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1.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 18(1): 676, 2018 Aug 31.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30170573

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Inappropriate dispensing of antibiotics for acute respiratory illness (ARI) is common among drug sellers in Bangladesh. In this study, we evaluated the impact of an educational intervention to promote guidelines for better ARI management among drug sellers. METHODS: From June 2012 to December 2013, we conducted baseline and post-intervention surveys on dispensing practices in 100 pharmacies within Dhaka city. In these surveys, drug sellers participated in 6 standardized role-playing scenarios led by study staffs acting as caregivers of ARI patients and drug sellers were blinded to these surveys. After the baseline survey, we developed ARI guidelines and facilitated a one-day educational intervention about ARI management for drug sellers. Our guidelines only recommended antibiotics for children with complicated ARI. Finally, we conducted the six month post-intervention survey using the same scenarios to record changes in drug dispensing practices. RESULTS: Only 2/3 of participating pharmacies were licensed and few (11%) of drug sellers had pharmacy training. All the drug sellers were male, had a median age of 34 years (IQR 28-41). For children, dispensing of antibiotics for uncomplicated ARI decreased (30% baseline vs. 21% post-intervention; p = 0.04), but drug sellers were equally likely to dispense antibiotics for complicated ARI (15% baseline vs. 17% post-intervention; p = 0.6) and referrals to physicians for complicated ARIs decreased (70% baseline vs. 58% post-intervention; p = 0.03). For adults, antibiotic dispensing remained similar for uncomplicated ARI (48% baseline vs. 40% post-intervention; p = 0.1) but increased among those with complicated ARI (44% baseline vs. 78% post-intervention; p < 0.001). Although our evidence-based guidelines recommended against prescribing antihistamines for children, drug sellers continued to sell similar amounts for uncomplicated ARI (33% baseline vs. 32% post-intervention; p = 0.9). CONCLUSIONS: Despite the intervention, drug sellers continued to frequently dispense antibiotics for ARI, except for children with uncomplicated ARI. Pairing educational interventions among drug sellers with raising awareness about proper antibiotic use among general population should be further explored. In addition, annual licensing and an reaccreditation system with comprehensive monitoring should be enforced, using penalties for non-compliant pharmacies as possible incentives for appropriate dispensing practices.


Asunto(s)
Antibacterianos/uso terapéutico , Utilización de Medicamentos/estadística & datos numéricos , Uso Excesivo de los Servicios de Salud/prevención & control , Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio/tratamiento farmacológico , Enfermedad Aguda , Adulto , Bangladesh , Niño , Educación en Farmacia , Femenino , Humanos , Licencia en Farmacia , Masculino , Farmacias/legislación & jurisprudencia , Farmacéuticos , Proyectos Piloto , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Adulto Joven
2.
Curr Pharm Teach Learn ; 10(4): 523-528, 2018 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29793717

RESUMEN

OUR PROBLEM: As the pharmacy profession evolves to include non-dispensing services and collaborative care, greater emphasis is placed on communication skills building through standardized patient programs. Best practices for assuring the quality of standardized patient (SP) programs, however, remains unclear. The objective of this manuscript is to summarize quality assurance processes for standardized patient programs from health professions education literature. METHODOLOGICAL LITERATURE REVIEW: A search of PubMed and Scopus between 2011 and 2016 was conducted and 22 articles were retained for thematic analysis. Articles were screened for relevance to quality assurance. OUR RECOMMENDATIONS AND THEIR APPLICATIONS: The thematic analysis revealed four themes: (1) enhanced SP training programs, (2) structured feedback to students, (3) statistical measurements to ensure inter-rater reliability, and (4) observation and evaluation of the SP to improve SP performance. Specific methods to assure the quality of an SP program were identified, including training program content and feedback techniques. POTENTIAL IMPACT: Although SP programs varied widely in their implementation, there were several common strategies used to evaluate the consistency of performance, effectiveness of feedback to students, and reliability of grading. Additional research is necessary to establish standards for SP programs across professional healthcare disciplines.


Asunto(s)
Competencia Clínica/normas , Comunicación , Educación en Farmacia/métodos , Farmacéuticos/normas , Curriculum , Empatía , Retroalimentación Formativa , Humanos , Licencia en Farmacia , Variaciones Dependientes del Observador , Simulación de Paciente , Relaciones Médico-Paciente , Garantía de la Calidad de Atención de Salud , Enseñanza , Pensamiento , Estados Unidos
3.
Am J Pharm Educ ; 82(3): 6408, 2018 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29692443

RESUMEN

Objective. To determine if the new 2016 version of the North American Pharmacy Licensure Examination (NAPLEX) affected scores when controlling for student performance on other measures using data from one institution. Methods. There were 201 records from the classes of 2014-2016. Doubly robust estimation using weighted propensity scores was used to compare NAPLEX scaled scores and pass rates while considering student performance on other measures. Of the potential controllers of student performance: Pharmacy Curricular Outcomes Assessment (PCOA), scaled composite scores from the Pharmacy College Admission Test (PCAT), and P3 Grade Point Average (GPA). Only PCOA and P3 GPA were found to be appropriate for propensity scoring. Results. The weighted NAPLEX scaled scores did not significantly drop from the old (2014-2015) to the new (2016) version of NAPLEX. The change in pass rates between the new and old versions of NAPLEX were also non-significant. Conclusion. Using data from one institution, the new version itself of the NAPLEX did not have a significant effect on NAPLEX scores or first-time pass rates when controlling for student performance on other measures. Colleges are encouraged to repeat this analysis with pooled data and larger sample sizes.


Asunto(s)
Educación en Farmacia , Evaluación Educacional/métodos , Licencia en Farmacia , Estudiantes de Farmacia/estadística & datos numéricos , Prueba de Admisión Académica , Curriculum , Humanos , Farmacéuticos/legislación & jurisprudencia
5.
Curr Pharm Teach Learn ; 9(2): 178-184, 2017.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29233401

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: The Pharmacy Curriculum Outcomes Assessment (PCOA) is a recent assessment requirement for US pharmacy professional programs. This study analyses PCOA scores for uses described in the 2016 Standards with data from one professional program. METHODS: PCOA data were analyzed for two consecutive classes (n=215) of pharmacy students at the end of their didactic curriculum to explore relationships among PCOA scores, grade point average (GPA), and North American Pharmacist Licensure Examination (NAPLEX) scores utilizing regression analyses. RESULTS: Decisions about student learning based on PCOA scores and GPA indicated remediation would have been prescribed for approximately 7% of students. In comparison, NAPLEX scores revealed a 1% failure rate among the study sample. Relationships between PCOA scores and GPA (r=0.47) and NAPLEX (r=0.51) were moderate to large, respectively. GPA explained a larger portion of unique variance (14%) than PCOA (8%) in NAPLEX scores. CONCLUSIONS: In this sample of students, academic decisions would have varied depending upon the learning assessment, which is consistent with a moderate correlation between GPA and PCOA scores. Although PCOA scores correlate with GPA and NAPLEX, PCOA scores explained a smaller portion of unique variance in NAPLEX scores than GPA. The ongoing establishment of validity evidence of PCOA scores is important for meaningful interpretation of scores for the intended uses.


Asunto(s)
Curriculum/normas , Educación de Postgrado en Farmacia/métodos , Educación de Postgrado en Farmacia/normas , Estudiantes de Farmacia/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto , Curriculum/tendencias , Educación de Postgrado en Farmacia/tendencias , Evaluación Educacional/normas , Femenino , Humanos , Licencia en Farmacia/estadística & datos numéricos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estudiantes de Farmacia/psicología
6.
Am J Pharm Educ ; 81(7): 5909, 2017 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29109557

RESUMEN

Objective. To examine the extent of financial and faculty resources dedicated to preparing students for NAPLEX and PCOA examinations, and how these investments compare with NAPLEX pass rates. Methods. A 23-item survey was administered to assessment professionals in U.S. colleges and schools of pharmacy (C/SOPs). Institutions were compared by type, age, and student cohort size. Institutional differences were explored according to the costs and types of NAPLEX and PCOA preparation provided, if any, and mean NAPLEX pass rates. Results. Of 134 C/SOPs that received the survey invitation, 91 responded. Nearly 80% of these respondents reported providing some form of NAPLEX preparation. Significantly higher 2015 mean NAPLEX pass rates were found in public institutions, schools that do not provide NAPLEX prep, and schools spending less than $10,000 annually on NAPLEX prep. Only 18 schools reported providing PCOA preparation. Conclusion. Investment in NAPLEX and PCOA preparation resources vary widely across C/SOPs but may increase in the next few years, due to dropping NAPLEX pass rates and depending upon how PCOA data are used.


Asunto(s)
Costos y Análisis de Costo/economía , Educación en Farmacia/economía , Evaluación Educacional/economía , Licencia en Farmacia/economía , Facultades de Farmacia/economía , Humanos , Motivación , Estudiantes de Farmacia
7.
Am J Pharm Educ ; 81(5): 86, 2017 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28720914

RESUMEN

Objective. To examine the relationship between the NAPLEX and Pre-NAPLEX among pharmacy graduates, as well as determine effects of pre-pharmacy, pharmacy school, and demographic variables on NAPLEX performance. Methods. A retrospective review of pharmacy graduates' NAPLEX scores, Pre-NAPLEX scores, demographics, pre-pharmacy academic performance factors, and pharmacy school academic performance factors was performed. Bivariate (eg, ANOVA, independent samples t-test) and correlational analyses were conducted, as was stepwise linear regression to examine the significance of Pre-NAPLEX score and other factors as related to NAPLEX score. Results. One hundred fifty graduates were included, with the majority being female (60.7%) and white (72%). Mean NAPLEX score was 104.7. Mean Pre-NAPLEX score was 68.6. White students had significantly higher NAPLEX scores compared to Black/African American students. NAPLEX score was correlated to Pre-NAPLEX score, race/ethnicity, PCAT composite and section scores, undergraduate overall and science GPAs, pharmacy GPA, and on-time graduation. The regression model included pharmacy GPA and Pre-NAPLEX score. Conclusion. The findings provide evidence that, although pharmacy GPA is the most critical determinant, the Pre-NAPLEX score is also a significant predictor of NAPLEX score.


Asunto(s)
Composición de Medicamentos/normas , Quimioterapia/normas , Evaluación Educacional/métodos , Evaluación Educacional/normas , Licencia en Farmacia , Criterios de Admisión Escolar , Grupo de Ascendencia Continental Africana , Análisis de Varianza , Composición de Medicamentos/métodos , Educación en Farmacia , Grupo de Ascendencia Continental Europea , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudios Retrospectivos , Facultades de Farmacia , Estudiantes de Farmacia , Tennessee
9.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28352065

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: The survey aimed to obtain opinions about a proposed implementation of pharmacy skills assessment in Korean pharmacist licensure examination (KPLE). METHODS: A 16-question survey was distributed electronically to 2,738 people including 570 pharmacy professors of 35 pharmacy schools, 550 preceptors from 865 practice sites and 1,618 students who graduated in 2015. The survey solicited responses concerning the adequacy of the current KPLE in assessing pharmacy knowledge/skills/attitudes, deficiencies of pharmacy skills testing in assessing the professional competencies necessary for pharmacists, plans for pharmacy skills tests in the current KPLE, and subject areas of pharmacy practice. RESULTS: A total of 466 surveys were returned. The current exam is not adequate for assessing skills and attitudes according to 42%-48% of respondents. Sixty percent felt that skills test is necessary to assess qualifications and professional competencies. Almost two-thirds of participants stated that testing should be implemented within 5 years. More than 60% agreed that candidates should be graduates and that written and skills test scores can be combined for pass-fail decisions. About 70% of respondents felt that the test should be less than 2 hours in duration. Over half of the respondents thought that the assessor should be a pharmacy faculty member with at least 5 years of clinical experience. Up to 70% stated that activities related to patient care were appropriate and practical for the scope of skills test. CONCLUSION: Pharmacy skills assessment was supported by the majority of respondents.


Asunto(s)
Competencia Clínica/estadística & datos numéricos , Educación en Farmacia/métodos , Licencia en Farmacia , Farmacéuticos/psicología , Estudiantes de Farmacia/psicología , Adulto , Actitud del Personal de Salud , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Servicio de Farmacia en Hospital , Preceptoría , República de Corea , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Adulto Joven
10.
Z Evid Fortbild Qual Gesundhwes ; 112 Suppl 1: S27-33, 2016.
Artículo en Alemán | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27320025

RESUMEN

In recent years, various options have been discussed to accelerate the approval of new drugs, especially for conditions with high unmet needs. There is a trade-off between the earlier availability of new treatment options and a potentially higher safety risk of drugs which have not been investigated in long-lasting clinical trials and a broader patient population. It must also be taken into account that clinical trial data and results must be sufficient to allow for the reimbursement of the new treatment option. The difficult process of weighting the benefits against the potential risks of an accelerated drug approval should be discussed between patients, regulatory authorities, HTA institutions and pharmaceutical companies. Patients might benefit from a fair, balanced accelerated approval.


Asunto(s)
Aprobación de Drogas , Licencia en Farmacia , Alemania , Humanos
14.
Am J Pharm Educ ; 80(10): 163, 2016 Dec 25.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28179712

RESUMEN

Objective. A review was conducted to determine implementation strategies, utilities, score interpretation, and limitations of the Pharmacy Curriculum Outcome Assessment (PCOA) examination. Methods. Articles were identified through the PubMed and American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education, and International Pharmaceutical Abstracts databases using the following terms: "Pharmacy Curriculum Outcomes Assessment," "pharmacy comprehensive examination," and "curricular assessment." Studies containing information regarding implementation, utility, and predictive values for US student pharmacists, curricula, and/or PGY1/PGY2 residents were included. Publications from the Academic Medicine Journal, the Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education (ACPE), and the American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy (ACCP) were included for background information and comparison of predictive utilities of comprehensive examinations in medicine. Results. Ten PCOA and nine residency-related publications were identified. Based on published information, the PCOA may be best used as an additional tool to identify knowledge gaps for third-year student pharmacists. Conclusion. Administering the PCOA to students after they have completed their didactic coursework may yield scores that reflect student knowledge. Predictive utility regarding the North American Pharmacy Licensure Examination (NAPLEX) and potential applications is limited, and more research is required to determine ways to use the PCOA.


Asunto(s)
Curriculum , Educación en Farmacia/métodos , Evaluación Educacional/métodos , Acreditación , Educación en Farmacia/normas , Evaluación Educacional/normas , Humanos , Licencia en Farmacia , Facultades de Farmacia/normas , Estudiantes de Farmacia
15.
Am J Pharm Educ ; 79(8): 113, 2015 Oct 25.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26689176

RESUMEN

Established in 2003, the fully accredited international postbaccalaureate doctor of pharmacy (IPBP) program has attracted internationally trained pharmacists from approximately 25 countries and 6 continents, mostly residents of the United States, to attain the doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) degree at the Western University of Health Sciences. While recent trends in the IPBP applicant pool have shown a decline from its peak numbers in 2009 (222 applicants) for the 20 available seats each year, the quality of students remains high. Benchmark measures assessed for this group of students include the internal assessment entrance examination, admissions scores, academic assessments from didactic blocks, and scores on the North American Pharmacy Licensure Examination (NAPLEX), all of which indicate this quality. Moreover, graduates from the program not only consistently demonstrate excellence in the pharmacy curriculum and board examinations, but also go on to establish themselves as competent practitioners and educators. While the long-term future of the program is unknown, the status of the program and its graduates provides ample evidence of its value and ensures its continued success going forward.


Asunto(s)
Educación en Farmacia/organización & administración , Internacionalidad , Farmacéuticos/normas , Estudiantes de Farmacia , Acreditación , Curriculum , Educación en Farmacia/normas , Evaluación Educacional , Humanos , Licencia en Farmacia , Estados Unidos
16.
An. R. Acad. Farm ; 81(4): 329-333, oct.-dic. 2015.
Artículo en Inglés | IBECS | ID: ibc-147349

RESUMEN

The existence of substandard, spurious, falsely labelled, falsified and counterfeit (SSFFC) medical products is an unacceptable risk to public health, becoming an emerging problem in recent years. However, we should be aware that the phenomenon of counterfeiting is not a novelty since such practice coexists with human beings since time immemorial. In the present work we will do a partial analysis of counterfeiting situation from a legislative point of view and will analyze how various legal and non-legal instruments have been used trying to resolve this issue in the European context


La existencia de medicamentos falsificados es una realidad. Se trata de un problema emergente en los últimos años. Sin embargo, hemos de ser conscientes que el fenómeno de la falsificación no es un hecho novedoso ya que tal práctica convive con el ser humano desde tiempos pretéritos. En el siguiente texto se realizará un análisis parcial de la situación de los mismos desde su punto de vista legislativo y se analizará cómo se han utilizado diversas herramientas jurídicas y no jurídicas para intentar solventar esta problemática existente a nivel comunitario


Asunto(s)
Medicamentos Falsificados/clasificación , Medicamentos Falsificados/historia , Legislación de Medicamentos/organización & administración , Legislación de Medicamentos/normas , Legislación de Medicamentos/tendencias , Servicios Comunitarios de Farmacia/legislación & jurisprudencia , Legislación de Medicamentos/economía , Legislación de Medicamentos/ética , Legislación de Medicamentos/historia , Licencia en Farmacia/ética , Licencia en Farmacia/historia , Licencia en Farmacia/legislación & jurisprudencia
18.
Soc Sci Med ; 135: 75-83, 2015 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25957163

RESUMEN

Governments of developing countries can be in a vulnerable position with respect to patent protected drugs supplied by foreign firms, if the technology cannot be licensed or independently developed by local firms. In such instances, one possible solution is to negotiate for a price-drop with the patent holder in lieu of issuing a compulsory license. The present paper develops a game theoretic model of such bargaining and shows that while compulsory licenses do not occur under complete information, they can be issued under incomplete information. The model is tested against real episodes of compulsory licenses to derive policy insight.


Asunto(s)
Costos de los Medicamentos/legislación & jurisprudencia , Industria Farmacéutica/economía , Medicamentos Esenciales/provisión & distribución , Legislación de Medicamentos , Licencia en Farmacia/legislación & jurisprudencia , Países en Desarrollo , Industria Farmacéutica/legislación & jurisprudencia , Teoría del Juego , Gobierno , Humanos , Cooperación Internacional , Licencia en Farmacia/economía , Política Pública
19.
J Am Pharm Assoc (2003) ; 55(2): 198-202, 2015.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25699989

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To describe the implementation of a pharmacy intern distribution coordinator position and its impact on the intern's professional development. SETTING: Tertiary academic medical center. PRACTICE DESCRIPTION: In 2009, our institution implemented a pharmacy intern distribution coordinator position, which was previously staffed by a pharmacist. Interns, who are in their first through fourth professional year, take the lead in the medication distribution process while under the direct supervision of a pharmacist. The intern adjudicates the medication distribution process by ensuring proper processing, filling and timely delivery of the medications, as well as triaging inventory issues and maintaining open communication with the pharmacists about any medication issues. Additionally, the intern can make clinical interventions during the various checkpoints in the final verification process and answer drug information questions for fellow medical professionals. PRACTICE INNOVATION: Pharmacy intern resources and development are maximized via staffing in a medication distribution coordinator position previously staffed by a pharmacist. By adapting to the role of pharmacist early on in one's career, pharmacy interns are provided with a valuable opportunity to grow professionally. The position can foster the development of pharmacotherapy knowledge, communication skills, leadership experience, time management, and critical thinking by allowing pharmacy interns to practice at the top of their licensure. CONCLUSION: Our pharmacy intern distribution coordinator position provides interns with a professional development opportunity by assuming enhanced roles and responsibilities in a hospital pharmacy department. The expansion of the pharmacy intern's role can increase pharmacy department resources and provide a valuable platform for their development. Institutions should seek to maximize the opportunities for pharmacy interns to work at the peak of their licensure.


Asunto(s)
Hospitales de Enseñanza , Residencias en Farmacia , Servicio de Farmacia en Hospital , Boston , Competencia Clínica , Curriculum , Hospitales de Enseñanza/organización & administración , Humanos , Perfil Laboral , Licencia en Farmacia , Modelos Organizacionales , Residencias en Farmacia/organización & administración , Servicio de Farmacia en Hospital/organización & administración , Rol Profesional , Desarrollo de Programa , Desarrollo de Personal , Centros de Atención Terciaria , Flujo de Trabajo
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