfermedad


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Adulto , Persona de Mediana Edad , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Relaciones Familiares , Lepra/historia , Acontecimientos que Cambian la Vida/historia , Estigma Social
9.
Monografía en Portugués | HISA - História de la Salud | ID: his-44257

RESUMEN

O artigo faz um apanhado histórico da doença ao longo de cinco séculos, verificando seu significado dicionarizado. Concentra a análise me território brasileiro no século XX


Asunto(s)
Lepra/historia , Brasil , Política de Salud , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles , Aislamiento de Pacientes , Promoción de la Salud
10.
Monografía en Portugués | HISA - História de la Salud | ID: his-44261

RESUMEN

Conta a criação do Hospício dos Lázaros de Tucunduba, como era mantido, a origem dos doentes. A história da lepra no Pará, assim como em outras partes do Brasil, é marcada por uma violenta política de exclusão das pessoas que contraíam essas doenças. Narrar as múltiplas formas de agência desses sujeitos constitui uma forma de valorizar suas experiências e de afirmar sua condição humana, apesar dos discursos e práticas que tentam colocá-los fora dessa condição


Asunto(s)
Aislamiento de Pacientes/historia , Lepra/historia , Brasil
11.
Monografía en Portugués | HISA - História de la Salud | ID: his-44264

RESUMEN

Aponta indícios da existência da lepra no Ceará durante o período colonial tendo por fontes periódicos locais. Comenta sobre o primeiro censo de leprosos feito no Ceará e mostra como se deu a criação de mecanismos para controle e prevenção da doença no Estado


Asunto(s)
Lepra/historia , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles , Brasil
12.
Monografía en Portugués | HISA - História de la Salud | ID: his-44266

RESUMEN

Na história da hanseníase no Brasil, há registros dos primeiros casos nos estados do Rio de Janeiro, Minas Gerais, Pará, Bahia e Pernambuco. Em relação a Alagoas, pouco se tem registrado da história da doença, razão dessa pesquisa em questão


Asunto(s)
Lepra/historia , Historia del Siglo XIX , Colonialismo
13.
Monografía en Portugués | HISA - História de la Salud | ID: his-44267

RESUMEN

O capítulo comenta sobre os mecanismos criados para controle da lepra na Bahia, dentre eles o Hospital São Cristóvão dos Lázaros, a Colônia Agrícola D. Rodrigo José de Menezes e o Movimento de Reintegração das Pessoas atingidas pela hanseníase


Asunto(s)
Lepra/historia , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles
14.
Monografía en Portugués | HISA - História de la Salud | ID: his-44268

RESUMEN

Este trabalho analisa algumas estratégias criadas e largamente utilizadas pela sociedade mato-grossense, especialmente parcelas das elites, para enfrentar os impactos sociais causados pela lepra (e pelos leprosos) nesta parte mais central da América do Sul, no período entre 1816 e 1941, tendo como eixo norteador da investigação as origens, a trajetória de abandono por muitos governantes da província e do estado de Mato Grosso (a partir do segundo, bem como a reforma, ampliação e reinauguração, em que veio a se concretizar na década de 1960


Asunto(s)
Lepra/historia , Aislamiento de Pacientes , Organizaciones de Beneficencia
15.
Monografía en Portugués | HISA - História de la Salud | ID: his-44270

RESUMEN

O problema da lepra começou a aparecer na documentação colonial quando o número de casos aumentou ou quando a preocupação com os leprosos se tornou mais presente. Conta a história do primeiro leprosário mineiro, como Aleijadinho abordou a doença em sua arte e a era do isolamento em Minas Gerais


Asunto(s)
Lepra/historia , Hospitales Especializados , Aislamiento de Pacientes
16.
Monografía en Portugués | HISA - História de la Salud | ID: his-44273

RESUMEN

No Brasil, o aparecimento da hanseníase coincide com a colonização do território. Tudo indica que os portugueses tenham sido os responsáveis pela introdução dessa doença até então desconhecida pela população indígena. O capítulo aborda a relação entre a lavoura cafeeira e o crescimento da hanseníase, a construção dos primeiros asilos, o Hospital de Guapira. Demonstra a estruturação do modelo paulista de profilaxia, a rede asilar paulista e suas características, o surgimento do modelo Santo Ângelo. Comenta sobre a situação atual dos antigos asilos-colônia


Asunto(s)
Lepra/historia , Colonialismo , Enfermedades Endémicas , Aislamiento de Pacientes
17.
Monografía en Portugués | HISA - História de la Salud | ID: his-44274

RESUMEN

Propõe uma retomada à discussão sobre a doença no inicio do século XX, quando o lembrar e o narrar eram constantes


Asunto(s)
Lepra/historia , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles , Historia del Siglo XX
18.
Monografía en Portugués | HISA - História de la Salud | ID: his-44275

RESUMEN

A Colônia Santa Teresa foi construída no contexto das políticas de combate à lepra no Brasil durante o Estado Novo de Getúlio Vargas abrigando em caráter compulsório 826 internos entre 1940 e 1952. Com o fim desse modelo de internamento muitos internos passaram a ganhar alta, retomando o convívio em sociedade. Contudo, alguns pacientes mais antigos acabaram retornando para esta instituição como uma forma de abrigo diante das dificuldades de inserção social, abandono dos familiares ou pela necessidade de tratamento diante dos efeitos da hanseníase. Atualmente, a instituição é conhecida como HSTDS - Hospital Santa Teresa de Dermatologia Sanitária


Asunto(s)
Lepra/historia , Aislamiento de Pacientes , Historia del Siglo XX , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles
19.
PLoS One ; 13(12): e0209495, 2018.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30586394

RESUMEN

Relatively little is known of leprosy in Medieval Ireland; as an island located at the far west of Europe it has the potential to provide interesting insights in relation to the historical epidemiology of the disease. To this end the study focuses on five cases of probable leprosy identified in human skeletal remains excavated from inhumation burials. Three of the individuals derived from the cemetery of St Michael Le Pole, Golden Lane, Dublin, while single examples were also identified from Ardreigh, Co. Kildare, and St Patrick's Church, Armoy, Co. Antrim. The individuals were radiocarbon dated and examined biomolecularly for evidence of either of the causative pathogens, M. leprae or M. lepromatosis. Oxygen and strontium isotopes were measured in tooth enamel and rib samples to determine where the individuals had spent their formative years and to ascertain if they had undertaken any recent migrations. We detected M. leprae DNA in the three Golden Lane cases but not in the probable cases from either Ardreigh Co. Kildare or Armoy, Co. Antrim. M. lepromatosis was not detected in any of the burals. DNA preservation was sufficiently robust to allow genotyping of M. leprae strains in two of the Golden Lane burials, SkCXCV (12-13th century) and SkCCXXX (11-13th century). These strains were found to belong on different lineages of the M. leprae phylogenetic tree, namely branches 3 and 2 respectively. Whole genome sequencing was also attempted on these two isolates with a view to gaining further information but poor genome coverage precluded phylogenetic analysis. Data from the biomolecular study was combined with osteological, isotopic and radiocarbon dating to provide a comprehensive and multidisciplinary study of the Irish cases. Strontium and oxygen isotopic analysis indicate that two of the individuals from Golden Lane (SkCXLVIII (10-11th century) and SkCXCV) were of Scandinavian origin, while SkCCXXX may have spent his childhood in the north of Ireland or central Britain. We propose that the Vikings were responsible for introducing leprosy to Ireland. This work adds to our knowledge of the likely origins of leprosy in Medieval Ireland and will hopefully stimulate further research into the history and spread of this ancient disease across the world.


Asunto(s)
Restos Mortales/microbiología , Lepra/historia , Mycobacterium leprae/aislamiento & purificación , Adulto , Arqueología/métodos , Restos Mortales/anatomía & histología , Huesos/química , Huesos/microbiología , Entierro , ADN Bacteriano/genética , ADN Bacteriano/aislamiento & purificación , Femenino , Técnicas de Genotipaje , Historia Medieval , Humanos , Irlanda , Lepra/microbiología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Mycobacterium leprae/genética , Isótopos de Oxígeno/análisis , Filogenia , Isótopos de Estroncio/análisis , Adulto Joven
20.
Clin Dermatol ; 36(6): 779-784, 2018.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30446203

RESUMEN

Father Adam Wisniewski (1913-1987), who was a Pallottine and a medical doctor with specialization in tropical diseases, devoted his life to helping and curing leprosy patients in India. His life proved difficult and varied. He began his medical studies during World War II in occupied Warsaw. What is more, he participated in the Warsaw Uprising in 1944, for which he later received the Cross of Valour, one of the highest Polish commendations. He learned about leprosy in France and then moved to India to use his medical knowledge to treat lepers and stop the spread of the disease. He created a center for the impoverished at Jeevodaya, India, which is still serves as a refuge for patients with leprosy.


Asunto(s)
Lepra/historia , Historia del Siglo XX , India , Lepra/terapia , Polonia
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