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1.
J Environ Manage ; 313: 114990, 2022 Jul 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35390653

RESUMEN

Scarcity of water has emerged as a major problem globally due to climate change and population growth, especially in semi-arid and arid regions. Egypt is currently experiencing serious water challenges due to its limited water resources. The water challenges require optimal and sustainable water management, which should be linked to sustainable development goals. In this context, rainwater harvesting (RWH) is an efficient technique for sustainable management of water resources. This research aims to determine the optimal implementation of RWH systems considering the biophysical and socioeconomic characteristics of the study area. This research combines geographic information systems, remote sensing, multi-criteria analysis, and hydrological modeling in a case study in Wadi Watir in the Sinai Peninsula, Egypt. It then determines optimal sites for RWH structures using a combination of Boolean analysis, weighted linear combination, and depression depth technique. The study's findings are linked to the sustainable development goals to develop a sustainable RWH plan for the first time. The results indicated that 19% (666 km2) of the study area is highly suitable for RWH. The possibility of RWH is restricted to 16% (573 km2) of the watershed. The study results identified 12 optimal sites for checking dams and 14 locations for percolation tanks along the streams. This research puts forward a novel technique to address the challenges of water scarcity along with socioeconomic and environmental pressures while achieving sustainable development goals.


Asunto(s)
Sistemas de Información Geográfica , Abastecimiento de Agua , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Egipto , Lluvia , Desarrollo Sostenible , Agua
2.
J Environ Manage ; 313: 115004, 2022 Jul 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35405544

RESUMEN

Stormwater management problems are expanding as urbanization continues and precipitation patterns are increasingly extreme. Urban soils are often more disturbed and compacted than non-urban soils, therefore, rainfall run-off estimates based on models designed for non-urban soils may not be accurate due to altered soil infiltration rates. Our objective was to quantify soil infiltration rates across an urban watershed and compare them to estimates from rainfall-runoff models commonly used in stormwater management (Horton and Green-Ampt) as well as an alternate, random-forest model created using available geospatial data. We measured infiltration rates and collected data on soil properties (texture, bulk density) and context (land use, ground cover, time since development) at 89 points across the 102 ha Walnut Creek watershed in Raleigh, North Carolina (USA). Forest land covers and forest ground covers (leaf litter) had the highest infiltration capacities; however, all of our measurements indicate that urban soils in the Walnut Creek watershed are able to absorb most precipitation events and are likely capable of infiltrating additional urban stormwater runoff. Comparisons between observations and the rainfall-runoff model estimates reveal that both underestimated urban soil infiltration rates. Despite higher than expected urban soil infiltration capacity, stormwater management remains a challenge in this urban watershed. Therefore, to reduce stormwater runoff from impervious surfaces through soil infiltration, impervious surfaces should be disconnected, especially adjacent to new development, and urban forests should be conserved. Further, because our random forest model more accurately captured watershed infiltration rates than the rainfall-runoff models, we propose this type of machine learning approach as an alternative method for informing stormwater management and prioritizing areas for impervious disconnection.


Asunto(s)
Lluvia , Suelo , North Carolina , Urbanización , Movimientos del Agua
3.
PLoS One ; 17(4): e0266593, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35443016

RESUMEN

The objective of this study was to compare the hydrological performance of an irrigated, 127 mm deep green roof, planted with vegetation native to the New York City area, to a conventional, non-irrigated, 100 mm deep green roof, planted with drought-tolerant Sedum spp. Four years of climate and runoff data from both green roofs were analyzed to determine seasonal stormwater retention. Empirical relationships between rainfall and runoff were developed for both roofs, and applied to historical rainfall data in order to compare stormwater retention values for different rainfall depths. Crop coefficients for the vegetation on each green roof were estimated using the soil moisture extraction function. This function was also used to estimate monthly evapotranspiration. Despite being irrigated, the green roof with native vegetation retained more stormwater per annum (64%) than the non-irrigated green roof planted with Sedum spp. (54%). The green roof planted with native vegetation also had approximately twice the crop coefficient (1.13) than the green roof planted with Sedum spp. (0.57), indicating that the New York City native plants transpire more stormwater than the Sedum spp. plants given certain climate and substrate moisture conditions. Overall, the results of the study indicate that, for the New York City climate region, irrigated green roofs of native vegetation have the capacity to better manage stormwater than non-irrigated green roofs planted with drought-tolerant succulents.


Asunto(s)
Sedum , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales/métodos , Hidrología , Ciudad de Nueva York , Plantas , Lluvia
4.
Environ Monit Assess ; 194(5): 347, 2022 Apr 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35391630

RESUMEN

Urban wetlands provide multiple functions including water treatment, recreation, and education, but they are also highly vulnerable, so it is important to monitor wetland water quality to ensure wetland health. In this study, water quality parameters of an urban wetland and rainfall were monitored at 6 sites for 1 year. The correlation analysis of water quality parameters and spatial-temporal variability analysis of water quality were carried out. Besides, the effects of season and rainfall on the wetland water quality were evaluated by the comprehensive water quality identification index (CWQII). These results have shown that there is a significant correlation between nutrient pollutants and Chl-a. Wetland water quality changed with the seasons, but it also varied due to changes in rainfall and location. The water quality of the shallow areas both had high susceptibility and response to seasonal changes and rainfall, but the water quality of the deepwater area was relatively stable. The CWQIIs in different seasons were ranked: Winter (5.98) > spring (4.67) > autumn (4.66) > summer (4.26), and the CWQIIs of different rainfall intensities were ranked: torrential rain (5.09) > heavy rain (4.88) > light rain (4.50) > no rain (4.39) > moderate rain (3.95). The results of this study distinctly explained the effects of season and rainfall on water quality in an urban wetland in a subtropical monsoon climate zone and would be helpful to the policymakers and concerned authorities in developing better water quality management strategies for these wetlands.


Asunto(s)
Calidad del Agua , Humedales , China , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Lluvia , Estaciones del Año
5.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 43(4): 2018-2029, 2022 Apr 08.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35393825

RESUMEN

Rainfall runoff is one of the important sources of urban river pollution. In order to understand the pollution characteristics of rainfall runoff, the synchronous sampling and monitoring of rainfall runoff in the old urban area of Nanning were carried out; the pollution condition, initial scouring effect, and pollution contribution ratio of different underlying surfaces under different rainfall conditions were analyzed; and the calculation method and influence factor analysis of initial scouring of runoff pollution were discussed. According to the underlying surface of the vegetable market in the old urban area, the selection standard and necessity of the underlying surface of rainfall runoff were discussed. The results showed that the average concentration (EMC) of COD and TSS in roads and vegetable markets were greater than those in green spaces and roofs in the runoff pollution of the old urban area of Nanning, and the EMC values of nutrient pollutants in field rainfall runoff were ranked in decreasing order as vegetable markets, green spaces, roofs, and roads. Under the condition of heavy rain, each underlying surface had an obvious initial scouring effect, the average value of initial scouring coefficient (b) was 0.67, and there were many pollutants transported by roads and green spaces at the initial stage. Under light rain and moderate rain conditions, there was no obvious initial scouring effect, and the average b values were 0.83 and 0.94, respectively. The b value calculated by the whole process was preferred for evaluating the scouring effect. Based on multivariate statistical analysis, the EMC value of TSS in road runoff was significantly positively correlated with the total rainfall duration (RD), and the EMC value of TN in green land runoff was significantly negatively correlated with the average rainfall intensity (ARI). Whether the vegetable market was considered as the underlying surface had a great impact on the calculation results of nutrient pollution load but had little impact on the calculation results of COD and TSS load. The difference percentage of nutrient pollution load under heavy rain reached 80%. Under this condition, the difference percentage of pollutant EMC between the road and vegetable market reached 1012%.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Ambientales , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua , China , Ciudades , Monitoreo del Ambiente/métodos , Contaminantes Ambientales/análisis , Lluvia , Movimientos del Agua , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/análisis
6.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 6276, 2022 Apr 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35428771

RESUMEN

Optimisation of models applied in sheet erosion equations could facilitate effective management of sheet erosion in the field, and sustainable agricultural production. To optimise the characterisation of sheet erosion on slope farmland in South China, the present study conducted field simulation rainfall experiments with vegetated and fallow soils. According to the results, sheet erosion rate first increased with an increase in rainfall duration and then stabilised. Exclusive P. vulgaris planting and P. vulgaris in combination with earthworms could reduce sheet erosion by 10-60%, and the combined method could better control sheet erosion. There were significant differences in erosion rate between mild and steep slopes, and light and heavy rain conditions. The influence of rain intensity on sheet erosion was greater than that of slope. Soil organic matter (SOM), rain intensity, and slope can be used to optimise sheet erosion equations of exposed slopes, and SOM and hydraulic parameters can be used to optimise sheet erosion equations in vegetated slopes. The results of the present study could facilitate the reduction of the time and space variability errors in the establishment of sheet erosion models for vegetated slopes.


Asunto(s)
Lluvia , Suelo , Agricultura , China , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Granjas , Movimientos del Agua
7.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 5244, 2022 03 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35347221

RESUMEN

Satellite remote sensing has great potential to deliver on the promise of a data-driven agricultural revolution, with emerging space-based platforms providing spatiotemporal insights into precision-level attributes such as crop water use, vegetation health and condition and crop response to management practices. Using a harmonized collection of high-resolution Planet CubeSat, Sentinel-2, Landsat-8 and additional coarser resolution imagery from MODIS and VIIRS, we exploit a multi-satellite data fusion and machine learning approach to deliver a radiometrically calibrated and gap-filled time-series of daily leaf area index (LAI) at an unprecedented spatial resolution of 3 m. The insights available from such high-resolution CubeSat-based LAI data are demonstrated through tracking the growth cycle of a maize crop and identifying observable within-field spatial and temporal variations across key phenological stages. Daily LAI retrievals peaked at the tasseling stage, demonstrating their value for fertilizer and irrigation scheduling. An evaluation of satellite-based retrievals against field-measured LAI data collected from both rain-fed and irrigated fields shows high correlation and captures the spatiotemporal development of intra- and inter-field variations. Novel agricultural insights related to individual vegetative and reproductive growth stages were obtained, showcasing the capacity for new high-resolution CubeSat platforms to deliver actionable intelligence for precision agricultural and related applications.


Asunto(s)
Agricultura , Hojas de la Planta , Fertilizantes , Lluvia , Zea mays
8.
Oecologia ; 198(4): 957-966, 2022 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35279724

RESUMEN

Migratory animals often use environmental cues to time their seasonal migrations. Local conditions may, however, differ from distant ones, and current conditions may poorly predict future conditions. This may be particularly true for early wet season conditions in tropical systems, as storms and associated rainfall events are generally not predictable at the scale of weeks or days and are heterogeneously distributed even at the scale of a few kilometres. How migratory animals cope with such challenges, and the consequences they may have, remain poorly known. We used time-to-event models based on GPS data from 19 African elephant herds from Hwange National Park (Zimbabwe) to study the effect of local and distant rainfall events on the elephants' decision to initiate their wet season migration. Elephants relied more on distant rainfall events occurring along the future migration route than on local events when initiating their migration. Such ability to use distant cues does not, however, ensure an immediate migration success. In over 30% of the cases, the elephants came back to their dry season range, sometimes after having travelled > 80% of the expected migration distance. This happened particularly when there was little additional rain falling during the migration. All elephants successfully migrated later in the season. Our study improves the understanding of the migratory ecology of elephants. More broadly, it raises questions about the reliability of rainfall as a migratory cue in tropical systems, and shed light on one of its potential consequences, the poorly quantified phenomenon of migration false starts.


Asunto(s)
Elefantes , Animales , Señales (Psicología) , Ecosistema , Lluvia , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados
9.
PLoS One ; 17(3): e0266222, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35358265

RESUMEN

Tropical forests sustain many ant species whose mating events often involve conspicuous flying swarms of winged gynes and males. The success of these reproductive flights depends on environmental variables and determines the maintenance of local ant diversity. However, we lack a strong understanding of the role of environmental variables in shaping the phenology of these flights. Using a combination of community-level analyses and a time-series model on male abundance, we studied male ant phenology in a seasonally wet lowland rainforest in the Panama Canal. The male flights of 161 ant species, sampled with 10 Malaise traps during 58 consecutive weeks (from August 2014 to September 2015), varied widely in number (mean = 9.8 weeks, median = 4, range = 1 to 58). Those species abundant enough for analysis (n = 97) flew mainly towards the end of the dry season and at the start of the rainy season. While litterfall, rain, temperature, and air humidity explained community composition, the time-series model estimators elucidated more complex patterns of reproductive investment across the entire year. For example, male abundance increased in weeks when maximum daily temperature increased and in wet weeks during the dry season. On the contrary, male abundance decreased in periods when rain receded (e.g., at the start of the dry season), in periods when rain fell daily (e.g., right after the beginning of the wet season), or when there was an increase in the short-term rate of litterfall (e.g., at the end of the dry season). Together, these results suggest that the BCI ant community is adapted to the dry/wet transition as the best timing of reproductive investment. We hypothesize that current climate change scenarios for tropical regions with higher average temperature, but lower rainfall, may generate phenological mismatches between reproductive flights and the adequate conditions needed for a successful start of the colony.


Asunto(s)
Hormigas , Clima Tropical , Animales , Cambio Climático , Bosques , Masculino , Lluvia , Estaciones del Año , Árboles
10.
Chemosphere ; 298: 134254, 2022 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35278453

RESUMEN

Sewer sediments contain high concentrations of carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus pollutants, which can be the main source of overflow pollution due to high-velocity scouring. To elucidate the scouring overflow pollution characteristics and regulation mechanism of sewer sediment under different precipitation intensities, a sewer-storage tank linkage control experimental device was established to simulate the practical sewer overflow under different precipitation intensities and the control process of storage tank overflow pollutants. Based on the division of flow from small to large, the pollution characteristics of overflow pollutants and the contribution rate of sewer sediments to overflow pollutants were analysed. The results showed that the total load of overflow pollutants increased with an increase in rainfall intensity and were 7.58 kg, 16.54 kg, 27.42 kg, respectively. The concentration of particulate pollutants increased sharply in a short time, and the concentration of dissolved pollutants decreased at a certain dilution. Sewer sediment was the main source of overflow pollutants, contributing up to 70%. After the overflow pollutants entered the regulation and storage tank, a certain stratification phenomenon was discovered at different sedimentation times. The concentration of large particle pollutants gradually increased from top to bottom in the regulation and storage tank, and the concentration of dissolved pollutants showed no obvious difference between the layers. With an increase in rainfall intensity, the recommended regulation and storage times of overflow pollutants were within 15 min, 45-60 min, and 60 min, respectively. Finally, based on the relationship among rainfall intensity, sediment scouring thickness, regulation and storage time, a prediction formula for the regulation and storage time of overflow pollutants was obtained, which provided a basis for the regulation and treatment of subsequent overflow pollutants.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Ambientales , Aguas del Alcantarillado , Contaminantes Ambientales/análisis , Contaminación Ambiental/análisis , Nitrógeno/análisis , Fósforo/análisis , Lluvia , Aguas del Alcantarillado/análisis , Movimientos del Agua
11.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 3742, 2022 03 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35260643

RESUMEN

In arid and semi-arid ecosystems, rainfall and rainfall temporal distribution shape species communities and multi-trophic interactions. Whereas the relationship between climate change-induced decline of precipitation and plants is well know, there is little knowledge of these relationships with consumers, such as arthropods of different trophic levels. In a 6-year period we studied precipitation effects and microhabitat conditions on multi-trophic interactions of ground-dwelling arthropods in an arid savannah. We analysed the effects of seasonal rainfall, plant cover and soil texture on community composition and activity density of arthropods of different trophic levels and investigated the critical window of vegetation and occurrence arthropods in relation to rainfall. Our result show, that arthropod community composition was determined by seasonal rainfall and plant cover. Soil texture did not explain arthropod response sufficiently. Especially detritivorous arthropods were strongly affected by precipitation and can therefore serve as indicators of droughts. Further, multi-trophic interactions can better be explained by short-term rainfall pulses, rather than by seasonal patterns, with a window of seven days being most suitable to explain the influence of rainfall. Plant cover responded immediately after the rainfall, followed by herbivorous and predatory arthropods, and with a lag of 23 days omnivorous arthropods. This highlights the importance of short-term rain pulses for multi-trophic interactions among arthropods and emphasized the relevance of studying detailed precipitation effects for the arthropod diversity and ecosystem stability in arid ecosystems.


Asunto(s)
Artrópodos , Animales , Ecosistema , Plantas , Lluvia , Estaciones del Año , Suelo
12.
Sci Total Environ ; 827: 154295, 2022 Jun 25.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35247404

RESUMEN

In laboratory experiments, the nitrogen migration and transformation in the stormwater bioretention system under different dry-wet alterations were studied. The removal efficiency showed that nitrogen could be removed efficiently in bioretention system under all dry-wet alterations, and the shorter antecedent dry days (ADDs) (1-5 days) were beneficial to the removal of nitrogen before plants decay, compared to the longer ADDs (7-22 days). Using a new method combined with Hydrus-1D model, water transport was simulated and nitrogen migration in bioretention system was quantified, indicating that NH4+-N was mainly removed in the planting layer, and the removal of NO3--N was occurred in the submerged layer. Fate experiment showed the main fate of the nitrogen was microorganisms (1-5 ADDs) and soil immobilization (7-22 ADDs). Microbial analysis showed that shorter ADDs (1-5 days) were suitable for Firmicutes growth, while Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria accounted for greater abundance under longer ADDs (7-22 days). Canonical correlation analysis (CCA) revealed the relationships between microbial community and environmental factors. Soil moisture content, soil organic matter (SOM), TN (water), root length, and NO3--N (water) were significantly correlated with bacterial community. This work may give new insights into nitrogen migration and transformation, and can provide a reference for the further mechanism study and construction of stormwater bioretention systems.


Asunto(s)
Microbiota , Nitrógeno , Desnitrificación , Nitrógeno/análisis , Lluvia , Suelo , Agua
13.
Environ Manage ; 69(6): 1053-1065, 2022 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35322294

RESUMEN

Communities in the U.S. fund stormwater management programs to reduce flooding and improve and protect water quality. Few studies have attempted to quantify municipal storwmater management expenditures. This task is important given efforts to meet increasing water quality standards and develop new revenue sources. The purpose of this study was to evaluate trends in municipal stormwater management expenditures across the state of California. The study identified and compiled publicly-available data on reported stormwater expenditures (spending) and budgets for local governments in California. Data were extracted from annual reports for over 160 public agencies. A standardized rubric of activities was developed and used to create a first-of-its-kind database of municipal stormwater budgets and expenditures. The results indicated that there is over $700 million in annual municipal stormwater spending, but this total does not represent all spending due to gaps in publicly-available data. Counties and flood control districts often have the largest total expenditures in a region, but in aggregate cities reported more spending statewide. Available data are not sufficient to adequately evaluate whether current spending meets regulatory requirements. Additionally, publicly-available data are inconsistent across geographic regions regulated by different agencies. The analysis offers a template for improved cost reporting of stormwater programs in U.S. municipalities, which can help answer key questions such as the sufficiency of current funding. Future research can use the method to evaluate spending in other states and regions, evaluate trends over time to improve outcomes, and refine the spending categories based on examples from other states.


Asunto(s)
Inundaciones , Lluvia , California , Ciudades
14.
Tohoku J Exp Med ; 256(2): 175-185, 2022 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35236809

RESUMEN

Floods due to heavy rains or typhoons are frequent annual hazards in Japan. This study aims to reduce disaster fatalities and contribute to disaster risk reduction. This retrospective observational study analyzed fatalities caused by heavy rains or typhoons. In Japan, 578 fatalities, related to seven occurrences of heavy rains and 16 typhoons, occurred between 2016 and 2020. Moreover, 13,195 houses collapsed due to hazards. Furthermore, 334 (73.2%) of the 456 fatalities were > 60 years old. Heavy rains caused more local area destruction due to floods and landslides than typhoons although wind- and disaster-related mortalities were found to be caused by typhoons. Human damage was eminent in older people because of their vulnerabilities and possibly dangerous behavior. Many fatalities were due to floods (46.9%) and landslides (44.1%). Indoor and outdoor mortalities due to heavy rains or typhoons were 157 (55.9%) and 124 (44.1%), respectively, and 24 (21.8%) of 124 outdoor mortalities occurred in vehicles. The number of recent flood mortalities in Japan correlates with the number of destroyed houses. Analyzing the victim's locations in the 2020 Kumamoto Heavy Rain using hazard and inundation maps suggested the difficulty of ensuring the safety of people living in dangerous areas. This study showed the characteristics of flood damage by heavy rains and typhoons in Japan and reports that flood damage is increasing because of the hazard size and community aging. Disaster risk reduction, disaster education, and evacuation safety plans for the elderly using hazard maps were important for strengthening disaster resilience.


Asunto(s)
Tormentas Ciclónicas , Desastres , Anciano , Inundaciones , Humanos , Japón/epidemiología , Persona de Mediana Edad , Lluvia
15.
Water Res ; 215: 118273, 2022 May 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35303560

RESUMEN

Distributed infiltration systems can benefit downstream water bodies by reducing the runoff flowrate and volume discharges from the catchment. Investigating their runoff flowrate and volume reduction potential at the catchment scale will inform decision makers regarding their efficacy for managing catchment outflows. To this end, we conducted field investigations at the residential catchment scale for three years. The study monitored the catchment for one year before the installation of leaky well systems (preinstallation) and two years after installation (postinstallation). The hydrological model, calibrated to preinstallation catchment outflows, acted as a virtual control tool. Runoff flow outputs from the control model and two years of monitored runoff flow data from the postinstallation period were analysed using statistical methods. The statistical tests showed a significant 13% reduction in average flowrates in storms with a corresponding runoff flowrate of up to 50 L/s. The study further reported the ability of infiltration systems to reduce runoff volume in the catchment by 9%. This reduction was not significant, however, as per the results of the statistical analysis. We then fitted the generalized linear model (GLM) to the monitored and simulated runoff volume data. This enabled us to break down the effect of curbside infiltration systems on runoff volume according to corresponding peak flowrates during the storm. The results of the two-way ANOVA performed to detect significant differences in the regression slopes of the GLM indicated that curbside infiltration systems significantly reduced runoff volume for storms when the runoff flowrates remained below 100 L/s.


Asunto(s)
Hidrología , Lluvia
16.
Water Sci Technol ; 85(5): 1363-1371, 2022 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35290217

RESUMEN

Historically, green infrastructure for stormwater management has been event-based designed. This study aims to realign the green infrastructure design strategies with principles for robust decision making, through the example of green roofs design with the variational method and exemplified using the Norwegian context of the 3-step approach (3SA) for stormwater management. The 3SA consists of planning solutions to handle day-to-day rain at site scale through infiltration (step 1) and detention (step 2), and extreme events with safe floodways (step 3). An innovative framework based on downscaling of rainfall timeseries is suggested as follows: (i) long duration continuous simulation for retention variation and day-to-day discharge, corresponding to step 1 in the 3SA; (ii) intensive sampling of local extreme events to estimate reliability and robustness of solutions, corresponding to steps 2 and 3 in the 3SA. Comparing the traditional variational method to Highly-Informed-Design-Evaluation-Strategy (HIDES), it was found that the variational method possibly leads to incorrect decisions while the suggested novel approach was found to give more informed and reliable results by suggesting a design based on both operating mode and failure mode. It allows to embed solutions within the urban water system by facilitating the link between the steps of the 3SA. Such a framework was found to be data-wise applicable in the Norwegian context.


Asunto(s)
Lluvia , Movimientos del Agua , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Factores de Tiempo , Agua
17.
Water Sci Technol ; 85(5): 1372-1383, 2022 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35290218

RESUMEN

Illicit discharges in urban stormwater drains are a major environmental concern that deteriorate downstream waterway health. Conventional detection methods such as stormwater drain visual inspection and dye testing have fundamental drawbacks and limitations which can prevent easy location and elimination of illegal discharges in a catchment. We deployed 22 novel low-cost level, temperature and conductivity sensors across an urban catchment in Melbourne for a year to monitor the distributed drainage network, thereby detecting likely illicit discharges ranging from a transitory flow with less than 10 minutes to persistent flows lasting longer than 20 hours. We discuss rapid deployment methods, real-time data collection and online processing. The ensemble analysis of all dry weather flow data across all sites indicates that: (i) large uncertainties are associated with discharge frequency, duration, and variation in water quality within industrial and residential land uses; (ii) most dry weather discharges are intermittent and transient flows which are difficult to detect and not simply due to cross-connections with the sewerage network; (iii) detectable diurnal discharge patterns can support mitigation efforts, including policies and regulatory measures (e.g., enforcement or education) to protect receiving waterways; and, (iv) that it is possible to cost effectively isolate sources of dry weather pollution using a distributed sensor network.


Asunto(s)
Lluvia , Calidad del Agua , Tiempo (Meteorología)
18.
Water Sci Technol ; 85(5): 1424-1433, 2022 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35290222

RESUMEN

The modelling of urban drainage systems is an important aspect of their design process and long-term statistical modelling using historical rain series is commonly used. The objective of this study is to determine whether logistic regression models that use rainfall event statistics can be a viable alternative to create job lists with fewer extraneous events. Two methods are used to develop a regression model; both use iterative stepwise algorithms to select the rain variables to include and both perform similarly. The resulting model is able to capture ∼90% of the relevant events with ∼50% fewer jobs compared to the reference job list. The results suggest that there is no right threshold to use, but instead this methodology facilitates balancing the number of jobs with the desired level of precision of the results. In all cases, it is possible to greatly decrease the number of jobs that need to be run. The methodology works relatively well on different nodes in the system, though node characteristics appear to impact the amount of CSOs captured.


Asunto(s)
Modelos Estadísticos , Lluvia
19.
Cien Saude Colet ; 27(3): 849-860, 2022 Mar.
Artículo en Portugués, Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35293463

RESUMEN

Leptospirosis is a zoonosis with epidemic potential, especially after heavy rainfall causing river, urban and flash floods. Certain features of Santa Catarina's coastal region influence these processes. Using negative binomial regression, we investigated trends in the incidence of leptospirosis in the six municipalities with the highest epidemic peaks between 2000 and 2015 and the climatic and environmental variables associated with the occurrence of the disease. Incidence was highest in 2008 and 2011, and peaks occurred in the same month or month after disasters. Incidence showed a strong seasonal trend, being higher in summer months. There was a decrease trend in incidence across the six municipalities (3.21% per year). The climatic and environmental factors that showed the strongest associations were number of rainy days, maximum temperature, presence of flash floods, and river flooding. The impact of these variables varied across the municipalities. Significant interactions were found, indicating that the effect of river flooding on incidence is not the same across all municipalities and differences in incidence between municipalities depend on the occurrence of river flooding.


A leptospirose é uma zoonose que apresenta potencial epidêmico, principalmente após fortes chuvas que acarretam inundações, alagamentos e enxurradas. Algumas características da região costeira de Santa Catarina, localizada no Sul do Brasil, influenciam nesses processos. Portanto, a partir do estudo da leptospirose nos seis municípios do estado com as maiores incidências e picos epidêmicos de 2000 a 2015, buscou-se conhecer a tendência dessa doença e as variáveis climáticas e ambientais associadas à sua ocorrência, ajustando dois modelos com resposta binomial negativa. As maiores incidências foram encontradas em 2008 e 2011, com picos no mesmo mês ou no posterior aos eventos de desastres. A incidência apresentou forte comportamento sazonal, sendo maior nos meses do verão. Observou-se tendência de queda na incidência dos municípios estudados, estimada em 3,21% ao ano. Os fatores climáticos e ambientais mais fortemente associados foram o número de dias de chuva, a temperatura máxima e a presença de enxurrada e de inundação, com diferentes impactos entre os municípios. Houve interações significativas, indicando que o efeito de inundações na incidência não é o mesmo em todos os municípios e que as diferenças nas incidências entre os municípios dependem da ocorrência ou não de inundações.


Asunto(s)
Leptospirosis , Zoonosis , Animales , Brasil/epidemiología , Humanos , Incidencia , Leptospirosis/epidemiología , Lluvia
20.
J Environ Public Health ; 2022: 5040435, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35237331

RESUMEN

Globally, road traffic accidents are a major cause of death and severe injuries. It is estimated that the number of deaths on the world's roads at 1.5 million per annum puts road traffic injuries as the eighth leading cause of death globally. Understanding the influence of environmental factors on deaths and severe injuries will help in policy-making and the development of strategies in Limpopo Province. We, therefore, aim to study environmental factors that influence road deaths and severe injuries and to identify whether their impact on injury severity levels varies. The study was based on secondary data on road traffic accidents obtained from the Department of Roads and Transport in Limpopo Province. The data comprised 18 029 road traffic accidents for the period January 2009-December 2015. The study found that weekends (Saturdays and Sundays) had the highest number of accidents when compared to weekdays. The proportion of observations in each severity level was not constant across explanatory variables. The generalized ordered logit regression (GOLR) models seemed to be an effective predicting model that can be adapted to determine the influence of environmental factors on injury severity compared to the ordered logit regression (OLR) model. The results of the GOLR model suggest that environmental factors such as slippery road conditions, rainy weather, and spring season lower the likelihood of severe crash occurrence. On the other hand, poor or defective road surface, time interval (6 a.m. to 11 p.m.), and provincial roads have a higher likelihood of severe crash occurrence. To decrease the severity of injuries in the province, provincial roadways must be maintained regularly.


Asunto(s)
Accidentes de Tránsito , Heridas y Lesiones , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Lluvia , Factores de Riesgo , Sudáfrica/epidemiología , Tiempo (Meteorología) , Heridas y Lesiones/epidemiología , Heridas y Lesiones/etiología
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