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1.
J Occup Environ Med ; 66(4): e131-e136, 2024 Apr 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38588074

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study is to examine how involvement in the Whole Health System of care, clinically and personally (through employee-focused activities), would affect employee satisfaction, engagement, burnout, and turnover intent in the Veterans Health Administration. METHODS: Multivariate logistic regression analysis of cross-sectional survey from Veterans Health Administration employees was used to determine the influence of Whole Health System involvement and Employee Whole Health participation on job attitudes. RESULTS: Whole Health System involvement was associated higher job satisfaction, higher levels of engagement, lower burnout, and lower turnover intent. A similar pattern of results was identified when looking specifically at Employee Whole Health participation and associated job attitudes. CONCLUSIONS: Employees who are either directly involved in delivering Whole Health services to veterans or who have participated in Whole Health programming for their own benefit may experience a meaningful positive impact on their well-being and how they experience the workplace.


Asunto(s)
Agotamiento Profesional , Veteranos , Humanos , Estudios Transversales , Intención , Lugar de Trabajo , Satisfacción en el Trabajo , Reorganización del Personal , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
2.
J Occup Environ Med ; 66(4): 344-348, 2024 Apr 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38588072

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To compare physical activity levels and sedentary behavior between individuals working in the office and those working from home, with the aim of elucidating the potential implications on employees' health. METHODS: We used triaxial accelerometers to assess the physical activity levels of 94 white-collar employees from a large-scale manufacturing company in Japan. They were instructed to wear the accelerometers during their working hours, which included the commuting time on work-in-office days. RESULTS: The mean energy expenditure on work in office was 426 kcal for individuals, while it was 228 kcal on work from home (P < 0.01). In addition, not including commuting, the time spent sedentary on work-from-home days was higher than that on work-in-office days by 20 minutes. CONCLUSIONS: Work from home decreases physical activity and increases sedentary time compared with work in office.


Asunto(s)
Conducta Sedentaria , Lugar de Trabajo , Humanos , Teletrabajo , Ejercicio Físico , Proyectos de Investigación
3.
Occup Med (Lond) ; 74(2): 142-145, 2024 Apr 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38569112
4.
Public Health Res Pract ; 34(1)2024 Apr 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38569573

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the availability of resources at an Australian university workplace to support the health, wellbeing, and transition to parenthood of female employees working during the preconception, pregnancy, and postpartum periods. Type of program or service: Workplace health promotion for female employees of reproductive age. METHODS: A survey of female employees aged 18-45 years evaluated participant health practices, availability of work and parenting supports, and access to health and wellbeing resources in the workplace. Additionally, an environmental assessment was completed by employees with a knowledge of local healthy lifestyle supports and a minimum of 2 years' employment. The assessment documented site characteristics and availability of wellbeing facilities across 10 campuses. RESULTS: There were 241 valid survey responses. Of 221 respondents to a question about workplace support, 76% (n = 168) indicated that the workplace should play a role in supporting the transition to parenthood and in health promotion, with 64.1% of 223 participants disagreeing with the statement "my health is not the responsibility of the university". Both the survey and environmental assessment revealed that access to parenting resources to support employee health and wellbeing were suboptimal. LESSONS LEARNT: There is a misalignment between the needs of female employees working during these health-defining life stages, and the availability of resources to support those needs. Regulatory guidance may be required to navigate resource gaps within the work environment and address factors impacting the health and wellbeing of employees of reproductive age.


Asunto(s)
Salud Laboral , Lugar de Trabajo , Embarazo , Humanos , Femenino , Australia , Promoción de la Salud , Condiciones de Trabajo
5.
J Foot Ankle Res ; 17(2): e12003, 2024 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38567752

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Burnout is highly prevalent among health practitioners. It negatively impacts job performance, patient care, career retention and psychological well-being. This study aimed to identify factors associated with burnout among Australian podiatrists. METHODS: Data were collected from registered podiatrists via four online surveys administered annually from 2017 to 2020 as part of the Podiatrists in Australia: Investigating Graduate Employment (PAIGE) study. Information was collected about work history, job preferences, personal characteristics, health, personality, life experiences and risk-taking behaviours. Multiple logistic regression analyses were used to determine if (i) individual characteristics, (ii) workplace factors and (iii) job satisfaction measures were associated with burnout (based on the abbreviated Maslach Burnout Inventory). RESULTS: A total of 848 responses were included, with 268 podiatrists (31.6%) experiencing burnout. Participants experiencing burnout were slightly younger, more recent to practice, had poorer health, greater mental distress, lower scores for resilience, extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, emotional stability and openness to experiences. They were less likely to have financial and clinical risk-taking behaviour and more likely to have career risk-taking behaviour. Prediction accuracy of these individual characteristic variables for burnout was 72.4%. Participants experiencing burnout were also more likely to work in private practice, have more work locations, work more hours, more direct patient hours, see more patients, have shorter consultation times, more likely to bulk bill chronic disease management plans, have less access to sick leave and professional development and be more likely to intend to leave patient care and the profession within 5 years than participants not experiencing burnout. Prediction accuracy of these workplace-related variables for burnout was 67.1%. Participants experiencing burnout were less satisfied with their job. Prediction accuracy of these variables for burnout was 78.8%. CONCLUSIONS: Many of the factors associated with burnout in Australian podiatrists are modifiable, providing opportunities to implement targeted prevention strategies. The strength of association of these factors indicates high potential for strategies to be successful.


Asunto(s)
Agotamiento Profesional , Pruebas Psicológicas , Autoinforme , Humanos , Australia/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Agotamiento Profesional/epidemiología , Agotamiento Profesional/psicología , Lugar de Trabajo , Agotamiento Psicológico , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
6.
BMC Public Health ; 24(1): 939, 2024 Apr 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38561724

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Modifying the choice architecture of behavioural contexts can facilitate health behaviour change, but existing evidence builds mostly on small-scale interventions limited in duration, targets, strategies, and settings. We evaluated the effectiveness of a one-year hybrid type 2 implementation-effectiveness trial aimed at promoting healthy eating and daily physical activity with subtle modifications to the choice architecture of heterogeneous worksites. The intervention was contextualised to and integrated into the routine operations of each worksite. Effectiveness was evaluated in a quasi-experimental pre-post design. METHODS: Intervention sites (n = 21) implemented a median of two (range 1-9) intervention strategies for healthy eating and one (range 1-5) for physical activity. Questionnaires pre (n = 1126) and post (n = 943) intervention surveyed employees' behavioural patterns at work (food consumption: vegetables/roots, fruit/berries, nuts/almonds/seeds, sweet treats, fast food, water; physical activity: restorative movement, exercise equipment use, stair use). The post-intervention questionnaire also measured employees' perception of and response to three intervention strategies: a packed lunch recipe campaign, a fruit crew-strategy, and movement prompts. Multi- and single-level regression models evaluated effectiveness, treating intervention as a continuous predictor formed of the site-specific dose (n intervention strategies employed) and mean quality (three-point rating per strategy halfway and at the end of the intervention) of implementation relevant to each outcome. RESULTS: Multinomial logistic regression models found the intervention significantly associated with a favourable change in employees' fruit and berry consumption (interaction effect of time and implementation p = 0.006) and with an unfavourable change in sweet treat consumption (p = 0.048). The evidence was strongest for the finding concerning fruit/berry consumption-an outcome that sites with greater dose and quality of implementation targeted by using strategies that reduced the physical effort required to have fruit/berries at work and by covering multiple eating-related contexts at the worksite. The quality of implementation was positively associated with the perception of (p = 0.044) and response to (p = 0.017) the packed lunch recipes, and with response to the fruit crew-strategy (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that a contextualised, multicomponent choice architecture intervention can positively influence eating behaviour in diverse real-world settings over a one-year period, and that higher implementation quality can enhance intervention perception and response. However, outcomes may depend on the type of intervention strategies used and the extent of their delivery.


Asunto(s)
Dieta Saludable , Promoción de la Salud , Humanos , Promoción de la Salud/métodos , Ejercicio Físico , Conductas Relacionadas con la Salud , Frutas , Lugar de Trabajo
7.
Nurs Adm Q ; 48(2): 139-150, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38564724

RESUMEN

The pandemic exposed existing weaknesses in the health care system, and innovative leaders stepped up to address the compounding effects the novel anomaly created. Postpandemic disruption persists, and the behaviors and actions of these positive deviants demonstrate that new ways of leadership are available to those who are willing to embrace the dynamic leadership model and teaming methodology to shape health care delivery of the future. As we look to new ways of being and leading, we begin from a changed world-one that has been reset and cannot go back. Dynamic leaders are called upon to create cultures that reflect the needs of the future workplace and workforce. They pave new pathways and new ways of thinking, reimagine new realities, and create abundance. Their consistent practice of 5 essential behaviors-self-awareness, deep listening, curiosity, empathy, and decisiveness-strengthen their leadership and ability to meet the demands of health care today.


Asunto(s)
Liderazgo , Lugar de Trabajo , Humanos , Empatía , Atención a la Salud , Recursos Humanos
8.
Nurs Adm Q ; 48(2): 187-195, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38564729

RESUMEN

This article explores leader practices for rebuilding health system nursing culture by leveraging feedback from clinical nurses and applying Social Identity Theory (SIT) and inclusivity frameworks. An enriched nursing culture is the foundation of quality patient care, and as healthcare systems evolve, it becomes increasingly essential to foster a cohesive and inclusive environment in every aspect of employment practices. Social Identity Theory, which emphasizes how individuals define their self-concept through group affiliations, offers a lens to understand the interplay of identity, values, and behavior within nursing teams. Inclusivity practices are pivotal in creating a welcoming and diverse health care workplace. By employing these approaches, health care systems can rebuild and strengthen their nursing culture, improving retention, onboarding, job satisfaction, teamwork, and enhancing the quality of care provided to patients. This article delves into practical strategies and application of SIT and inclusivity practices to restructure and revitalize nursing culture, emphasizing the positive impact on health care outcomes. An exemplar demonstrating the impact of the voice of the clinician in program development highlights the application of SIT and inclusivity to create culture. It concludes with leader practices for rebuilding nursing culture to include contingent labor as part of the care team.


Asunto(s)
Atención a la Salud , Identificación Social , Humanos , Calidad de la Atención de Salud , Lugar de Trabajo , Empleo
9.
BMC Psychol ; 12(1): 195, 2024 Apr 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38589902

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Work environment is rapidly evolving, unfortunately, it is also becoming increasingly hostile for workers due mostly to common psychosocial hazards. This situation is posing significant challenges for organisations to protect the psychological well-being of their workers. Hence, this review aims to map studies to understand the influence of psychosocial safety climate (PSC) on workplace mistreatment and mental health of workers. METHODS: The guidelines outlined by Arksey and O'Malley were adopted for this review. PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, JSTOR, Google and Google Scholar were searched for relevant papers. Only peer-reviewed studies that measured PSC using PSC-12, PSC-8 or PSC-4 were included in this review. RESULTS: Thirty-eight studies met the inclusion criteria. This review found that PSC has a negative association with workplace mistreatment such as bullying, harassment, violence, discrimination and abuse. Further, PSC has a positive association with psychological well-being, personal resilience and hope. Low level organisational PSC also promotes psychological distress, stress, depression, cognitive weariness and emotional exhaustion. The buffering effect of PSC is well-established. Moreover, PSC mediates the association between health-centric leadership and workers' psychological health problems. The inverse relationship between PSC and depressive symptoms was stronger for females than males. CONCLUSION: Organisations should prioritise training and development of supervisors to enhance their supportive skills, encourage respectful behaviour, encourage the use of resources promote open and bottom-up communication and provide guidance on conflict resolution. By promoting a high PSC context, organisations can create a culture that discourages mistreatment, leading to increased employee well-being, job satisfaction, and productivity.


Asunto(s)
Salud Mental , Salud Laboral , Masculino , Femenino , Humanos , Cultura Organizacional , Lugar de Trabajo/psicología , Condiciones de Trabajo
10.
Inquiry ; 61: 469580241242793, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38591360

RESUMEN

Relaxation-related workplace interventions can be counterstrategies for stress due to office work and should be evaluated for success after implementation. This study reports on the evaluation and comparison of 3 relaxation techniques introduced as an intervention for health promotion. A Germany-wide multicenter evaluation of a 3-month relaxation intervention (30 min, once a week) including autogenic training, progressive muscle relaxation (PMR) or Tai Chi was conducted at 14 locations as an intervention study. Anonymous questionnaires (n = 244) were used to collect self-reports of perceived stress after the courses. Status before the courses (pre) and after completion (post) were reported at the end of the intervention. All 3 relaxation techniques were able to improve the subjective perception of stress (SPS) score. Autogenic training was reported to improve all singular items with large effects, whereas only 2 items showed change for Tai Chi and none for PMR. Singular items were also influenced by the location of the courses. All 3 methods were able to improve stress-related outcomes in terms of stress perception and individual aspects of stress management. For this specific intervention autogenic training yielded the largest and wide-ranging effects. Tai Chi was also effective, but additional effect due to an associated increase in physical activity were not found. For a workplace intervention PMR could not be recommended based on this study. The literature on workplace interventions is surprisingly scarce, and future studies should focus on the selection of appropriate participants while avoiding potential bias.


Asunto(s)
Ejercicio Físico , Lugar de Trabajo , Humanos , Alemania
11.
JAMA Netw Open ; 7(4): e244087, 2024 Apr 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38592724

RESUMEN

Importance: Half of emergency nurses report high burnout and intend to leave their job in the next year. Whether emergency nurses would recommend their workplace to other clinicians may be an important indicator of a hospital's ability to recruit clinicians. Objective: To examine why emergency nurses do not recommend their hospital to other clinicians as a good place to work. Design, Setting, and Participants: This qualitative study used directed content analysis of open-text responses (n = 142) from the RN4CAST-NY/IL survey of registered nurses licensed in New York and Illinois between April 13 and June 22, 2021. Inductive and deductive analytic approaches guided study theme development informed by the Social Ecological Model. The collected data were analyzed from April to June 2023. Main Outcomes and Measures: Nurses who answered "probably not" or "definitely not" to the survey question, "Would you recommend your place of employment as a good place to work?" were prompted to provide a rationale in an open-text response. Results: In this qualitative study of 142 emergency nurses (mean [SD] age, 43.5 [12.5] years; 113 [79.6%] female; mean [SD] experience, 14.0 [12.2] years), 94 (66.2%) were licensed to work in New York and the other 48 (33.8%) in Illinois. Five themes and associated subthemes emerged from the data. Themes conveyed understaffing of nurses and ancillary support (theme 1: unlimited patients with limited support); inadequate responsiveness from unit management to work environment safety concerns (theme 2: unanswered calls for help); perceptions that nurses' licenses were in jeopardy given unsafe working conditions and compromised care quality (theme 3: license always on the line); workplace violence on a patient-to-nurse, clinician-to-nurse, and systems level (theme 4: multidimensional workplace violence); and nurse reports of being undervalued by hospital management and unfulfilled at work in delivering suboptimal care to patients in unsafe working conditions (theme 5: undervalued and unfulfilled). Conclusions and Relevance: This study found that emergency department nurses did not recommend their workplace to other clinicians as a good place to work because of poor nurse and ancillary staffing, nonresponsive hospital leadership, unsafe working conditions, workplace violence, and a lack of feeling valued. These findings inform aspects of the work environment that employers can address to improve nurse recruitment and retention.


Asunto(s)
Hospitales , Lugar de Trabajo , Humanos , Femenino , Adulto , Masculino , Agotamiento Psicológico , Recolección de Datos , Servicio de Urgencia en Hospital
12.
BMC Med ; 22(1): 149, 2024 Apr 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38581003

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Various studies have demonstrated gender disparities in workplace settings and the need for further intervention. This study identifies and examines evidence from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on interventions examining gender equity in workplace or volunteer settings. An additional aim was to determine whether interventions considered intersection of gender and other variables, including PROGRESS-Plus equity variables (e.g., race/ethnicity). METHODS: Scoping review conducted using the JBI guide. Literature was searched in MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, CINAHL, Web of Science, ERIC, Index to Legal Periodicals and Books, PAIS Index, Policy Index File, and the Canadian Business & Current Affairs Database from inception to May 9, 2022, with an updated search on October 17, 2022. Results were reported using Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses extension to scoping reviews (PRISMA-ScR), Sex and Gender Equity in Research (SAGER) guidance, Strengthening the Integration of Intersectionality Theory in Health Inequality Analysis (SIITHIA) checklist, and Guidance for Reporting Involvement of Patients and the Public (GRIPP) version 2 checklist. All employment or volunteer sectors settings were included. Included interventions were designed to promote workplace gender equity that targeted: (a) individuals, (b) organizations, or (c) systems. Any comparator was eligible. Outcomes measures included any gender equity related outcome, whether it was measuring intervention effectiveness (as defined by included studies) or implementation. Data analyses were descriptive in nature. As recommended in the JBI guide to scoping reviews, only high-level content analysis was conducted to categorize the interventions, which were reported using a previously published framework. RESULTS: We screened 8855 citations, 803 grey literature sources, and 663 full-text articles, resulting in 24 unique RCTs and one companion report that met inclusion criteria. Most studies (91.7%) failed to report how they established sex or gender. Twenty-three of 24 (95.8%) studies reported at least one PROGRESS-Plus variable: typically sex or gender or occupation. Two RCTs (8.3%) identified a non-binary gender identity. None of the RCTs reported on relationships between gender and other characteristics (e.g., disability, age, etc.). We identified 24 gender equity promoting interventions in the workplace that were evaluated and categorized into one or more of the following themes: (i) quantifying gender impacts; (ii) behavioural or systemic changes; (iii) career flexibility; (iv) increased visibility, recognition, and representation; (v) creating opportunities for development, mentorship, and sponsorship; and (vi) financial support. Of these interventions, 20/24 (83.3%) had positive conclusion statements for their primary outcomes (e.g., improved academic productivity, increased self-esteem) across heterogeneous outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: There is a paucity of literature on interventions to promote workplace gender equity. While some interventions elicited positive conclusions across a variety of outcomes, standardized outcome measures considering specific contexts and cultures are required. Few PROGRESS-Plus items were reported. Non-binary gender identities and issues related to intersectionality were not adequately considered. Future research should provide consistent and contemporary definitions of gender and sex. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Open Science Framework https://osf.io/x8yae .


Asunto(s)
Equidad de Género , Lugar de Trabajo , Masculino , Femenino , Humanos , Canadá , Ensayos Clínicos Controlados Aleatorios como Asunto
13.
Am J Mens Health ; 18(2): 15579883241236223, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38581228

RESUMEN

Mental ill-health and suicide represent a significant proportion of the burden of global disease among men. Connell's relational theory of masculinities provides a useful framework to explore how mental health literacy, mental health stigma, and delayed help-seeking and help-offering behaviors are associated with mental ill-health among men, particularly within male-dominated industries. To address the high incidences of mental ill-health in male-dominated industries, several workplace interventions targeting these outcomes have been implemented. No review to date has examined the current state of evidence for these interventions or identified the behavior change techniques used. This review was restricted to empirical, quantitative research reporting on psychosocial interventions targeting mental health literacy, stigma, and help-seeking and help-offering behaviors in male-dominated industries. Quality appraisal was completed using the Effective Public Health Practice Project and a narrative synthesis was conducted. Twelve articles were included for review which reported on four distinct interventions. The methodological quality of two articles was strong, three moderate and seven weak. The strongest evidence of intervention effects related to mental health literacy and help-seeking intentions. There was less evidence relating to help-offering and help-seeking behaviors and mental health stigma. Sixteen behavior change techniques were identified across interventions that are discussed in relation to the wider men's health literature. The evidence on psychosocial interventions in male-dominated industries is limited due to methodological and conceptual issues. Recommendations for future research include standardized reporting of intervention descriptions, the use of theory to guide intervention development, and utilizing validated and reliable outcome measures.


Asunto(s)
Alfabetización en Salud , Conducta de Búsqueda de Ayuda , Humanos , Masculino , Salud Mental , Lugar de Trabajo , Estigma Social , Masculinidad
14.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 8091, 2024 04 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38582954

RESUMEN

Safety incidents have always been a crucial risk in work spaces, especially industrial sites. In the last few decades, significant efforts have been dedicated to incident control measures to reduce the rate of safety incidents. Despite all these efforts, the rate of decline in serious injuries and fatalities (SIFs) has been considerably lower than the rate of decline for non-critical incidents. This observation has led to a change of risk reduction paradigm for safety incidents. Under the new paradigm, more focus has been allocated to reducing the rate of critical/SIF incidents, as opposed to reducing the count of all incidents. One of the challenges in reducing the number of SIF incidents is the proper identification of the risk prior to materialization. One of the reasons for risk identification being a challenge is that companies usually only focus on incidents where SIF did occur reactively, and incidents that did not cause SIF but had the potential to do so go unnoticed. Identifying these potentially significant incidents, referred to as potential serious injuries and fatalities (PSIF), would enable companies to work on identifying critical risk and taking steps to prevent them preemptively. However, flagging PSIF incidents requires all incident reports to be analyzed individually by experts and hence significant investment, which is often not affordable, especially for small and medium sized companies. This study is aimed at addressing this problem through machine learning powered automation. We propose a novel approach based on binary classification for the identification of such incidents involving PSIF (potential serious injuries and fatalities). This is the first work towards automatic risk identification from incident reports. Our approach combines a pre-trained transformer model with XGBoost. We utilize advanced natural language processing techniques to encode an incident record comprising heterogeneous fields into a vector representation fed to XGBoost for classification. Moreover, given the scarcity of manually labeled incident records available for training, we leverage weak labeling to augment the label coverage of the training data. We utilize the F2 metric for hyperparameter tuning using Tree-structured Parzen Estimator to prioritize the detection of PSIF records over the avoidance of non-PSIF records being mis-classified as PSIF. The proposed methods outperform several baselines from other studies on a significantly large test dataset.


Asunto(s)
Gestión de Riesgos , Lugar de Trabajo , Ambiente , Aprendizaje Automático , Procesamiento de Lenguaje Natural
15.
Front Public Health ; 12: 1363015, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38566792

RESUMEN

Background: Excessive sedentary time has been negatively associated with several health outcomes, and physical activity alone does not seem to fully counteract these consequences. This panorama emphasizes the essential of sedentary time interruption programs. "The Up Project" seeks to assess the effectiveness of two interventions, one incorporating active breaks led by a professional and the other utilizing a computer application (self-led), of both equivalent duration and intensity. These interventions will be compared with a control group to evaluate their impact on physical activity levels, sedentary time, stress perception, occupational pain, and cardiometabolic risk factors among office workers. Methods: This quasi-experimental study includes 60 desk-based workers from universities and educational institutes in Valparaiso, Chile, assigned to three groups: (a) booster breaks led by professionals, (b) computer prompts that are unled, and (c) a control group. The intervention protocol for both experimental groups will last 12 weeks (only weekdays). The following measurements will be performed at baseline and post-intervention: cardiometabolic risk based on body composition (fat mass, fat-free mass, and bone mass evaluated by DXA), waist circumference, blood pressure, resting heart rate, and handgrip strength. Physical activity and sedentary time will be self-reported and device-based assessed using accelerometry. Questionnaires will be used to determine the perception of stress and occupational pain. Discussion: Governments worldwide are addressing health issues associated with sedentary behavior, particularly concerning individuals highly exposed to it, such as desk-based workers. Despite implementing certain strategies, there remains a noticeable gap in comprehensive research comparing diverse protocols. For instance, studies that contrast the outcomes of interventions led by professionals with those prompted by computers are scarce. This ongoing project is expected to contribute to evidence-based interventions targeting reduced perceived stress levels and enhancing desk-based employees' mental and physical well-being. The implications of these findings could have the capacity to lay the groundwork for future public health initiatives and government-funded programs.


Asunto(s)
Fuerza de la Mano , Lugar de Trabajo , Humanos , Ejercicio Físico/fisiología , Ocupaciones , Dolor
16.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 4: CD015112, 2024 Apr 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38597249

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Although many people infected with SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2) experience no or mild symptoms, some individuals can develop severe illness and may die, particularly older people and those with underlying medical problems. Providing evidence-based interventions to prevent SARS-CoV-2 infection has become more urgent with the potential psychological toll imposed by the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Controlling exposures to occupational hazards is the fundamental method of protecting workers. When it comes to the transmission of viruses, workplaces should first consider control measures that can potentially have the most significant impact. According to the hierarchy of controls, one should first consider elimination (and substitution), then engineering controls, administrative controls, and lastly, personal protective equipment. This is the first update of a Cochrane review published 6 May 2022, with one new study added. OBJECTIVES: To assess the benefits and harms of interventions in non-healthcare-related workplaces aimed at reducing the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection compared to other interventions or no intervention. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, Embase, Web of Science Core Collections, Cochrane COVID-19 Study Register, World Health Organization (WHO) COVID-19 Global literature on coronavirus disease, ClinicalTrials.gov, the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform, and medRxiv to 13 April 2023. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and non-randomised studies of interventions. We included adult workers, both those who come into close contact with clients or customers (e.g. public-facing employees, such as cashiers or taxi drivers), and those who do not, but who could be infected by coworkers. We excluded studies involving healthcare workers. We included any intervention to prevent or reduce workers' exposure to SARS-CoV-2 in the workplace, defining categories of intervention according to the hierarchy of hazard controls (i.e. elimination; engineering controls; administrative controls; personal protective equipment). DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We used standard Cochrane methods. Our primary outcomes were incidence rate of SARS-CoV-2 infection (or other respiratory viruses), SARS-CoV-2-related mortality, adverse events, and absenteeism from work. Our secondary outcomes were all-cause mortality, quality of life, hospitalisation, and uptake, acceptability, or adherence to strategies. We used the Cochrane RoB 2 tool to assess risk of bias, and GRADE methods to evaluate the certainty of evidence for each outcome. MAIN RESULTS: We identified 2 studies including a total of 16,014 participants. Elimination-of-exposure interventions We included one study examining an intervention that focused on elimination of hazards, which was an open-label, cluster-randomised, non-inferiority trial, conducted in England in 2021. The study compared standard 10-day self-isolation after contact with an infected person to a new strategy of daily rapid antigen testing and staying at work if the test is negative (test-based attendance). The trialists hypothesised that this would lead to a similar rate of infections, but lower COVID-related absence. Staff (N = 11,798) working at 76 schools were assigned to standard isolation, and staff (N = 12,229) working at 86 schools were assigned to the test-based attendance strategy. The results between test-based attendance and standard 10-day self-isolation were inconclusive for the rate of symptomatic polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-positive SARS-CoV-2 infection (rate ratio (RR) 1.28, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.74 to 2.21; 1 study; very low-certainty evidence). The results between test-based attendance and standard 10-day self-isolation were inconclusive for the rate of any PCR-positive SARS-CoV-2 infection (RR 1.35, 95% CI 0.82 to 2.21; 1 study; very low-certainty evidence). COVID-related absenteeism rates were 3704 absence days in 566,502 days-at-risk (6.5 per 1000 working days) in the control group and 2932 per 539,805 days-at-risk (5.4 per 1000 working days) in the intervention group (RR 0.83, 95% CI 0.55 to 1.25). We downgraded the certainty of the evidence to low due to imprecision. Uptake of the intervention was 71% in the intervention group, but not reported for the control intervention. The trial did not measure our other outcomes of SARS-CoV-2-related mortality, adverse events, all-cause mortality, quality of life, or hospitalisation. We found seven ongoing studies using elimination-of-hazard strategies, six RCTs and one non-randomised trial. Administrative control interventions We found one ongoing RCT that aims to evaluate the efficacy of the Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine in preventing COVID-19 infection and reducing disease severity. Combinations of eligible interventions We included one non-randomised study examining a combination of elimination of hazards, administrative controls, and personal protective equipment. The study was conducted in two large retail companies in Italy in 2020. The study compared a safety operating protocol, measurement of body temperature and oxygen saturation upon entry, and a SARS-CoV-2 test strategy with a minimum activity protocol. Both groups received protective equipment. All employees working at the companies during the study period were included: 1987 in the intervention company and 1798 in the control company. The study did not report an outcome of interest for this systematic review. Other intervention categories We did not find any studies in this category. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: We are uncertain whether a test-based attendance policy affects rates of PCR-positive SARS-CoV-2 infection (any infection; symptomatic infection) compared to standard 10-day self-isolation amongst school and college staff. A test-based attendance policy may result in little to no difference in absenteeism rates compared to standard 10-day self-isolation. The non-randomised study included in our updated search did not report any outcome of interest for this Cochrane review. As a large part of the population is exposed in the case of a pandemic, an apparently small relative effect that would not be worthwhile from the individual perspective may still affect many people, and thus become an important absolute effect from the enterprise or societal perspective. The included RCT did not report on any of our other primary outcomes (i.e. SARS-CoV-2-related mortality and adverse events). We identified no completed studies on any other interventions specified in this review; however, eight eligible studies are ongoing. More controlled studies are needed on testing and isolation strategies, and working from home, as these have important implications for work organisations.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Adulto , Humanos , Anciano , COVID-19/prevención & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Pandemias/prevención & control , Lugar de Trabajo , Atención a la Salud
17.
Front Public Health ; 12: 1304107, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38469272

RESUMEN

Background: Patients can demonstrate prejudice and bias toward minoritized physicians in a destructive dynamic identified as PPtP (Patient Prejudice toward Providers). These interactions have a negative impact on the physical and mental well-being of both those who are targeted and those who witness such behaviors. Study purpose: The purpose of this study was to explore the PPtP experiences of attending physicians who identify as a minority based on race, ethnicity, citizenship status, or faith preference. Methods: Qualitative methodology was used to collect data using in-depth interviews. 15 attending physicians (8 male, 7 female, aged 33-55 years) who identified as minorities based on ethnicity, citizenship status, or faith practices were interviewed individually. Interviews were conducted using a guide validated in previous studies and content analysis was performed by two trained researchers to identify themes. Results: Five themes were identified: A Continuum of Offenses, Professional Growth through Adversity, Organizational Issues, Role of Colleagues, and Consequences for Provision of Care. Findings suggest that although attending physicians learned to cope with PPtP, the experience of being treated with bias negatively impacted their well-being and work performance. Attending physicians also felt that white majority medical students sometimes treated them with prejudice but expressed a commitment to protecting vulnerable trainees from PPtP. Conclusion: The experience of PPtP occurs consistently throughout a career in medicine, often beginning in the years of training and persisting into the phase of attending status. This makes it imperative to include strategies that address PPtP in order to successfully recruit and retain minoritized physicians.


Asunto(s)
Médicos , Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Prejuicio , Grupos Minoritarios , Etnicidad , Lugar de Trabajo
18.
Front Public Health ; 12: 1304721, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38450146

RESUMEN

Introduction: Workplace health interventions aim to motivate employees toward healthy behaviors to improve fitness and health in the long-term. We investigated whether CrossFit® is an effective training concept to achieve these goals in inactive employees with sedentary occupations. Methods: The study followed a prospective, controlled intervention design. Employees were invited to participate in intervention group (IG) or control group (CG) on their own preferences. Inclusion criteria were a predominantly sedentary occupation and execution of less than two muscle and/or mobility enhancing training sessions per week at the time of enrolling. The IG did at least two times a week a CrossFit training of 1 h. Mobility, strength, well-being, and back-issues were measured at the beginning, after 6, and 12 months. Participants in the CG were free to choose any other activities offered at the same time (e.g., circuit training, meditation, full body stability training). Adherence, respectively, behavioral change and maintenance qualities were evaluated based on the COM-B system and presence of behavior maintenance motives. Results: 89 employees were enrolled into the trial, from where 21 dropped out due to external factors (24%). From the remaining participants, 10 out of 39 (26%) in the IG and 1 out of 29 (4%) in the CG stopped for intrinsic reasons, leading to a non-adherence to the intervention of 22 percentage points. Motivation for behavioral change and maintenance in the IG was primarily driven by enhanced physical and psychological capability. Development of physical capability was evident by significant improvements (p < 0.001) in the IG compared to the CG for mobility (d = 3.3), maximal isometric strength (min. d = 1.7, max. d = 2.5), as well as reduction in pain intensity (p = 0.003, r = 0.4) and frequency (p = 0.009, r = 0.35) after 12 months. Significant improvements between the 6-month and the 12-month measurement in mobility and 6 out of 8 strength measures within the IG indicated the effectiveness of CrossFit beyond the beginner phase. Conclusion: CrossFit is a motivating training concept that led to long-term health and fitness improvements in inactive employees doing sedentary work and should be given greater consideration in workplace health promotion.


Asunto(s)
Exactitud de los Datos , Lugar de Trabajo , Humanos , Ejercicio Físico , Conductas Relacionadas con la Salud , Estudios Prospectivos
19.
J UOEH ; 46(1): 55-65, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38479875

RESUMEN

Digital and technological solutions constitute a key enabler to achieving better workplace safety and health outcomes. Fundamentally, the success of their implementation is underscored by a need for employers, employees, industry stakeholders and policymakers to collaborate in adopting a "digital first" mindset. This review provides a background on the evolution of work and the workforce in post-independence Singapore, and introduces pertinent local workplace safety and health trends. It delves into how a "digital first" approach may be adopted and effected, followed by challenges and opportunities in the digitalization of Singapore's workplace safety and health landscape. Illustrative examples are used to highlight applications of digital and technological solutions in the control of occupational hazards. In our discussion, workplace strategies are built around the hierarchy of controls framework, whereas worker-related strategies are divided into workspace optimization for productivity/performance enhancement, training/education, and instituting surveillance/open reporting mechanisms. We demonstrate that with an open and forward-looking mind, and well-executed change management, we will be able to capitalize on technological advances to improve work and working conditions for all workers.


Asunto(s)
Salud Laboral , Lugar de Trabajo , Humanos , Singapur , Condiciones de Trabajo
20.
J UOEH ; 46(1): 87-92, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38479879

RESUMEN

This paper discusses the role of the workplace in digital occupational health as part of an increasingly digitalized working life. Digital occupational health can be considered to consist of at least the following digitalized components: a) occupational health services and data, b) human resource data, c) group-level field data collected from the work environment and employees, and d) individual-level field data collected for personal use only. These data and related processes form a basis for so called data-driven management of occupational health and safety. To collect such data and keep it updated, it is important to pay attention to: a) worker acceptance, b) user friendliness, c) data validity, integrity, and protection, d) adequate resources, and e) ethical and effective use of the data. The current literature suggests that there are promising mobile and wearable devices and eHealth solutions to support worker health. To use them effectively, it is good to pay attention to the implementation process in the workplace. Ultimately, trust and collaboration among all parties are the cornerstones for gaining benefits from digital occupational health.


Asunto(s)
Servicios de Salud del Trabajador , Salud Laboral , Humanos , Lugar de Trabajo , Condiciones de Trabajo
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