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1.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 338: 108994, 2021 Jan 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33279788

RESUMEN

The use of Whole genome sequencing (WGS) identified a multi-country outbreak of human listeriosis associated with consumption of frozen sweet corn produced in Hungary. The purpose of this report was to summarise information on the cases occurring in the UK which were part of this outbreak and outline investigations on the presence of Listeria monocytogenes in the affected food chain. Prior to the international recall of this product in 2018, 12 UK cases of listeriosis were identified as infected by the outbreak strain between 2015 and 18. Epidemiological and microbiological investigations confirmed these cases as belonging to the outbreak. A further case occurred in 2019 and a contaminated frozen pack from one of the implicated batches of sweet corn was recovered from the patient's domestic freezer. The outbreak strain was also detected in products from a sandwich manufacturer in 2018 which added frozen sweet corn directly to sandwich fillings. The sandwich manufacturer's sweet corn was supplied by a distributor in England which obtained frozen products from the Hungarian manufacturer implicated in the outbreak. Within the distributor's premises, 208 food and environmental samples were taken: L. monocytogenes was detected in 44% of 70 samples of frozen sweet corn and 5% of 79 other foods. The outbreak strain was detected in the frozen sweet corn, in one other frozen food (mixed vegetables) and in the factory environment. The outbreak strain was also recovered from frozen beans on retail sale in the first four months of 2019. Five other L. monocytogenes strains together with two other Listeria species were detected in samples from the importer's premises. One of the L. monocytogenes strains in the importer's factory, which was distinct from the outbreak strain, was also recovered from sweet corn collected from the sandwich manufacturer, sweet corn tested in England in 2013 and 2016 and the blood of two cases of human listeriosis which occurred in England in 2014. This report shows how analysis by WGS provides evidence to understand complex food chains. This report also highlights risks for transmission of human listeriosis from frozen sweet corn and the potential for misuse of this food as a ready-to-eat product.


Asunto(s)
Brotes de Enfermedades , Microbiología de Alimentos , Enfermedades Transmitidas por los Alimentos/microbiología , Listeriosis/epidemiología , Listeriosis/microbiología , Verduras/microbiología , Inglaterra , Enfermedades Transmitidas por los Alimentos/epidemiología , Congelación , Humanos , Listeria , Listeria monocytogenes/genética , Reino Unido , Secuenciación Completa del Genoma , Zea mays/microbiología
2.
Rev Med Suisse ; 16(710): 1926-1931, 2020 Oct 14.
Artículo en Francés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33058579

RESUMEN

Listeria monocytogenes, a gram-positive bacterium, is the cause of Listeriosis. Its mortality is currently the highest for food borne diseases. Affected are mainly elderly or immunocompromised patients, as well as pregnant women. Despite food hygiene measures and surveillance, outbreaks are possible in developed countries. In the canton of Valais, six hospitalized cases including one death occurred between end of March and the beginning of May 2020. The typing of these strains of L. monocytogenes showed a link to a larger Swiss outbreak associated with contaminated soft cheese (Brie). The outbreak ended once the producer recalled the incriminated cheese. This article describes the outbreak with a review of other outbreaks' sources and a reminder of preventive measures.


Asunto(s)
Queso/microbiología , Brotes de Enfermedades , Contaminación de Alimentos/estadística & datos numéricos , Listeria monocytogenes , Listeriosis/epidemiología , Listeriosis/microbiología , Francia/epidemiología , Humanos , Listeriosis/prevención & control , Suiza/epidemiología
3.
Am J Disaster Med ; 15(2): 113-128, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32804391

RESUMEN

During the 2017-2018 listeriosis outbreak in South Africa (SA), the total number of cases reached 1,060. In this study, the disaster management response to the 2017-2018 South Africa listeriosis outbreak is analyzed. The hazard was in part the contamination of a brand of a ready-to-eat (RTE) "polony" with a strain of Listeria monocytogenes ST6. The initial phase of the 2017-2018 listeriosis outbreak was characterized by a rapid increase in the number of detected human cases. The listeriosis outbreak was officially proclaimed in December 2017, resulting in listeriosis being added to the list of notifiable diseases in SA. The delay between onset and proclamation was a result of the difficulty in identifica-tion of the actual number of cases of listeriosis in the country. The response to the disaster included the coordination of the National Department of Health, the National Institute of Communicable Diseases (NICD), businesses/producers of the contaminated brand of RTE products, and the public. Some of these activities led to the removal of the contami-nated products from the retail sector in March 2018, resulting in a decrease in the number of cases found in SA. In re-sponse to the outbreak, the National Department of Health formed a multisector incidence response team and imple-mented the Emergency Response Plan. Impacts of future listeriosis outbreaks could be mitigated by the adoption of international listeriosis guidelines such as the WHO/FAO and FDA. Practical steps in this context should include setting a limit of L. monocytogenes in RTE products. WHO/FAO and FDA listeriosis policies which are described "zero toler-ance" where a limit of < 100 L. monocytogenes cells/g at the moment of consumption is acceptable can be adopted. Additional resources must be provided for research into infectious doses and the various routes of human exposure.


Asunto(s)
Brotes de Enfermedades/prevención & control , Guías como Asunto , Legislación como Asunto , Listeria monocytogenes , Listeriosis/epidemiología , Formulación de Políticas , Desastres , Notificación de Enfermedades , Microbiología de Alimentos , Humanos , Listeriosis/diagnóstico , Sudáfrica
4.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 601, 2020 Aug 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32799811

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Listeriosis is a rare but severe foodborne infectious disease. Perinatal listeriosis is often associated with septicemia, central nervous system (CNS) infection, and serious adverse pregnancy outcomes (miscarriage and neonate death). Here we report the characteristics and outcomes of perinatal listeriosis cases treated over 6 years at Beijing Obstetrics and Gynecology Hospital (BOGH), the largest maternity hospital in China. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the records of laboratory-confirmed, pregnancy-associated listeriosis cases treated from January 1, 2013 to December 31, 2018. The clinical manifestations, laboratory results, perinatal complications and outcomes (post-natal follow-up of 6 months) were investigated. RESULTS: In BOGH, 12 perinatal listeriosis cases were diagnosed based on Listeria monocytogenes positive culture, including 10 single pregnancies and 2 twin pregnancies. The corresponding incidence of pregnancy-associated listeriosis was 13.7/100,000 deliveries. Among those cases, four pregnant women and four newborns had septicemia, and two of the neonates with septicemia also suffered CNS infection. All the maternal patients recovered. Two inevitable miscarriages and four fetal stillbirths occurred. Of the eight delivered newborns, six survived, and two died within 2 days from birth. None of the survivors had neurological sequelae during a 6-month follow-up. The overall feto-neonatal fatality rate was 57.1%; notably, this rate was 100% for infections occurring during the second trimester of pregnancy and only 14.3% for those occurring in the third trimester. CONCLUSIONS: Perinatal listeriosis is associated with high feto-neonatal mortality, and thus, a public health concern. Additional large-scale studies are needed to strengthen the epidemiological understanding of listeriosis in China.


Asunto(s)
Listeriosis/tratamiento farmacológico , Complicaciones Infecciosas del Embarazo/tratamiento farmacológico , Aborto Espontáneo/epidemiología , Adulto , Beijing/epidemiología , Infecciones del Sistema Nervioso Central/microbiología , Femenino , Maternidades/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Incidencia , Recién Nacido , Listeria monocytogenes/aislamiento & purificación , Listeriosis/diagnóstico , Listeriosis/epidemiología , Muerte Perinatal , Embarazo , Complicaciones Infecciosas del Embarazo/epidemiología , Resultado del Embarazo , Estudios Retrospectivos , Sepsis/etiología , Mortinato
5.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 334: 108801, 2020 Dec 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32795712

RESUMEN

In the summer of 2014, a multistate outbreak of listeriosis associated with contaminated stone fruit (peach and nectarine) was reported. A serotype 4b variant Listeria monocytogenes (Lm) strain of singleton Sequence Type (ST) 382 was isolated from clinical samples and stone fruit associated with the outbreak. A serotype 1/2b Lm strain of ST5, Clonal Complex 5 was isolated only from outbreak-associated stone fruit, not from clinical samples. Here we investigated the fate of the serotype 4b and 1/2b strains, at two inoculation levels (high level at 3.7 logCFU/fruit and low level at 2.7 logCFU/fruit), on the surfaces of white peach, yellow peach and yellow nectarine stored at 4 °C for 26 days. After rinsing the fruits, we determined the Lm levels in the rinsates and on the peels. We enumerated Lm using a direct plating method and compared two chromogenic agars. The Lm populations rapidly declined in the first 3 days and then declined more slowly until Day 19/21. The maximum decline was 1.6 logCFU/fruit on yellow peach inoculated with serotype 4b at high level. For fruits inoculated with high-level Lm, the lowest level of Lm (1.7 logCFU/fruit) was observed on for white peach inoculated with serotype 1/2b, and the highest level of Lm (2.6 logCFU/fruit) on Day 19/21 was observed on yellow peach inoculated with the serotype 1/2b strain. For fruits inoculated with low-level Lm, the lowest level of Lm (1.3 logCFU/fruit) was observed on yellow nectarine inoculated with either the serotype 4b or 1/2b strain, and the highest level of Lm (1.7 logCFU/fruit) on Day 19/21 was observed on yellow peach inoculated with ST382. The D-values ranged from 15 days to 28 days. Lm remained viable until the end of storage (Day 26), but the levels were not significantly different from those on Day 19/21. The types of stone fruit and Lm strain did not significantly affect the survival of Lm. These results demonstrate that contaminated stone fruit can carry a potential risk for causing listeriosis in susceptible populations. Comparison of direct plating results using two chromogenic agars showed that RAPID' L. mono and Agar Listeria Ottavani & Agosti performed equivalently for enumerating Lm on stone fruit. The fruit rinsing recovered 80% to 84% of Lm from fruit surfaces.


Asunto(s)
Brotes de Enfermedades , Frutas/microbiología , Listeria monocytogenes/fisiología , Listeriosis/microbiología , Prunus persica/microbiología , Frío , Microbiología de Alimentos , Frutas/clasificación , Humanos , Listeria monocytogenes/genética , Listeria monocytogenes/crecimiento & desarrollo , Listeria monocytogenes/aislamiento & purificación , Listeriosis/epidemiología , Viabilidad Microbiana , Prunus persica/clasificación , Serogrupo
6.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 334: 108800, 2020 Dec 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32829187

RESUMEN

The present study investigated the presence, growth potential, and public health risk posed by Listeria monocytogenes in a ready-to-eat "shrimp cocktail". The pathogen was detected in 4 out of the 104 samples, and there were no counts above the enumeration limit (1 Log colony-forming unit (CFU)/g); the product was a suitable substrate for pathogen growth owing to its chemical/physical properties. A stochastic quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) was performed to estimate the expected number of invasive listeriosis cases caused by the consumption of 10,000 servings of the product on the last day of its shelf life, considering a population comprising healthy consumers, those susceptible, and transplant recipients. The model predicted no cases for this scenario. Uncertainties were included by considering alternative scenarios; even when considering an increased mean bacterial concentration (up to 3-4 Log CFU/g), no cases were estimated. Following a producer's demand, the exposure assessment model was also used to estimate the probability of the product exceeding the threshold of 2 log CFU/g during the shelf life. The possibility of Listeria growth in the product could not be avoided. Therefore, a modification of the production process was tested to re-classify the product as unsuitable for Listeria growth (EC Reg. 2073/2005). The shrimps were conditioned in three different organic acid solutions comprising: acetic acid (1500 ppm) (A); benzoic acid (1500 ppm) + acetic acid (500 ppm) + lactic acid (750 ppm) (BLA); and lactic acid (4500 ppm) + sodium acetate (2500 ppm) (LSA). Testing was conducted over various treatment durations (1 day-5 days). Treatment for 2 days in the LSA solution was selected based on efficacy, the absence of consumer-perceptible sensorial modifications, and the producers' production rate requirements. The concentration of L. monocytogenes decreased when the new process was applied, which confirmed the usefulness and effectiveness of the treatment relative to the traditional process. Thus, the product obtained by the modified production process did not support the growth of L. monocytogenes.


Asunto(s)
Exposición Dietética/prevención & control , Microbiología de Alimentos/métodos , Listeria monocytogenes/crecimiento & desarrollo , Listeriosis/prevención & control , Alimentos Marinos/microbiología , Ácidos/análisis , Ácidos/farmacología , Animales , Recuento de Colonia Microbiana , Exposición Dietética/análisis , Manipulación de Alimentos , Humanos , Listeria monocytogenes/efectos de los fármacos , Listeria monocytogenes/aislamiento & purificación , Listeriosis/epidemiología , Medición de Riesgo , Alimentos Marinos/análisis
7.
Med. clín (Ed. impr.) ; 155(2): 57-62, jul. 2020. graf, tab
Artículo en Inglés | IBECS | ID: ibc-195697

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: We describe and analyze Listeria-related demographics and clinical features to determine the predisposing conditions for severe infections. METHODS: We performed a retrospective study using positive isolation of Listeria monocytogenes from blood, cerebrospinal fluid, and other organic fluids. Electronic health records were used to determine the epidemiological and clinical features of infections caused by L. monocytogenes. Mortality and sepsis were considered dependent variables in the statistical analyses. RESULTS: We included 41 patients in an observation period of 15 years (2003-2018), with an annual incidence rate of 1.3 cases per 100,000 population. Three main population profiles were identified: newborns, pregnant women, and other adults (17.1%, 12.2%, and 82.9%, respectively). Neuroinvasive infection was present in 17 patients (41.5%). In both univariate and multivariate analyses, neurological infections, whether meningoencephalitis, rhombencephalitis, or brain abscesses, were the main risk factors for severe forms of Listeria-related infections (odds ratio 1.8, 95% CI 1.52-2.14, p = 0.01). Malignancies, whether solid tumors or hematological neoplasms, immunosuppression, and chronic diseases were not related to either mortality or severe clinical syndromes. CONCLUSION: Infections caused by L. monocytogenes were uncommon but could cause severe sepsis and mortality, especially in susceptible populations. Our study focused on neurological involvement and severe invasive forms of listeriosis. Neuroinvasive forms were the most important risk factors for severe illness but not for mortality


INTRODUCCIÓN: Describir y analizar las características demográficas y clínicas de las infecciones por Listeria para determinar los factores predisponentes para infecciones severas. MÉTODOS: Diseñamos un estudio retrospectivo utilizando los aislamientos positivos de Listeria monocytogenes en sangre, líquido cefalorraquídeo u otros fluidos orgánicos. Se obtuvieron los registros electrónicos para conseguir las características clínicas y epidemiológicas de las infecciones causadas por L. monocytogenes. Mortalidad y sepsis fueron las variables dependientes en los análisis estadísticos. RESULTADOS: Se incluyeron 41 pacientes en un período de 15 años (2003-2018), con una incidencia anual de 1,3 casos por cada 100.000 habitantes. Identificamos tres perfiles de población: neonatos, mujeres embarazadas y resto de adultos (el 17,1%, el 12,2% y el 82,9%, respectivamente). Las formas neuroinvasivas se identificaron en 17 pacientes (41,5%). Tanto en los análisis univariados como en los multivariados, las infecciones neurológicas, bien meningoencefalitis, rombencefalitis o abscesos cerebrales, fueron los principales factores de riesgo para considerar formas severas de infección por Listeria (odds ratio 1,8; IC 1,52-2,14, p = 0,01). Las neoplasias sólidas o hematológicas, la inmunosupresión o las enfermedades crónicas no estuvieron relacionadas ni con la mortalidad ni con la presencia de severidad en la infección. CONCLUSIÓN: Las infecciones causadas por L. monocytogenes son infrecuentes, pero son causa de sepsis severa y mortalidad en poblaciones susceptibles. Nuestro estudio estuvo dirigido a la infección neuroinvasiva y otras formas graves. La forma neuroinvasiva fue el factor de riesgo más importante asociado a la infección severa, pero no a la mortalidad


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Embarazo , Recién Nacido , Adulto , Listeriosis/epidemiología , Listeriosis/mortalidad , Complicaciones Infecciosas del Embarazo/epidemiología , Listeria monocytogenes/aislamiento & purificación , Listeriosis/sangre , Listeriosis/líquido cefalorraquídeo , Estudios Retrospectivos , Factores de Riesgo , Meningitis por Listeria/complicaciones , Modelos Logísticos , Análisis Multivariante , Complicaciones Infecciosas del Embarazo/tratamiento farmacológico , Sepsis/complicaciones
8.
Med. clín (Ed. impr.) ; 154(11): 453-458, jun. 2020.
Artículo en Español | IBECS | ID: ibc-195539

RESUMEN

La importancia de la listeriosis no está suficientemente reconocida. Su incidencia general se muestra estable en los últimos años, pero con una tendencia al alza en mayores de 65 años, también en mortalidad. La listeriosis es una enfermedad transmitida por alimentos que ocurre generalmente en forma de casos esporádicos; sin embargo, las nuevas técnicas de tipificación molecular han puesto de manifiesto la existencia de brotes epidémicos no sospechados con anterioridad. La enfermedad presenta un periodo de incubación variable y relacionado con la presentación clínica. La bacteriemia y la neurolisteriosis son las formas clínicas predominantes, aunque en la actualidad el principal interés se focaliza en el manejo de las infecciones focales y las asociadas a dispositivos protésicos. La listeriosis es un problema significativo para la industria alimentaria, y muchos países han introducido legislación para controlar la incidencia de la enfermedad


The importance of listeriosis is not sufficiently recognised. The general incidence of infection has been stable in recent years, but with an upward trend in people over 65, also in mortality. Listeriosis is a foodborne disease that generally occurs in the form of sporadic cases; however, new molecular typing techniques have revealed the existence of epidemic outbreaks not previously suspected. The disease has a variable incubation period, which is related to the clinical presentation. Bacteraemia and neurolisteriosis are the predominant clinical forms, although at present, the main interest is focused on the management of focal infections and those associated with prosthetic devices. Listeriosis is a significant problem for the food industry, and many countries have introduced legislation to control the incidence of the disease


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Listeriosis/epidemiología , Listeriosis/mortalidad , Enfermedades Transmitidas por los Alimentos/epidemiología , Enfermedades Transmitidas por los Alimentos/microbiología , Enfermedades Transmitidas por los Alimentos/fisiopatología , Brotes de Enfermedades/prevención & control
9.
PLoS One ; 15(3): e0229901, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32163438

RESUMEN

We introduce a compartmental model of ordinary differential equations for the population dynamics of listeriosis, and we derive a model for analysing a listeriosis outbreak. The model explicitly accommodates neonatal infections. Similarly as is common in cholera modeling, we include a compartment to represent the reservoir of bacteria. We also include a compartment to represent the incubation phase. For the 2017/18 listeriosis outbreak that happened in South Africa, we calculate the time pattern and intensity of the force of infection, and we determine numerical values for some of the parameters in the model. The model is calibrated using South African data, together with existing data in the open literature not necessarily from South Africa. We make projections on the future outlook of the epidemiology of the disease and the possibility of eradication.


Asunto(s)
Brotes de Enfermedades/prevención & control , Listeriosis/epidemiología , Modelos Estadísticos , Dinámica Poblacional/estadística & datos numéricos , Anciano , Simulación por Computador , Erradicación de la Enfermedad , Brotes de Enfermedades/estadística & datos numéricos , Femenino , Predicción/métodos , Humanos , Esperanza de Vida/tendencias , Listeriosis/prevención & control , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Mortalidad/tendencias , Dinámica Poblacional/tendencias , Sudáfrica/epidemiología
10.
J Food Prot ; 83(7): 1208-1217, 2020 Jul 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32221521

RESUMEN

ABSTRACT: Older adults are at higher risk of invasive listeriosis compared with the general population. Some foods are more likely than others to be contaminated with or to contain high levels of Listeria monocytogenes. The objectives of this study were to (i) determine dietary consumption patterns among older adults in the United States; (ii) evaluate sociodemographic and economic characteristics of older adults associated with each pattern; (iii) determine intake of foods associated with larger relative risk of listeriosis within these patterns; and (iv) rank these patterns based on risk. Data related to older adults (age 60 and older) participating in the cross-sectional National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) 2009 to 2010, 2011 to 2012, and 2013 to 2014 (n = 4,967) were included in these analyses. Cluster analysis was used to define dietary patterns based on 24-h dietary recalls from day 1 and day 2. Mean intake of foods associated with higher risk of listeriosis was examined within each pattern, and analysis of variance with Dunnett's method of adjustment was used to evaluate significant differences in mean intake of foods. Patterns were ranked based on relative risk of listeriosis, using outbreak illness attribution data. Five distinct dietary patterns were identified. Patterns ranked at highest relative risk of listeriosis, based on U.S. outbreak illness attribution data, were characterized by relatively higher intakes of fruits, vegetables, and cheeses (∼13% respondents) or cereal, milk, and yogurt (∼14% respondents). Individuals consuming these dietary patterns differed in sex, race, food security, self-rated diet quality, and self-rated health. Cluster analysis, despite methodological limitations, provides new information on consumption, sociodemographic, and economic characteristics of subgroups within susceptible populations, which may be used to target educational messages.


Asunto(s)
Listeriosis , Encuestas Nutricionales , Anciano , Estudios Transversales , Dieta , Humanos , Listeriosis/epidemiología , Estados Unidos/epidemiología , Verduras
11.
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 54(2): 175-180, 2020 Feb 06.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32074706

RESUMEN

Objective: To analyze the molecular characteristics of Listeria monocytogenes strains from ready-to eat food in China. Methods: A total of 239 Listeria monocytogenes strains isolated from ready-to-eat food in 2017, all strains underwent whole-genome sequencing (WGS) , and comparisons uncovered population structure derived from lineages, clonal complex, serogroups, antimicrobial susceptibility and virulence, which were inferred in silico from the WGS data. Core genome multilocus sequence typing was used to subtype isolates. Results: All strains were categorized into three different lineages, lineage Ⅱ was the predominant types in food, and IIa was the main serogroups. CC8, CC101 and CC87 were the first three prevalent CCs among 23 detected CCs, accounting for 49.4%. Only 4.6% (11 isolates) of tested strains harbored antibiotic resistance genes, which were mostly trimethoprim genes (7 isolates, 2.9%). All strains were positive for LIPI-1, and only a part of strains harbored LIPI-3 and LIPI-4, accounting for 13.8% (33 isolates) and 14.2% (34 isolates), respectively. ST619 carried both LIPI-3 and LIPI-4. 51.5% (123 isolates) of strains carried SSI-1, and all CC121 strains harbored SSI-2. Different lineages, serogroups and CCs can be separated obviously through cgMLST analysis, and 24 sublineages were highly concordant with CCs. Conclusion: Ⅱa was the main serogroups in ready-to-eat food isolates in China; CC8, CC101 and CC87 were the prevalent CCs, and CC87 isolates was hypervirulent isolates, cgMLST method can be adopted for prospective foodborne disease surveillance and outbreaks detection.


Asunto(s)
Microbiología de Alimentos , Listeria monocytogenes/aislamiento & purificación , Listeriosis/microbiología , China/epidemiología , Humanos , Listeriosis/epidemiología
12.
Epidemiol Infect ; 148: e54, 2020 02 19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32070445

RESUMEN

Almost all cases of human listeriosis are foodborne, however the proportion where specific exposures are identified is small. Between 1981 and 2015, 5252 human listeriosis cases were reported in England and Wales. The purpose of this study was to summarise data where consumption of specific foods was identified with transmission and these comprised 11 sporadic cases and 17 outbreaks. There was a single outbreak in the community of 378 cases (7% of the total) which was associated with pâté consumption and 112 cases (2% of the total) attributed to specific foods in all the other incidents. The proportion of food-attributed cases increased during this study with improvements in typing methods for Listeria monocytogenes. Ten incidents (one sporadic case and nine outbreaks of 2-9 cases over 4 days to 32 months) occurred in hospitals: all were associated with the consumption of pre-prepared sandwiches. The 18 community incidents comprised eight outbreaks (seven of between 3 and 17 cases) and 10 sporadic cases: food of animal origin was implicated in 16 of the incidents (sliced or potted meats, pork pies, pâté, liver, chicken, crab-meat, butter and soft cheese) and food of non-animal origin in the remaining two (olives and vegetable rennet).


Asunto(s)
Brotes de Enfermedades , Enfermedades Transmitidas por los Alimentos , Listeriosis , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Inglaterra/epidemiología , Femenino , Microbiología de Alimentos , Enfermedades Transmitidas por los Alimentos/epidemiología , Enfermedades Transmitidas por los Alimentos/microbiología , Humanos , Listeriosis/epidemiología , Listeriosis/microbiología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Embarazo , Gales/epidemiología
13.
BMC Vet Res ; 16(1): 70, 2020 Feb 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32087722

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: In a beef cattle facility an outbreak of abortions occurred over a 36-day period and included samples from two aborted (non-viable) fetuses and 21 post-abortion clinical cases. There are numerous etiologies, including clinical listeriosis. At the species level, Listeria monocytogenes is ubiquitous in cattle production environments, including soil, feed, and occasionally water sources, and is a common enteric resident of cattle and other mammals. There are four genetically distinct lineages of L. monocytogenes (I-IV), with most lineage III and IV isolates obtained from ruminants. Definitive diagnosis of L. monocytogenes as a causative agent in disease outbreaks relies upon case identification, appropriate sample collection, and laboratory confirmation. Furthermore, clearly establishing a relationship between a pathogen source and clinical disease is difficult. RESULTS: Of the two fetal and 21 clinical case submissions, 19 were positive for L. monocytogenes. Subsequent culture for L. monocytogenes from water and silage sources identified both as potential origins of infection. Using whole-genome sequencing and phylogenetic analyses, clinical, water and silage L. monocytogenes strains grouped into two of four lineages. All water and silage strains, plus 11 clinical strains placed in lineage III, with identical or nearly identical genomic sequences. The remaining eight clinical strains placed in lineage I, with seven having nearly identical sequences and one distinctly different. CONCLUSION: Three genetically distinct strains within two lineages of L. monocytogenes caused the abortion outbreak. The etiology of abortion in 11 cases was directly linked to water and silage contamination from a lineage III L. monocytogenes strain. The source of infection for the remaining abortion cases with two different strains from lineage I is unknown. This is the first report of L. monocytogenes genomics being used as part of an outbreak investigation of cattle abortion.


Asunto(s)
Aborto Veterinario/microbiología , Listeria monocytogenes/clasificación , Listeria monocytogenes/aislamiento & purificación , Listeriosis/veterinaria , Aborto Veterinario/epidemiología , Animales , Bovinos , Brotes de Enfermedades/veterinaria , Femenino , Genoma Bacteriano , Listeria monocytogenes/genética , Listeriosis/epidemiología , Nebraska/epidemiología , Embarazo , Ensilaje/microbiología , Microbiología del Agua , Secuenciación Completa del Genoma
14.
N Engl J Med ; 382(7): 632-643, 2020 02 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32053299

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: An outbreak of listeriosis was identified in South Africa in 2017. The source was unknown. METHODS: We conducted epidemiologic, trace-back, and environmental investigations and used whole-genome sequencing to type Listeria monocytogenes isolates. A case was defined as laboratory-confirmed L. monocytogenes infection during the period from June 11, 2017, to April 7, 2018. RESULTS: A total of 937 cases were identified, of which 465 (50%) were associated with pregnancy; 406 of the pregnancy-associated cases (87%) occurred in neonates. Of the 937 cases, 229 (24%) occurred in patients 15 to 49 years of age (excluding those who were pregnant). Among the patients in whom human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) status was known, 38% of those with pregnancy-associated cases (77 of 204) and 46% of the remaining patients (97 of 211) were infected with HIV. Among 728 patients with a known outcome, 193 (27%) died. Clinical isolates from 609 patients were sequenced, and 567 (93%) were identified as sequence type 6 (ST6). In a case-control analysis, patients with ST6 infections were more likely to have eaten polony (a ready-to-eat processed meat) than those with non-ST6 infections (odds ratio, 8.55; 95% confidence interval, 1.66 to 43.35). Polony and environmental samples also yielded ST6 isolates, which, together with the isolates from the patients, belonged to the same core-genome multilocus sequence typing cluster with no more than 4 allelic differences; these findings showed that polony produced at a single facility was the outbreak source. A recall of ready-to-eat processed meat products from this facility was associated with a rapid decline in the incidence of L. monocytogenes ST6 infections. CONCLUSIONS: This investigation showed that in a middle-income country with a high prevalence of HIV infection, L. monocytogenes caused disproportionate illness among pregnant girls and women and HIV-infected persons. Whole-genome sequencing facilitated the detection of the outbreak and guided the trace-back investigations that led to the identification of the source.


Asunto(s)
Brotes de Enfermedades , Enfermedades Transmitidas por los Alimentos/epidemiología , Listeria monocytogenes/aislamiento & purificación , Listeriosis/epidemiología , Productos de la Carne/microbiología , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Técnicas de Tipificación Bacteriana , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Femenino , Enfermedades Transmitidas por los Alimentos/etiología , Enfermedades Transmitidas por los Alimentos/mortalidad , Infecciones por VIH/complicaciones , VIH-1 , Humanos , Recién Nacido , Listeria monocytogenes/genética , Listeriosis/etiología , Listeriosis/mortalidad , Masculino , Productos de la Carne/efectos adversos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Embarazo , Complicaciones Infecciosas del Embarazo/epidemiología , Recall y Retirada del Producto , Distribución por Sexo , Sudáfrica/epidemiología , Secuenciación Completa del Genoma , Adulto Joven
15.
Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis ; 70: 101447, 2020 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32105836

RESUMEN

This study characterized Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella enterica, and E. coli O157:H7 by collecting rectoanal mucosal swabs and fecal samples from 518 imported beef cattle at Jordan's major abattoir. A unique 53 L. monocytogenes, 287 S. enterica, and 17 E. coli O157:H7 were isolated from 37, 120 and 9 different animals; respectively. The prevalence of S. enterica, L. monocytogenes and E. coli O157:H7 were 23.2 % (95 % CI, 19.7-27.0 %), 7.1 % (95 % CI, 5.2-9.7 %) and 1.7 % (95 % CI, 0.9-3.3 %); respectively. All L. monocytogenes, all E. coli O157:H7 and 93.0 % of S. enterica isolates resisted at least one antimicrobial class. All L. monocytogenes, 94.1 % of E. coli O157:H7 and 69.7 % of S. enterica isolates exhibited multidrug resistance (resistant to ≥3 antimicrobials classes). Moreover, high percentages of L. monocytogenes (98.1 %), E. coli O157:H7 (64.7 %) and S. enterica (45.3 %) isolates resisted ≥5 antimicrobial classes. More than 90 % of the L. monocytogenes isolates resisted ampicillin, penicillin and erythromycin and more than 75 % resisted vancomycin. S. enterica isolates resisted several treatment-of-choice antimicrobials such as nalidixic acid (85.4 %), ciprofloxacin (26.8 %) and ceftriaxone (19.5 %). Furthermore, greater than 50 % of the E. coli O157:H7 isolates resisted streptomycin, nalidixic acid, tetracycline, ampicillin, sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim, kanamycin, chloramphenicol and ciprofloxacin. The high prevalence and the high resistance percentages of the studied pathogens toward clinically important antimicrobials is alarming. Thus, applying strict sanitation procedures at the abattoirs in Jordan is crucial to lower the risk of carcasses contamination.


Asunto(s)
Antibacterianos/farmacología , Bacterias/efectos de los fármacos , Farmacorresistencia Bacteriana , Infecciones por Escherichia coli/veterinaria , Listeriosis/veterinaria , Salmonelosis Animal/epidemiología , Mataderos , Animales , Bovinos/microbiología , Enfermedades de los Bovinos/epidemiología , Enfermedades de los Bovinos/microbiología , Recuento de Colonia Microbiana , Infecciones por Escherichia coli/epidemiología , Escherichia coli O157/efectos de los fármacos , Heces/microbiología , Microbiología de Alimentos , Jordania/epidemiología , Listeria monocytogenes/efectos de los fármacos , Listeriosis/epidemiología , Prevalencia , Carne Roja , Salmonella enterica/efectos de los fármacos
16.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 83, 2020 Jan 29.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31996135

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The more quickly bacterial pathogens responsible for foodborne illness outbreaks can be linked to a vehicle of transmission or a source, the more illnesses can be prevented. Whole genome sequencing (WGS) based approaches to source tracking have greatly increased the speed and resolution with which public health response can pinpoint the vehicle and source of outbreaks. Traditionally, WGS approaches have focused on the culture of an individual isolate before proceeding to DNA extraction and sequencing. For Listeria monocytogenes (Lm), generation of an individual isolate for sequencing typically takes about 6 days. Here we demonstrate that a hybrid, "quasimetagenomic" approach ie; direct sequencing of microbiological enrichments (first step in pathogen detection and recovery) can provide high resolution source tracking sequence data, 5 days earlier than response that focuses on culture and sequencing of an individual isolate. This expedited approach could save lives, prevent illnesses and potentially minimize unnecessary destruction of food. METHODS: Naturally contaminated ice cream (from a 2015 outbreak) was enriched to recover Listeria monocytogenes following protocols outlined in the Bacteriological Analytic Manual (BAM). DNA from enriching microbiota was extracted and sequenced at incremental time-points during the first 48 h of pre-enrichment using the Illumina MiSeq platform (2 by 250), to evaluate genomic coverage of target pathogen, Listeria monocytogenes. RESULTS: Quasimetagenomic sequence data acquired from hour 20 were sufficient to discern whether or not Lm strain/s were part of the ongoing outbreak or not. Genomic data from hours 24, 28, 32, 36, 40, 44, and 48 of pre-enrichments all provided identical phylogenetic source tracking utility to the WGS of individual isolates (which require an additional 5 days to culture). CONCLUSIONS: The speed of this approach (more than twice as fast as current methods) has the potential to reduce the number of illnesses associated with any given outbreak by as many as 75% percent of total cases and potentially with continued optimization of the entire chain of response, contribute to minimized food waste.


Asunto(s)
Microbiología de Alimentos , Enfermedades Transmitidas por los Alimentos/microbiología , Helados/microbiología , Listeria monocytogenes/genética , Listeriosis/microbiología , Metagenómica , Brotes de Enfermedades , Enfermedades Transmitidas por los Alimentos/epidemiología , Humanos , Listeria monocytogenes/clasificación , Listeriosis/epidemiología , Filogenia , Factores de Tiempo , Secuenciación Completa del Genoma
17.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 116, 2020 Jan 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31992263

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Listeria monocytogenes causes the foodborne infection listeriosis. Pregnant women, infants and immunocompromised children are at increased risk for infection. The aim of this study was to describe the trends in the epidemiology of disease notifications and hospital admissions due to listeriosis in pregnant women aged 15 to 45 years and children aged less than 15 years in New Zealand (NZ) from 1997 to 2016. METHODS: In this population-based descriptive study, listeriosis notification and hospitalization rates from 1997 to 2016 were analyzed. Notification data were extracted from the Institute of Environmental Science and Research (ESR) Notifiable Diseases Database (EpiSurv) and hospitalization data were extracted from the National Minimum Dataset (NMDS). Pregnant women aged 15 to 45 years and children less than 15 years of age were included. Subgroup analysis was conducted for age and ethnicity. Outcomes of infection were described. RESULTS: In the 20-year period considered, there were 147 pregnancy-associated cases of listeriosis either notified to ESR (n = 106) and/or coded in the NMDS (n = 99), giving a crude incidence rate of 12.3 (95% CI 10.4, 14.4) per 100,000 births. In addition, there were 22 cases in children aged 28 days to < 15 years (incidence =0.12, 95% CI 0.08 to 0.19 per 100,000). There were no trends observed over time in the incidence of pregnancy-associated listeriosis. Incidence rates of pregnancy-associated and childhood listeriosis were highest in people of Pacific and Asian ethnicity. CONCLUSIONS: NZ has a low incidence of listeriosis in pregnant women and children, however, the consequences of infection are frequently severe. Those of Pacific and Asian ethnicity have the highest rates of disease and future messaging around food safety should target these groups. This study provides important insights into the epidemiology of listeriosis in pregnant women and children in NZ.


Asunto(s)
Listeriosis/epidemiología , Complicaciones Infecciosas del Embarazo/epidemiología , Adolescente , Adulto , Niño , Preescolar , Femenino , Humanos , Incidencia , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Nueva Zelanda/epidemiología , Embarazo , Adulto Joven
18.
J Dairy Sci ; 103(1): 176-178, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31733864

RESUMEN

Unpasteurized milk can contain harmful bacteria such as Listeria monocytogenes. In 2016, the US Food and Drug Administration notified the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (Atlanta, GA) that L. monocytogenes isolated from unpasteurized chocolate milk from a Pennsylvania dairy was closely related, by whole-genome sequencing, to L. monocytogenes isolates collected from blood specimens of 2 patients (in California and Florida) in 2014. The California and Florida patients consumed unpasteurized milk from the Pennsylvania dairy. Both were >65 yr old and were hospitalized in 2014; the Florida patient died. Isolates from the 2 patients had indistinguishable pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns and were closely related by whole-genome multilocus sequence typing analysis (by 2 alleles) to the isolate from unpasteurized chocolate milk produced by the Pennsylvania dairy in 2015. Together, epidemiologic and laboratory information indicated a common origin. This is the first multistate listeriosis outbreak linked to unpasteurized milk in the United States detected using whole-genome multilocus sequence analysis.


Asunto(s)
Brotes de Enfermedades , Microbiología de Alimentos , Listeria monocytogenes/genética , Listeriosis/epidemiología , Leche/microbiología , Secuenciación Completa del Genoma , Animales , California/epidemiología , Electroforesis en Gel de Campo Pulsado/veterinaria , Florida/epidemiología , Humanos , Listeria monocytogenes/aislamiento & purificación , Listeriosis/microbiología , Tipificación de Secuencias Multilocus/veterinaria , Pennsylvania/epidemiología , Estudios Retrospectivos , Estados Unidos/epidemiología
19.
Food Microbiol ; 85: 103280, 2020 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31500706

RESUMEN

Listeria monocytogenes causes severe diseases in humans, including febrile gastroenteritis and systemic infections that has a high mortality despite antibiotic treatment. This pathogen may cause massive outbreaks associated to the consumption of contaminated food products, which highlight its importance in public health. In the last decade, L. monocytogenes has emerged as a foodborne pathogen of major importance in Chile. A previous work showed that in Chile during 2008 and 2009, L. monocytogenes serotypes 1/2a, 1/2b and 4b were the most frequently identified in food and clinical strains. Here we report the molecular characterization of L. monocytogenes strains isolated from 2008 to 2017 in the country. Our results indicate that serotypes 1/2a, 1/2b and 4b continue to be the most commonly found in food products. In addition, we identify persistent and widespread PFGE subtypes. This study reports ten years of epidemiological surveillance ofL. monocytogenes in Chile.


Asunto(s)
Monitoreo Epidemiológico , Microbiología de Alimentos , Enfermedades Transmitidas por los Alimentos/epidemiología , Listeria monocytogenes/genética , Listeriosis/epidemiología , Chile/epidemiología , Recuento de Colonia Microbiana , ADN Bacteriano/genética , Brotes de Enfermedades , Enfermedades Transmitidas por los Alimentos/microbiología , Gastroenteritis/epidemiología , Gastroenteritis/microbiología , Variación Genética , Humanos , Listeria monocytogenes/patogenicidad , Productos de la Carne/microbiología , Epidemiología Molecular , Salud Pública , Serogrupo , Serotipificación , Factores de Virulencia/genética
20.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 312: 108358, 2020 Jan 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31655356

RESUMEN

Meat products are commonly regarded as one of the main sources of human listeriosis caused by Listeria monocytogenes. The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of L. monocytogenes in a range of meat products from 24 different Chinese regions by using meta-analysis of literature data and a novel sensitivity analysis approach. A total of 112 publications from five databases, published between 1 January 2007 and 31 December 2017, were systematically selected for relevance and covered meat products sampled between 2000 and 2016. Estimated by the random-effects model, the pooled prevalence of L. monocytogenes was 8.5% (95% CI: 7.1%-10.3%) in raw meats and 3.2% (95% CI: 2.7%-3.9%) in ready-to-eat (RTE) meats. The prevalence differed from high to low among raw meats including prefabricated raw meats 12.6% (95% CI: 6.9%-21.7%), fresh pork 11.4% (95% CI: 8.6%-14.9%), fresh beef 9.1% (95% CI: 6.3%-13.0%), fresh poultry 7.2% (95% CI:4.9%-10.4%), frozen raw meats 7.2% (95% CI: 5.7%-9.0%), and fresh mutton 5.4% (95% CI: 2.5%-11.0%). A higher L. monocytogenes prevalence level was shown in the meat products from central and northeastern China provincial regions. The entropy-based sensitivity analysis utilized in the meta-analysis indicated that the sampling period and location were two critical factors influencing the prevalence level of L. monocytogenes in meat products. A better understanding of differences in prevalence levels per geographic region and between meat product sources may allow the competent authorities, industry, and other relevant stakeholders to tailor their interventions to control the occurrence of L. monocytogenes in meat products effectively.


Asunto(s)
Contaminación de Alimentos/análisis , Microbiología de Alimentos , Listeria monocytogenes/aislamiento & purificación , Productos de la Carne/microbiología , Aves de Corral/microbiología , Animales , Bovinos , China , Humanos , Listeriosis/epidemiología , Prevalencia , Ovinos , Porcinos
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