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1.
JAMA Netw Open ; 7(3): e242852, 2024 Mar 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38502125

RESUMEN

Importance: Non-Hispanic Black (hereafter, Black) individuals experience worse prostate cancer outcomes due to socioeconomic and racial inequities of access to care. Few studies have empirically evaluated these disparities across different health care systems. Objective: To describe the racial and ethnic and neighborhood socioeconomic status (nSES) disparities among residents of the same communities who receive prostate cancer care in the US Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) health care system vs other settings. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study obtained data from the VA Central Cancer Registry for veterans with prostate cancer who received care within the VA Greater Los Angeles Healthcare System (VA cohort) and from the California Cancer Registry (CCR) for nonveterans who received care outside the VA setting (CCR cohort). The cohorts consisted of all males with incident prostate cancer who were living within the same US Census tracts. These individuals received care between 2000 and 2018 and were followed up until death from any cause or censoring on December 31, 2018. Data analyses were conducted between September 2022 and December 2023. Exposures: Health care setting, self-identified race and ethnicity (SIRE), and nSES. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was all-cause mortality (ACM). Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to estimate hazard ratios for associations of SIRE and nSES with prostate cancer outcomes in the VA and CCR cohorts. Results: Included in the analysis were 49 461 males with prostate cancer. Of these, 1881 males were in the VA cohort (mean [SD] age, 65.3 [7.7] years; 833 Black individuals [44.3%], 694 non-Hispanic White [hereafter, White] individuals [36.9%], and 354 individuals [18.8%] of other or unknown race). A total of 47 580 individuals were in the CCR cohort (mean [SD] age, 67.0 [9.6] years; 8183 Black individuals [17.2%], 26 206 White individuals [55.1%], and 13 191 individuals [27.8%] of other or unknown race). In the VA cohort, there were no racial disparities observed for metastasis, ACM, or prostate cancer-specific mortality (PCSM). However, in the CCR cohort, the racial disparities were observed for metastasis (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 1.36; 95% CI, 1.22-1.52), ACM (adjusted hazard ratio [AHR], 1.13; 95% CI, 1.04-1.24), and PCSM (AHR, 1.15; 95% CI, 1.05-1.25). Heterogeneity was observed for the racial disparity in ACM in the VA vs CCR cohorts (AHR, 0.90 [95% CI, 0.76-1.06] vs 1.13 [95% CI, 1.04-1.24]; P = .01). No evidence of nSES disparities was observed for any prostate cancer outcomes in the VA cohort. However, in the CCR cohort, heterogeneity was observed for nSES disparities with ACM (AHR, 0.82; 95% CI, 0.80-0.84; P = .002) and PCSM (AHR, 0.86; 95% CI, 0.82-0.89; P = .007). Conclusions and Relevance: Results of this study suggest that racial and nSES disparities were wider among patients seeking care outside of the VA health care system. Health systems-related interventions that address access barriers may mitigate racial and socioeconomic disparities in prostate cancer.


Asunto(s)
Etnicidad , Neoplasias de la Próstata , Estados Unidos/epidemiología , Masculino , Humanos , Anciano , Estudios de Cohortes , Neoplasias de la Próstata/terapia , Próstata , Los Angeles
2.
BMC Oral Health ; 24(1): 332, 2024 Mar 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38481227

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: In California, preventive dental care is covered by Medi-Cal (California's Medicaid program). However, many beneficiaries do not use their dental benefits. Given that a lack of knowledge about oral health and insurance coverage contributes to this underutilization, promoting the use of dental benefits among eligible individuals via an educational program is imperative. Responding to the particular needs of older immigrants with limited English proficiency, we developed a digital oral health intervention for older Korean-American Medi-Cal enrollees in Los Angeles. This educational intervention is designed to be delivered via computers and the Internet. It consists of a 15-min self-running PowerPoint presentation narrated in Korean with links to additional information on the Internet. The slides contain information about the basic etiology of oral diseases, oral hygiene, common myths about oral health and dental care, Medi-Cal coverage of preventive dental care, and how to find a dental clinic. METHODS: We pilot tested the intervention with 12 participants to examine its feasibility and acceptability. We also obtained participants' qualitative feedback about the intervention. RESULTS: A post-intervention quantitative assessment yielded high participant satisfaction and improved oral health and dental care knowledge. Participant responses to the intervention yielded four themes: (1) content and structure, (2) linguistic and cultural aspects, (3) delivery mode, and (4) additional concerns and suggestions. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings confirm the intervention's feasibility and acceptability and suggest further refinement.


Asunto(s)
Atención Odontológica , Medicaid , Estados Unidos , Humanos , Los Angeles , República de Corea , California
3.
BMC Public Health ; 24(1): 654, 2024 Mar 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38429651

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: To facilitate safety-net healthcare system partnerships with community social service providers, the Los Angeles County Department of Health Services (LAC DHS) created a new collaboration team to spur cross-agency social and medical referral networks and engage communities affected by health disparities as part of a Sect. 1115 Medicaid waiver in Los Angeles County entitled Whole Person Care-Los Angeles (WPC-LA). METHODS: This observational research reviews three years of collaboration team implementation (2018-2020) through Medicaid-reportable engagement reports, a collaboration team qualitative survey on challenges, facilitators, and recommendations for community engagement. Member reflections for survey findings were conducted with the collaboration team and LAC DHS WPC-LA leadership. RESULTS: Collaboration team Medicaid engagement reports (n = 144) reported > 2,700 events, reaching > 70,000 individuals through cross-agency and community-partnered meetings. The collaboration team survey (n = 9) and member reflection sessions portrayed engagement processes through outreach, service assessments, and facilitation of service partnerships. The collaboration team facilitated community engagement processes through countywide workgroups on justice-system diversion and African American infant and maternal health. Recommendations for future safety net health system engagement processes included assessing health system readiness for community engagement and identifying strategies to build mutually beneficial social service partnerships. CONCLUSIONS: A dedicated collaboration team allowed for bi-directional knowledge exchange between county services, populations with lived experience, and social services, identifying service gaps and recommendations. Engagement with communities affected by health disparities resulted in health system policy recommendations and changes.


Asunto(s)
Servicio Social , Lactante , Estados Unidos , Humanos , Los Angeles
4.
BMC Public Health ; 24(1): 503, 2024 Feb 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38365658

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The literature on disparities in COVID-19 vaccine uptake focuses primarily on the differences between White versus non-White individuals or differences by socioeconomic status. Much less is known about disparities in vaccine uptake within low-income, minority communities and its correlates. METHODS: This study investigates disparities in COVID-19 vaccination uptake within racial and ethnic minoritized communities with similar socioeconomic backgrounds and built environments, specifically focusing on Black-Hispanic disparities and disparities within the Hispanic community by country of origin. Data are analyzed from the fourth wave (June 2021- May 2022) of the Watts Neighborhood Health Study, a cohort study of public housing residents in south Los Angeles, CA. Linear probability models estimated the association between vaccine uptake and participants' race/ethnicity, sequentially adding controls for sociodemographic characteristics, health care access and insurance, prior infection, and attitudes towards COVID-19 vaccines. Differences in reasons for vaccination status by race/ethnicity were also tested. RESULTS: Mexican Hispanic and non-Mexican Hispanic participants were 31% points (95% CI: 0.21, 0.41, p < 0.001) and 44% points (95% CI: 0.32, 0.56, p < 0.001) more likely to be vaccinated than non-Hispanic Black participants, respectively. The disparity between Black and Hispanic participants was reduced by about 40% after controlling for attitudes towards COVID-19 vaccines. Among Hispanic participants, non-Mexican participants were 13% points (95% CI: 0.03, 0.24, p = 0.01) more likely to be vaccinated than Mexican participants, however, these differences were no longer significant after controlling for individual and household characteristics (ß = 0.04, 95% CI: -0.07, 0.15, p = 0.44). CONCLUSION: There are sizeable racial and ethnic COVID-19 vaccination disparities even within low-income and minoritized communities. Accounting for this heterogeneity and its correlates can be critically important for public health efforts to ensure vaccine equity.


Asunto(s)
Vacunas contra la COVID-19 , COVID-19 , Humanos , Negro o Afroamericano , Estudios de Cohortes , COVID-19/prevención & control , Vacunas contra la COVID-19/administración & dosificación , Etnicidad , Hispánicos o Latinos , Disparidades en Atención de Salud , Los Angeles , Pobreza
5.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 73(6): 131-134, 2024 Feb 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38359006

RESUMEN

Correctional settings provide a high-risk environment for hepatitis A transmission because of the high proportion of homelessness and injection drug use among persons who are incarcerated. On May 30, 2023, Los Angeles County Department of Public Health informed the Communicable Disease Surveillance and Control (CDSC) unit of the Los Angeles County Jail system that a symptomatic incarcerated person had received a positive test result for acute hepatitis A. Upon learning the next day that the patient was a food handler, CDSC staff members identified 5,830 potential contacts of the index patient, 1,702 of whom had been released from the jail. During June 1-12, a total of 2,766 contacts who did not have a documented history of hepatitis A serology or vaccination that could be confirmed from the electronic health record or state immunization registry were identified. These persons were offered hepatitis A vaccination as postexposure prophylaxis; 1,510 (54.6%) accepted vaccination. Contacts who were food handlers without confirmed evidence of immunity and who declined vaccination were removed from food-handling duties for the duration of their potential incubation period. No additional cases were identified. Identifying contacts promptly and using immunization and serology records to ensure rapid delivery of postexposure prophylactic vaccine can help prevent hepatitis A transmission during exposures among incarcerated populations.


Asunto(s)
Hepatitis A , Humanos , Hepatitis A/epidemiología , Hepatitis A/prevención & control , Cárceles Locales , Los Angeles/epidemiología , Brotes de Enfermedades/prevención & control , Vacunación
7.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 73(2): 44-48, 2024 Jan 18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38236779

RESUMEN

Since May 2022, approximately 2,500 mpox cases have been reported in Los Angeles County (LAC), California. Beginning in May 2023, the LAC Department of Public Health observed a consistent increase in mpox cases after a prolonged period of low incidence. A total of 56 cases were identified during May 4-August 17, 2023. A minority of mpox patients were fully vaccinated (29%). One patient was hospitalized; no deaths were reported. Two cases of reinfection occurred, both of which were associated with mild illness. The increasing number of cases during this period was significant, as few other health departments in the United States reported an increase in mpox cases during the same period. The outbreak spread similarly to the 2022 U.S. mpox outbreak, mainly through sexual contact among gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men. Vaccination against mpox became available in June 2022 and has been shown to be effective at preventing mpox disease. This outbreak was substantially smaller than the 2022 mpox outbreak in LAC (2,280 cases); possible explanations for the lower case count include increased immunity provided from vaccination against mpox and population immunity from previous infections. Nonetheless, mpox continues to spread within LAC, and preventive measures, such as receipt of JYNNEOS vaccination, are recommended for persons at risk of Monkeypox virus exposure.


Asunto(s)
Viruela del Mono , Minorías Sexuales y de Género , Masculino , Humanos , Homosexualidad Masculina , Los Angeles/epidemiología , Brotes de Enfermedades
8.
Am J Public Health ; 114(S1): S78-S81, 2024 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38207265

RESUMEN

The COVID-19 pandemic exacerbated long-standing inequities, galvanizing new investments and community feedback to improve recovery programs. This implementation evaluation offers descriptive evidence of the feasibility of engaging street vendors to (1) facilitate linkage to services for undocumented Latinx communities, (2) strengthen health promotion by gathering community feedback, and (3) enhance economic opportunity by recognizing and addressing systemic challenges in which vendors operate. Future work should assess the effectiveness of mobilizing existing community messengers around entrenched social determinants of health. (Am J Public Health. 2024;114(S1):S78-S81. https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2023.307453).


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Humanos , Los Angeles , Pandemias/prevención & control , Promoción de la Salud , Salud Pública
9.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 390, 2024 01 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38172148

RESUMEN

Our world is becoming increasingly urbanized with a growing human population concentrated around cities. The expansion of urban areas has important consequences for biodiversity, yet the abiotic drivers of biodiversity in urban ecosystems have not been well characterized for the most diverse group of animals on the planet, arthropods. Given their great diversity, comparatively small home ranges, and ability to disperse, arthropods make an excellent model for studying which factors can most accurately predict urban biodiversity. We assessed the effects of (i) topography (distance to natural areas and to ocean) (ii) abiotic factors (mean annual temperature and diurnal range), and (iii) anthropogenic drivers (land value and amount of impervious surface) on the occurrence of six arthropod groups represented in Malaise trap collections run by the BioSCAN project across the Greater Los Angeles Area. We found striking heterogeneity in responses to all factors both within and between taxonomic groups. Diurnal temperature range had a consistently negative effect on occupancy but this effect was only significant in Phoridae. Anthropogenic drivers had mixed though mostly insignificant effects, as some groups and species were most diverse in highly urbanized areas, while other groups showed suppressed diversity. Only Phoridae was significantly affected by land value, where most species were more likely to occur in areas with lower land value. Los Angeles can support high regional arthropod diversity, but spatial community composition is highly dependent on the taxonomic group.


Asunto(s)
Artrópodos , Dípteros , Animales , Humanos , Artrópodos/fisiología , Ecosistema , Biodiversidad , Ciudades , Los Angeles
10.
Prev Med ; 179: 107850, 2024 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38199591

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To examine associations of concern, worry, and stress about discrimination, shootings/violence, and police brutality and exclusive and dual tobacco and cannabis use among young adults. METHODS: A prospective, racially/ethnically diverse cohort of young adults (n = 1960) living in Los Angeles, California completed a baseline survey in 2020 (age range: 19-23) and a follow-up survey in 2021. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was employed on nine variables assessing levels of concern, worry, and stress about societal discrimination, societal shootings/violence, and community police brutality at baseline. Past 30-day tobacco and cannabis use at follow-up was categorized as current exclusive tobacco, exclusive cannabis, and dual tobacco and cannabis (vs never/former) use based on eleven use variables. Multinomial logistic regressions estimated adjusted associations between each factor score (translated to standard deviation units) with exclusive and dual tobacco and cannabis use. RESULTS: The EFA produced four factor scores representing concern/worry/stress (i.e., distress) about community police brutality (F1), distress about societal shootings/violence (F2), and distress about societal discrimination (F3), as well as generalized stress about police brutality, shootings/violence, and discrimination (F4). F1, F2, and F3 were associated with subsequent exclusive current cannabis use, with F1 having the strongest association (OR: 1.35, 95% CI: 1.18-1.55), while only F1 (OR: 1.51, 95% CI: 1.27-1.78) was associated with dual tobacco and cannabis use. None of the factors were associated with exclusive tobacco use. CONCLUSIONS: Young adult concern, worry, and/or stress about social problems may increase risk of cannabis use with or without concurrent tobacco use 6-12 months later.


Asunto(s)
Cannabis , Sistemas Electrónicos de Liberación de Nicotina , Uso de la Marihuana , Productos de Tabaco , Humanos , Adulto Joven , Adulto , Estudios Prospectivos , Los Angeles/epidemiología , Uso de la Marihuana/epidemiología , Uso de Tabaco/epidemiología , Violencia
11.
Subst Use Misuse ; 59(5): 727-731, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38226661

RESUMEN

Background: Research is needed to identify the determinants of motivation to quit smoking among non-Hispanic Black (NHB) adults who smoke menthol cigarettes and reside in communities covered by menthol cigarette bans. Objectives: This study examined the associations between motivation to quit smoking and a range of individual-level predictors, including measures of demographics, harm/risk perception of menthol cigarettes, and awareness of a ban on menthol cigarettes in Los Angeles County unincorporated communities. Self-identified NHB adults who currently smoke menthol cigarettes (N=50; M=47.2 years; SD=13.7; 46% female) were recruited in Los Angeles County unincorporated communities. Participants completed an interviewer-administered cross-sectional survey between January to September 2021. Results: Participants (74%) reported an annual household income of less than $25,000. Participants' mean age at cigarette initiation was 15.7 years old (SD=5.68). Most (88%) were aware of the ordinance banning menthol cigarette sales. Employing multivariable linear regression analysis, harm/risk perception of menthol cigarettes (B=14.69, p<0.01) and awareness of the local menthol ban (B=26.18, p<0.05) were found to be independently associated with motivation to quit smoking. Conclusions: Findings from this community-based sample suggest that among NHB adults who smoke menthol cigarettes, motivation to quit smoking is influenced by their perception of menthol cigarettes as harmful and awareness of local policy banning the sale of menthol cigarettes. Findings underscore the need for community-centered and culturally grounded interventions to facilitate quitting among NHB adults who smoke in order for communities covered by menthol bans to achieve health equity in reducing preventable racial inequities due to menthol cigarettes.


Asunto(s)
Cese del Hábito de Fumar , Productos de Tabaco , Adulto , Humanos , Femenino , Adolescente , Masculino , Motivación , Mentol , Estudios Transversales , Los Angeles
13.
J Cancer Surviv ; 18(1): 5-10, 2024 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38183578

RESUMEN

As one of the first comprehensive cancer centers to receive a designation from the National Cancer Institute, the Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center at UCLA Health has served as a leader in survivorship research for three decades. A clinical survivorship program for childhood cancer survivors was established in the early 2000s as this became a standard of care in pediatric oncology. However, it was not until receipt of external funding and the establishment of a Survivorship Center of Excellence in 2006 that clinical services were expanded to include adult cancer survivors, as well as survivorship care delivery research in the community and at affiliated clinical sites. When this funding ended, there was limited institutional support for expansion of the program, and so the clinical programs did not develop further. Recently, there has been renewed interest in obtaining Commission on Cancer accreditation, and this has prompted an institutional assessment of survivorship care to inform future activities for system-wide program development. As oncology care expands throughout a large regional health system network, the future survivorship program will need to serve as a common resource for the entire health system by providing a repository of specialized services and resources as well as standard processes and pathways for a cohesive approach to care. IMPLICATIONS FOR CANCER SURVIVORS: There are many challenges to development and sustainment of cancer survivorship programs, even in NCI-designated comprehensive cancers. As the delivery of cancer care services expands and becomes more integrated in large health care systems, innovative strategies are needed to ensure delivery of tailored care to cancer survivors through acute treatment and beyond.


Asunto(s)
Supervivientes de Cáncer , Neoplasias , Adulto , Niño , Humanos , Supervivencia , Los Angeles , Atención a la Salud , Neoplasias/terapia
14.
Transl Psychiatry ; 14(1): 38, 2024 Jan 18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38238290

RESUMEN

Tobacco use is a major risk factor for many diseases and is heavily influenced by environmental factors with significant underlying genetic contributions. Here, we evaluated the predictive performance, risk stratification, and potential systemic health effects of tobacco use disorder (TUD) predisposing germline variants using a European- ancestry-derived polygenic score (PGS) in 24,202 participants from the multi-ancestry, hospital-based UCLA ATLAS biobank. Among genetically inferred ancestry groups (GIAs), TUD-PGS was significantly associated with TUD in European American (EA) (OR: 1.20, CI: [1.16, 1.24]), Hispanic/Latin American (HL) (OR:1.19, CI: [1.11, 1.28]), and East Asian American (EAA) (OR: 1.18, CI: [1.06, 1.31]) GIAs but not in African American (AA) GIA (OR: 1.04, CI: [0.93, 1.17]). Similarly, TUD-PGS offered strong risk stratification across PGS quantiles in EA and HL GIAs and inconsistently in EAA and AA GIAs. In a cross-ancestry phenome-wide association meta-analysis, TUD-PGS was associated with cardiometabolic, respiratory, and psychiatric phecodes (17 phecodes at P < 2.7E-05). In individuals with no history of smoking, the top TUD-PGS associations with obesity and alcohol-related disorders (P = 3.54E-07, 1.61E-06) persist. Mendelian Randomization (MR) analysis provides evidence of a causal association between adiposity measures and tobacco use. Inconsistent predictive performance of the TUD-PGS across GIAs motivates the inclusion of multiple ancestry populations at all levels of genetic research of tobacco use for equitable clinical translation of TUD-PGS. Phenome associations suggest that TUD-predisposed individuals may require comprehensive tobacco use prevention and management approaches to address underlying addictive tendencies.


Asunto(s)
Bancos de Muestras Biológicas , Tabaquismo , Humanos , Los Angeles , Uso de Tabaco , Tabaquismo/genética , Factores de Riesgo , Obesidad , Estudio de Asociación del Genoma Completo
15.
Int J Cancer ; 154(9): 1579-1586, 2024 May 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38180239

RESUMEN

Fine particulate matter (PM2.5 ) contains carcinogens similar to those generated by tobacco smoking, which may increase the risks of developing smoking-related cancers, such as upper aerodigestive track (UADT) cancers, for both smokers and never-smokers. Therefore, it is imperative to understand the relation between ambient PM2.5 exposure and risk of UADT cancers. A population-based case-control study involving 565 incident UADT cancer cases and 983 controls was conducted in Los Angeles County from 1999 to 2004. The average residential PM2.5 concentration 1 year before the diagnosis date for cases and the reference date for controls was assessed using a chemical transport model. The association between ambient PM2.5 and the UADT cancers was estimated by unconditional logistic regression, adjusting for confounders at the individual and block-group level. Stratified analyses were conducted by sex, tobacco smoking status and UADT subsites. We also assessed the interaction between PM2.5 and tobacco smoking on UADT cancers. PM2.5 concentrations were associated with an elevated odds of UADT cancers (adjusted odds ratio = 1.21 per interquartile range [4.5 µg/m3 ] increase; 95% confidence interval: 1.02, 1.44). The association between PM2.5 and UADT cancers was similar across UADT subsites, sex and tobacco smoking status. The interaction between PM2.5 and tobacco smoking on UADT cancers was approximately additive on the odds scale. The effect estimate for PM2.5 and UADT cancers was similar among never smokers. Our findings support the hypothesis that exposure to PM2.5 increases the risk of UADT cancers. Improvements in air quality may reduce the risk of UADT cancers.


Asunto(s)
Neoplasias de Cabeza y Cuello , Humanos , Los Angeles/epidemiología , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Fumar , Material Particulado/efectos adversos , Factores de Riesgo
16.
Cult Health Sex ; 26(2): 159-173, 2024 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36995142

RESUMEN

Transgender women face a disproportionate burden of carceral violence, or violence related to policing and the criminal legal system, with transgender women of colour experiencing even greater disparities. Several frameworks conceptualise the mechanisms through which violence impacts transgender women. However, none of them directly explore the role of carceral violence, particularly as it is experienced by transgender women themselves. Sixteen in-depth interviews were conducted with a racially/ethnically diverse sample of transgender women in Los Angeles between May and July 2020. Participants were between 23 - 67 years old. Participants identified as Black (n = 4), Latina (n = 4), white (n = 2), Asian (n = 2), and Native American (n = 2). Interviews assessed experiences of multilevel violence, including from police and law enforcement. Deductive and inductive coding methods were used to identify and explore common themes concerning carceral violence. Experiences of law enforcement-perpetrated interpersonal violence were common and included physical, sexual and verbal abuse. Participants also highlighted structural violence, including misgendering, the non-acceptance of transgender identities, and police intentionally failing to uphold laws that could protect transgender women. These results demonstrate the pervasive, multilevel nature of carceral violence perpetrated against transgender women and suggest avenues for future framework development, trans-specific expansions of carceral theory, and system-wide institutional change.


Asunto(s)
Personas Transgénero , Transexualidad , Humanos , Femenino , Adulto Joven , Adulto , Persona de Mediana Edad , Anciano , Los Angeles , Violencia , Conducta Sexual
17.
Addict Behav ; 150: 107929, 2024 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38056194

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Substance use and other health-risk risk factors, including mental health, trauma, and sexual-risk behaviors, often co-occur among youth experiencing homelessness (YEH). The present study aimed to identify subgroups of YEH based on polysubstance use and the linkages to sociodemographic and health-risk characteristics. METHODS: From June 2016 to July 2017, 1,426 YEH (aged 18-26 years) were recruited from seven cities (Houston, Los Angeles, Denver, Phoenix, New York City, St. Louis, San Jose). Participants provided information via a self-administered electronic survey on substance use, mental health, trauma, sexual risk behaviors, and sociodemographic characteristics. The majority of YEH identified as Black (37.3%), cisgender (92.8%), and heterosexual (69.2%). On average, YEH were 20.9 years (SD = 2.1). This study employed latent class analysis (LCA) to identify subgroups of YEH according to their substance use. Multinomial logistic regression analyses were conducted to identify sociodemographic and health-risk characteristics associated with class-membership. RESULTS: Four latent classes of YEH substance use were identified: (1) high polysubstance use; (2) moderate stimulant and high marijuana, alcohol, and prescription drug use; (3) high marijuana, alcohol, and prescription drug use; (4) low/moderate marijuana and alcohol use. Multinomial logistic regression models indicated that geographic location, gender, race/ethnicity, mental health, trauma history, and sexual risk behaviors were significant correlates of substance use class membership among YEH. CONCLUSIONS: These findings offer important implications for the prevention and treatment of substance use among YEH. Screening protocols should consider co-occurring risk factors such as traumatic experiences, sexual risk behaviors, and mental health history as indicators of polysubstance use.


Asunto(s)
Personas con Mala Vivienda , Medicamentos bajo Prescripción , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias , Adolescente , Humanos , Estados Unidos/epidemiología , Ciudades , Análisis de Clases Latentes , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/psicología , Los Angeles
18.
J Subst Use Addict Treat ; 157: 209228, 2024 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37981239

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Methamphetamine use is highly prevalent among men who have sex with men (MSM), but knowledge of the long-term dynamics, and how they are affected by substance use treatment, is limited. This study aimed to describe trajectories of methamphetamine use among MSM, and to evaluate the impact of treatment for any kind of substance use on frequency of methamphetamine use. METHODS: This analysis used data from a cohort of MSM in Los Angeles, CA, who participated in semi-annual study visits from 2014 to 2022. The study characterized trajectories of methamphetamine use using a continuous time multistate Markov model with three states. States were defined using self-reported frequency of methamphetamine use in the past six months: frequent (daily), occasional (weekly or less), and never. The model estimated the association between receiving treatment for any kind of substance use and changes in state of frequency of methamphetamine use. RESULTS: This analysis included 2348 study visits among 285 individuals who were followed-up for an average of 4.4 years. Among participants who were in the frequent use state, 65 % (n = 26) of those who were receiving any kind of substance use treatment at a study visit had reduced their methamphetamine use at their next visit, compared to 33 % (n = 95) of those who were not receiving treatment. Controlling for age, race/ethnicity, and HIV-status, those who reported receiving current treatment for substance use were more likely to transition from occasional to no use (HR: 1.63, 95 % CI: 1.10-2.42) and frequent to occasional use (HR: 4.25, 95 % CI: 2.11-8.59) in comparison to those who did not report receiving current treatment for substance use. CONCLUSIONS: Findings from this dynamic modeling study provide a new method for assessing longitudinal methamphetamine use outcomes and add important evidence outside of clinical trials that substance use treatment may reduce methamphetamine use.


Asunto(s)
Metanfetamina , Minorías Sexuales y de Género , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias , Masculino , Humanos , Homosexualidad Masculina , Los Angeles/epidemiología , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/epidemiología
19.
Int J Sports Physiol Perform ; 19(2): 133-141, 2024 Feb 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38016454

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: To compare the energetic contribution and pacing in 2000- and 1500-m maximal rowing-ergometer performances. METHODS: On separate visits (>48 h apart, random order), 18 trained junior (16.7 [0.4] y) male rowers completed 3 trials: a 7 × 4-minute graded exercise test, a 2000-m time trial (TT2000), and a 1500-m TT (TT1500). Respiratory gases were continuously measured throughout each trial. The submaximal power-to-oxygen-consumption relationship from the graded exercise test was used to determine the accumulated oxygen deficit for each TT. Differences in mean power output (MPO), relative anaerobic contribution, percentage of peak oxygen uptake, pacing index, maximum heart rate, rating of perceived exertion, and blood lactate concentration were assessed using linear mixed modeling. RESULTS: Compared to TT2000 (324 [24] W), MPO was 5.2% (3.3%) higher in TT1500 (341 [29 W]; P < .001, ηp2=.70). There was a 4.9% (3.3%) increase (P < .001, ηp2=.71) in anaerobic contribution from 17.3% (3.3%) (TT2000) to 22.2% (4.3%) (TT1500). Compared to TT1500, maximum heart rate, rating of perceived exertion, and blood lactate concentration were all greater (P < .05) in TT2000. The pacing index was not different between trials. Percentage increase in MPO from TT2000 to TT1500 was negatively associated with pacing variance in TT1500 (R2 = .269, P = .027). CONCLUSIONS: Maximal ergometer performance over 1500 m requires a significantly greater anaerobic contribution compared with 2000 m. Junior male athletes adopt a consistent pacing strategy across both distances. However, those who experienced greater percentage increases in MPO over the shorter test adopted a more even pacing strategy. To prepare for 1500-m performance, greater emphasis should be placed on developing capacity for work in the severe domain and completing race simulations with a more even pacing strategy.


Asunto(s)
Ergometría , Deportes Acuáticos , Humanos , Masculino , Los Angeles , Deportes Acuáticos/fisiología , Prueba de Esfuerzo , Consumo de Oxígeno/fisiología , Ácido Láctico , Oxígeno
20.
Am J Cardiol ; 213: 93-98, 2024 Feb 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38016494

RESUMEN

Previous studies have documented longer treatment times and worse outcomes for patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) who underwent primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) during the COVID-19 pandemic. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on treatment times and outcomes for patients with STEMI who underwent primary PCI within a regional system of care. This was a retrospective study using data from the Los Angeles County Emergency Medical Services Agency. Data on the emergency medical service activations were abstracted for patients with STEMI from March 19, 2020 to January 31, 2021, during the COVID-19 pandemic and for the same interval the previous year. All adult patients (≥18 years) with STEMI who underwent emergent coronary angiography were included. The primary end point was the first medical contact (FMC) to device time. The secondary end points included treatment time intervals, vascular complications, need for emergent coronary artery bypass surgery, length of hospital stay, and in-hospital mortality. During the study period, 3,017 patients underwent coronary angiography for STEMI, 1,893 patients pre-COVID-19 and 1,124 patients during COVID-19 (40% lower). A total of 2,334 patients (77%) underwent PCI. During the COVID-19 period, rates of PCI were significantly lower compared with the control period (75.1% vs 78.7%, p = 0.02). FMC to device time was shorter during the COVID-19 period compared with the control period (median 77.0 vs 81.0 minutes, p = 0.004). For patients with STEMI complicated by out-of-hospital cardiac arrest, FMC to device time was similar during the COVID-19 period compared with the control period (median 95.0 [33.0] vs 100.0 [40.0] minutes, p = 0.34). Vascular complications, the need for emergent bypass surgery, length of hospital stay, and in-hospital mortality were similar between the periods. In conclusion, in this large regional system of care, we found a relatively small but significant decrease in treatment times, yet overall, similar clinical outcomes for patients with STEMI who underwent primary PCI and were treated during the COVID-19 period compared with a control period. These findings suggest that mature cardiac systems of care were able to maintain efficient care despite the challenges of the COVID-19 pandemic.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Intervención Coronaria Percutánea , Infarto del Miocardio con Elevación del ST , Adulto , Humanos , Infarto del Miocardio con Elevación del ST/epidemiología , Infarto del Miocardio con Elevación del ST/cirugía , Intervención Coronaria Percutánea/efectos adversos , COVID-19/epidemiología , Los Angeles/epidemiología , Estudios Retrospectivos , Pandemias , Resultado del Tratamiento
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