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1.
J Photochem Photobiol B ; 207: 111891, 2020 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32388486

RESUMEN

The recent outbreak of COVID-19, which continues to ravage communities with high death tolls and untold psychosocial and catastrophic economic consequences, is a vivid reminder of nature's capacity to defy contemporary healthcare. The pandemic calls for rapid mobilization of every potential clinical tool, including phototherapy-one of the most effective treatments used to reduce the impact of the 1918 "Spanish influenza" pandemic. This paper cites several studies showing that phototherapy has immense potential to reduce the impact of coronavirus diseases, and offers suggested ways that the healthcare industry can integrate modern light technologies in the fight against COVID-19 and other infections. The evidence shows that violet/blue (400-470 nm) light is antimicrobial against numerous bacteria, and that it accounts for Niels Ryberg Finsen's Nobel-winning treatment of tuberculosis. Further evidence shows that blue light inactivates several viruses, including the common flu coronavirus, and that in experimental animals, red and near infrared light reduce respiratory disorders, similar to those complications associated with coronavirus infection. Moreover, in patients, red light has been shown to alleviate chronic obstructive lung disease and bronchial asthma. These findings call for urgent efforts to further explore the clinical value of light, and not wait for another pandemic to serve as a reminder. The ubiquity of inexpensive light emitting lasers and light emitting diodes (LEDs), makes it relatively easy to develop safe low-cost light-based devices with the potential to reduce infections, sanitize equipment, hospital facilities, emergency care vehicles, homes, and the general environment as pilot studies have shown.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/terapia , Fototerapia , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/virología , Helioterapia , Humanos , Rayos Infrarrojos , Luz , Terapia por Luz de Baja Intensidad , Enfermedades Pulmonares/epidemiología , Enfermedades Pulmonares/terapia , Enfermedades Pulmonares/virología , Pandemias , Fototerapia/métodos , Neumonía Viral
2.
Science ; 368(6490): 527-531, 2020 05 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32355031

RESUMEN

Retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) drive diverse, light-evoked behaviors that range from conscious visual perception to subconscious, non-image-forming behaviors. It is thought that RGCs primarily drive these functions through the release of the excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate. We identified a subset of melanopsin-expressing intrinsically photosensitive RGCs (ipRGCs) in mice that release the inhibitory neurotransmitter γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) at non-image-forming brain targets. GABA release from ipRGCs dampened the sensitivity of both the pupillary light reflex and circadian photoentrainment, thereby shifting the dynamic range of these behaviors to higher light levels. Our results identify an inhibitory RGC population in the retina and provide a circuit-level mechanism that contributes to the relative insensitivity of non-image-forming behaviors at low light levels.


Asunto(s)
Vías Nerviosas/fisiología , Células Ganglionares de la Retina/fisiología , Percepción Visual/fisiología , Animales , Femenino , Neuronas GABAérgicas/fisiología , Glutamato Descarboxilasa/metabolismo , Luz , Masculino , Ratones , Ratones Mutantes , Vías Nerviosas/efectos de los fármacos , Reflejo Pupilar/fisiología , Reflejo Pupilar/efectos de la radiación , Células Ganglionares de la Retina/efectos de la radiación , Opsinas de Bastones/metabolismo , Inconsciente en Psicología , Percepción Visual/efectos de la radiación , Ácido gamma-Aminobutírico/metabolismo
3.
4.
Chem Biol Interact ; 323: 109077, 2020 May 25.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32246921

RESUMEN

7H-Dibenzo[c,g]carbazole (DBC), a local and systemic carcinogen in animal studies, is a common environmental pollutant. It generally co-occurs in a variety of organic complex mixtures derived from incomplete combustion of organic matter. Despite high lipophilicity, DBC is more water-soluble and faster metabolized than the homocyclic aromatics. Moreover, greater polarity, high bioaccumulation potential, and persistence in the environment may imply DBC's higher biological significance and impact on human health, even at lower concentrations. The biotransformation pathways of DBC are incompletely known and the ultimate carcinogenic metabolite(s) are not clearly identified as yet. Structure-biological studies suggest two ways of activation: at the ring carbon atoms and at the pyrrole nitrogen. It is supposed that the particular pathway of biotransformation might be connected with the tissue/organ specificity of DBC. Cytochrome P450 (CYP) family of enzymes plays a pivotal role in the metabolism of DBC; though, the one-electron activation and the aldo-keto reductase-catalyzed oxidation are also involved in metabolic activation. Additionally, DBC can be photoactivated even at physiologically relevant doses of UVA light due to the extended aromatic ring system resulting in strong genotoxicity and oxidative stress. The goal of this review is to summarize current knowledge on mechanisms of DBC activation and possible implications for toxicity, genotoxicity, and carcinogenicity.


Asunto(s)
Carbazoles/toxicidad , Redes y Vías Metabólicas/efectos de los fármacos , Animales , Carbazoles/química , Carbazoles/metabolismo , Carcinogénesis/inducido químicamente , Carcinogénesis/efectos de los fármacos , Humanos , Luz , Oxidación-Reducción , Relación Estructura-Actividad
5.
Curr Urol Rep ; 21(5): 19, 2020 Apr 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32248340

RESUMEN

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: It has been firmly established that hexaminolevulinate-assisted blue light cystoscopy (HAL-BLC) reduces cancer recurrence rates. This review explores the impact of HAL-BLC on other meaningful outcomes in patients with bladder cancer, including disease progression, and earlier detection of disease at the time of surveillance cystoscopy. RECENT FINDINGS: A randomized clinical trial confirmed earlier implementation of HAL-BLC at the time of surveillance cystoscopy increased identification of cancerous lesions, including those of high grade, when compared with white light cystoscopy. In addition, the evidence is evolving that the use of HAL-BLC at the time of endoscopic treatment of high-risk tumors may lead to lower rates of progression to muscle invasion, and this in part may be due to better risk stratification leading to changes in treatment plan. The clinical contexts for the use of HAL-BLC are broader than prior knowledge. It is also becoming more clear that the positive impact of HAL-BLC is likely more than just reducing cancer recurrence rates, and patients would benefit from the technology at many time points in the management and follow-up of their disease.


Asunto(s)
Ácido Aminolevulínico/análogos & derivados , Cistoscopía/métodos , Fármacos Fotosensibilizantes/administración & dosificación , Neoplasias de la Vejiga Urinaria/diagnóstico , Neoplasias de la Vejiga Urinaria/terapia , Administración Intravesical , Ácido Aminolevulínico/administración & dosificación , Progresión de la Enfermedad , Humanos , Luz , Recurrencia Local de Neoplasia/prevención & control , Estadificación de Neoplasias , Ensayos Clínicos Controlados Aleatorios como Asunto , Neoplasias de la Vejiga Urinaria/patología , Neoplasias de la Vejiga Urinaria/cirugía
6.
J Environ Manage ; 265: 110504, 2020 Jul 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32275239

RESUMEN

Herein we report the fabrication of novel Bi2WO6/ZnO heterostructured hybrids for organic contaminant degradation from wastewater and photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting upon solar illumination. The Bi2WO6/ZnO photocatalysts were synthesized using a simple and eco-friendly hydrothermal process without the support of any surfactants. From the photocatalytic experiments, heterostructured Bi2WO6/ZnO nanohybrid catalysts exhibited considerably better photocatalytic performance for rhodamine B (RhB) degradation under solar illumination. The BWZ-20 nanocomposite demonstrated superior photodegradation of RhB dye up to 99% in about 50 min. Furthermore, BWZ-20 photoelectrode showeda lower charge-transfer resistance than other samples prepared, suggesting its suitability for PEC water splitting. The photocurrent densities of Bi2WO6/ZnO photoelectrodes were evaluated under the solar irradiation. The BWZ-20 photoelectrode exhibited a significant photocurrent density (0.45 × 10-3A/cm2) at +0.3 V vs. Ag/AgCl, which was~1036-times higher than that of pure Bi2WO6, and ~4.8-times greater than the pure ZnO. Such improved photocatalytic and PEC activities are mainly attributed to the formation of an interface between ZnO and Bi2WO6, superior light absorption ability, low charge-transfer resistance, remarkable production of charge carriers, easy migration of charges, and suppression of the recombination of photogenerated charge carriers.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Ambientales , Óxido de Zinc , Luz , Luz Solar , Agua
7.
Water Res ; 177: 115798, 2020 Jun 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32305702

RESUMEN

Polymeric photocatalysts are promising candidates for water purification, however their catalytic performance are still unsatisfactory due to the fast charge recombination that leads to low reactive oxygen radicals production. In this study, a conceptual energy-transfer-mediated photocatalytic oxygen activation system over polymeric carbon nitride without the need of electron-hole separation is proposed, exhibiting remarkable singlet oxygen triggered bacteria inactivation performance as well as organic pollutants degradation. By structure and excitonic effect modulation, the oxygen activation process changes from the traditional electron-transfer mechanism to the final energy-transfer pathway, leading to the selective generation of singlet oxygen with high efficiency. The generated singlet oxygen is found to fervently attack the bacteria membrane, creating irreparable pores or holes on the cell membrane for cytoplasmic contents leaking out to accelerate bacteria destruction. The work demonstrated here offers a new photocatalytic oxygen activation pathway for achieving high-efficient reactive oxygen species generation performance without the need of charge separation.


Asunto(s)
Desinfección , Contaminantes Ambientales , Luz , Nitrilos , Oxígeno , Agua
8.
Water Res ; 176: 115746, 2020 Jun 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32224329

RESUMEN

The development of "green" water disinfection technology utilizing solar energy is highly desired but remains challenging. In this study, sulfate radical (•SO4-)-mediated bacterial inactivation was first attempted by using Fe3O4-based magnetic hydrochar (MHC) as a recyclable catalyst for persulfate (PS) activation under visible light (VL) irradiation. Complete treatment of 8.0 log E. coli cells was reached within 40 min in VL/PS/MHC system, compared with that of only 2.0 log-reduction was obtained in the PS/MHC system under the same conditions. The system was applicable in wide range of pH (3.0-9.0), and increasing dissolved O2 could further promote the efficiency. A three-route mechanism was proposed, in which the PS activation by ≡Fe(II) of Fe3O4 and photo-generated electron captured by PS were the major processes. The bacterial cell lesion process was found to be triggered directly via •SO4-, which caused the damage of outer membrane, followed by up-regulation of intracellular ROSs and destroy of chromosomal DNA, finally leading to irreversible cell death. Moreover, the VL/PS/MHC system is also effective to inactivate versatile pathogenic bacteria including P. aeruginosa and S. aureus. As a proof-of-concept, our study provides meaningful information to advance the areas of "green" water disinfection technology which can be realized by recyclable photocatalytic systems using solar energy.


Asunto(s)
Escherichia coli , Purificación del Agua , Catálisis , Desinfección , Luz , Staphylococcus aureus
9.
Nature ; 580(7802): 188-189, 2020 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32269348
10.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 44: 14-18, Mar. 2020. ilus, graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS | ID: biblio-1087629

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Although bioactive metabolites capable of causing oxidative photo-necrosis in plant tissues have been identified in fungi, little is known about this type of mechanism in bacteria. These metabolites act as photosensitizers that generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) capable of causing damage to cells. In addition, these metabolites can pass into an energetically excited state when they receive some luminous stimulus, a condition in which they interact with other molecules present in the environment, such as molecular oxygen (O2), also known as triplet oxygen (3 O2), generating ROS. RESULTS: The suspension of the bacterial culture of Pseudomonas cedrina was shown to produce foliar necrosis in papaya leaves (Carica papaya L.) only in the presence of sunlight, which is evidence of photosensitizing mechanisms that generate singlet oxygen (1 O2). From the chemical study of extracts obtained from this bacteria, 3-(4-(2-carboxipropyl) phenyl) but-2-enoic acid (1) was isolated. This compound, in the presence of light and triplet oxygen (3 O2), was able to oxidize ergosterol to its peroxide, since it acted as a photosensitizer producing 1 O2, with which it was corroborated that a photosensitization reaction occurs, mechanism by which this bacterium could prove to cause oxidative foliar photo-necrosis. CONCLUSIONS: P. cedrina was able to induce oxidative foliar photo-necrosis because of its potential ability to produce photosensitizing metabolites that generate singlet oxygen in the plants it colonizes. Based on the above, it can be proposed that some bacteria can cause oxidative foliar photo-necrosis as an important mechanism in the pathogenesis of host species.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades de las Plantas/microbiología , Pseudomonas/fisiología , Carica/microbiología , Oxígeno Singlete/metabolismo , Pseudomonas/metabolismo , Ácidos , Especies Reactivas de Oxígeno , Hojas de la Planta/microbiología , Fotooxidación , Luz , Necrosis
11.
Top Curr Chem (Cham) ; 378(2): 32, 2020 Mar 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32146604

RESUMEN

DNA hydrogels are crosslinked polymeric networks in which DNA is used as the backbone or the crosslinker. These hydrogels are novel biofunctional materials that possess the biological character of DNA and the framed structure of hydrogels. Compared with other kinds of hydrogels, DNA hydrogels exhibit not only high mechanical strength and controllable morphologies but also good recognition ability, designable responsiveness, and programmability. The DNA used in this type of hydrogel acts as a building block for self-assembly or as a responsive element due to its sequence recognition ability and switchable structural transitions, respectively. In this review, we describe recent developments in the field of DNA hydrogels and discuss the role played by DNA in these hydrogels. Various synthetic strategies for and a range of applications of DNA hydrogels are detailed.


Asunto(s)
ADN/química , Hidrogeles/química , ADN Polimerasa Dirigida por ADN/metabolismo , Ligasas/metabolismo , Luz , Nanotecnología , Conformación de Ácido Nucleico , Hibridación de Ácido Nucleico
12.
Science ; 367(6484): 1301-1302, 2020 03 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32193308

Asunto(s)
Electricidad , Luz , Temperatura
13.
Chemosphere ; 250: 126299, 2020 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32113095

RESUMEN

Emerging pollutants represent a new global problem for water quality. As these compounds get into the environment, they cause severe threats to aquatic environments and human health and are typically resistant to conventional wastewater treatments. In this work, TiO2 nanoparticles surface was functionalized with silver (Ag) nanoparticles, and solvent cast and electrospun membranes of poly (vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) (PVDF-HFP) were prepared with different concentrations of TiO2 and Ag-TiO2 to produce a multifunctional material. The photocatalytic activity of the nanocomposites was evaluated through the degradation of norfloxacin under ultraviolet (UV) and visible radiation. It is shown that nanocomposites with Ag-TiO2 show the highest degradation efficiencies: 64.2% under UV and 80.7% under visible radiation, for 90 and 300 min, respectively. Furthermore, the recyclability of the membranes has also been demonstrated. Finally, it is shown the antimicrobial activity of the nanocomposite membranes, demonstrating the suitability of the Ag-TiO2/PVDF-HFP nanocomposites as multifunctional photocatalytic and antimicrobial membranes for water remediation applications.


Asunto(s)
Nanocompuestos/química , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/análisis , Purificación del Agua/métodos , Antibacterianos , Luz , Membranas Artificiales , Plata , Titanio , Eliminación de Residuos Líquidos/métodos , Aguas Residuales , Agua , Contaminantes del Agua
14.
Bioresour Technol ; 307: 123105, 2020 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32222686

RESUMEN

Carotenoids and phycobiliproteins have a high economic value, due to their wide range of biological and industrial applications. The implementation of strategies to increase their production, such as the application of two-phase light cultivation systems, can stimulate pigments production, increasing economic turnover. In this sense, Cyanobium sp. was grown in seven different two-phase white/red cultivation arrangements, varying the time of each light from 0 to 21 days. Biomass, photosynthetic activity, pigments profile and antioxidant capacity were measured along time. Red light increased photosynthetic activity and pigments content (ca. 1.8-fold), and the use of a two-phase cultivation system generally raised bioactivity and production of phytochemicals. Among the studied, the optimal cultivation condition was found with 10 days of white followed by 4 days of red light. The optimized growth led to a productivity of 137.4 ± 0.8 mg L-1 d-1 of biomass, 17.0 ± 0.2 mg L-1 d-1 of total phycobiliproteins and 4.5 ± 0.2 mg L-1 d-1 of carotenoids.


Asunto(s)
Cianobacterias , Biomasa , Carotenoides , Luz , Fotosíntesis , Pigmentación
15.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 22(11): 6457-6467, 2020 Mar 21.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32152610

RESUMEN

Chloracidobacterium (C.) thermophilum is a microaerophilic, chlorophototrophic species in the phylum Acidobacteria that uses homodimeric type-1 reaction centers (RC) to convert light energy into chemical energy using (bacterio)chlorophyll ((B)Chl) cofactors. Pigment analyses show that these RCs contain BChl aP, Chl aPD, and Zn2+-BChl aP' in the approximate ratio 7.1 : 5.4 : 1. However, the functional roles of these three different Chl species are not yet fully understood. It was recently demonstrated that Chl aPD is the primary electron acceptor. Because Zn2+-(B)Chl aP' is present at low abundance, it was suggested that the primary electron donor might be a dimer of Zn2+-BChl aP' molecules. In this study, we utilize isotopic enrichment and high-resolution two-dimensional (2D) 14N and 67Zn hyperfine sublevel correlation (HYSCORE) spectroscopy to demonstrate that the primary donor cation, P840+, in the C. thermophilum RC is indeed a Zn2+-BChl aP' dimer. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations and the measured electron-nuclear hyperfine parameters of P840+ indicate that the electron spin density on P840+ is distributed nearly symmetrically over two Zn2+-(B)Chl aP' molecules as expected in a homodimeric RC. To our knowledge this is the only example of a photochemical RC in which the Chl molecules of the primary donor are metallated differently than those of the antenna.


Asunto(s)
Acidobacteria/química , Bacterioclorofila A/química , Procesos Fotoquímicos , Zinc/química , Metabolismo Energético , Luz , Análisis Espectral
16.
J Photochem Photobiol B ; 204: 111819, 2020 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32062388

RESUMEN

Solanum aculeatissimum Jacq. is a common plant in much of Brazil. Despite containing metabolites with a wide range of pharmacological applications, there are few tissue culture reports for this plant. The possibility of large-scale in vitro production of this material has significant biotechnological potential. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate the effect of light conditions on the growth of cells in suspension, observing the production and yield of biomass and bioactive compounds and the enzymatic behavior. Calli obtained from leaf segments were cultured in solid medium supplemented with 1 mg L-1 of 2,4-D, 2.5 mg L-1 kinetin, pH 5.7, in the dark. After 110 days of subculture, the calli were transferred to liquid medium. Cells were kept in the dark under agitation at 110 rpm and 25 °C and subcultured every 30 days. After 90 days of culture, 20 mL aliquots of cell suspension were added to flasks containing approximately 20 mL of medium (1:1) and cultured at different wavelengths (white, green, blue, red, and blue/red) under a photoperiod of 16 h with irradiance of 50 µmol m-2 s-1) and in the absence of light. The experiment was performed in a 6 × 6 factorial design (light condition × culture time). The cell cultures showed viability throughout the entire cycle, and chlorogenic and ferulic acids, orientin, quercitrin and, in higher amounts, quercetin, were detected in the first 7 days of culture. There was an increase in superoxide dismutase and catalase and a decrease in ascorbate peroxidase after exposure to different light conditions; for phenylalanine ammonia lyase, no differences were observed. The different light conditions were not sufficient to trigger responses in the concentrations of bioactive compounds, despite the detection of increased levels of the enzymes involved in cellular homeostasis.


Asunto(s)
Luz , Solanum/metabolismo , Catalasa/metabolismo , Técnicas de Cultivo de Célula , Ácido Clorogénico/metabolismo , Conductividad Eléctrica , Flavonoides/metabolismo , Glucósidos/metabolismo , Concentración de Iones de Hidrógeno , Células Vegetales/metabolismo , Células Vegetales/efectos de la radiación , Hojas de la Planta/citología , Hojas de la Planta/metabolismo , Quercetina/análogos & derivados , Quercetina/metabolismo , Solanum/citología , Superóxido Dismutasa/metabolismo
17.
18.
19.
Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci ; 61(2): 13, 2020 02 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32049342

RESUMEN

Purpose: Exposure to short-wavelength light influences refractive development and inhibits myopic development in many animal models. Retinal mechanisms underlying this response remain unknown. This study used a mouse model of lens-induced myopia to evaluate the effect of different wavelength light on refractive development and dopamine levels in the retina. A possible retinal pathway is tested using a mutant mouse with dysfunctional cones. Methods: Wild-type C57BL/6J (WT) and ALS/LtJ/Gnat2cpfl3 (Gnat2-/-) mice were exposed to one of three different light conditions beginning at postnatal day 28: broad-spectrum "white" (420-680 nm), medium wavelength "green" (525 ± 40 nm), and short wavelength "violet" (400 ± 20 nm). One-half of the mice received hyperopic lens defocus. All mice were exposed to the light for 4 weeks; animals were measured weekly for refractive error and axial parameters. Retinal dopamine and the dopamine metabolite 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid were measured by HPLC. Results: In WT mice, short-wavelength violet light induced hyperopia and violet light inhibited lens-induced myopia when compared with mice exposed to white light. Hyperopia could be attributed to shallower vitreous chambers in WT animals. There were no changes in the levels of dopamine or its metabolite. In Gnat2-/- mice, violet light did not induce hyperopia or inhibit lens-induced myopia. Conclusions: These findings show that short-wavelength light slows refractive eye growth, producing hyperopic responses in mice and inhibiting lens-induced myopia. The lack of inhibition in mice with dysfunctional cones suggests that cone signaling plays a role in the hyperopic response to short-wavelength (violet) light.


Asunto(s)
Luz , Miopía/prevención & control , Fototerapia , Células Fotorreceptoras Retinianas Conos/fisiología , Transducción de Señal/fisiología , Animales , Dopamina/metabolismo , Femenino , Proteínas de Unión al GTP Heterotriméricas/deficiencia , Enfermedades del Cristalino/fisiopatología , Masculino , Ratones Endogámicos C57BL , Ratones Endogámicos , Refracción Ocular/fisiología , Retina/metabolismo
20.
Nat Neurosci ; 23(3): 456-467, 2020 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32066983

RESUMEN

Mammalian circadian behaviors are orchestrated by the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) in the ventral hypothalamus, but the number of SCN cell types and their functional roles remain unclear. We have used single-cell RNA-sequencing to identify the basic cell types in the mouse SCN and to characterize their circadian and light-induced gene expression patterns. We identified eight major cell types, with each type displaying a specific pattern of circadian gene expression. Five SCN neuronal subtypes, each with specific combinations of markers, differ in their spatial distribution, circadian rhythmicity and light responsiveness. Through a complete three-dimensional reconstruction of the mouse SCN at single-cell resolution, we obtained a standardized SCN atlas containing the spatial distribution of these subtypes and gene expression. Furthermore, we observed heterogeneous circadian gene expression between SCN neuron subtypes. Such a spatiotemporal pattern of gene regulation within the SCN may have an important function in the circadian pacemaker.


Asunto(s)
Expresión Génica/fisiología , Neuronas/fisiología , Análisis de la Célula Individual , Núcleo Supraquiasmático/fisiología , Animales , Atlas como Asunto , Ritmo Circadiano/fisiología , Péptidos y Proteínas de Señalización del Ritmo Circadiano/genética , Expresión Génica/efectos de la radiación , Regulación de la Expresión Génica/fisiología , Genómica , Luz , Masculino , Ratones , Ratones Endogámicos C57BL , Neuronas/clasificación , Estimulación Luminosa , Núcleo Supraquiasmático/anatomía & histología , Núcleo Supraquiasmático/citología
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