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1.
Sci Total Environ ; 752: 141856, 2021 Jan 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32889280

RESUMEN

The exact transmission route of many respiratory infectious diseases remains a subject for debate to date. The relative contribution ratio of each transmission route is largely undetermined, which is affected by environmental conditions, human behaviour, the host and the microorganism. In this study, a detailed mathematical model is developed to investigate the relative contributions of different transmission routes to a multi-route transmitted respiratory infection. The following transmission routes are considered: long-range airborne transmission, short-range airborne transmission, direction inhalation of medium droplets or droplet nuclei, direct deposition of droplets of all sizes, direct and indirect contact route. It is illustrated that all transmission routes can dominate the total transmission risk under different scenarios. Influential parameters considered include the dose-response rate of different routes, droplet governing size that determines pathogen content in droplets, exposure distance, and pathogen dose transported to the hand of infector. Our multi-route transmission model provided a comprehensive but straightforward method to evaluate the probability of respiratory diseases transmission via different routes. It also established a basis for predicting the impact of individual-level intervention methods such as increasing close-contact distance and wearing protective masks.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades Transmisibles , Máscaras , Humanos , Modelos Teóricos
2.
Rev. enferm. UERJ ; 28: e51476, jan.-dez. 2020.
Artículo en Inglés, Portugués | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermería | ID: biblio-1119621

RESUMEN

Objetivo: desenvolver um modelo de máscara de tecido, com aplicação do elemento filtrante em celulose, para fins de utilização como barreira física segura para aerossóis, como estratégia de resposta emergencial à pandemia provocada pelo SARS-CoV-2. Método: pesquisa laboratorial realizada por meio de protótipos, testagens empíricas e análises e discussões junto a expertises. Resultados: a condução da pesquisa demonstrou que os aerossóis são retidos pela barreira física de celulose introduzida à estrutura das máscaras, o que motivou a segunda fase do estudo em unidade da Rede Brasileira de Laboratórios Analíticos de Saúde sobre a eficácia desses materiais. Conclusão: a confecção de máscaras de tecido é um fenômeno mundial importante e urgente frente à pandemia da COVID-19. Em função da crise de abastecimento e dos parâmetros ressaltados neste estudo, acredita-se que o uso desse equipamento possa ser estendido a setores não críticos de unidades de saúde, além da população em geral.


Objective: to develop a model of fabric mask, with the application of a cellulose filter element, for use as a safe physical barrier for aerosols, as an emergency response strategy for the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. Method: laboratory research carried out by means of prototypes, empirical tests and analyses, and discussions with experts. Results: the research demonstrated that aerosols are retained by the physical cellulose barrier introduced into the structure of the masks, which motivated the second phase of the study into the effectiveness of these materials at a unit of the Brazilian Analytical Health Laboratories Network. Conclusion: the making of fabric masks is an important and urgent worldwide phenomenon in tackling the COVID-19 pandemic. In view of the supply crisis and the parameters highlighted in this study, it is believed that the use of this equipment can be extended to non-critical sectors of health units, as well as to the general population.


Objetivo: desarrollar un modelo de mascarilla de tela, con la aplicación de un elemento filtrante de celulosa, para su uso como barrera física segura para aerosoles, como estrategia de respuesta de emergencia para la pandemia SARS-CoV-2. Método: investigación de laboratorio realizada mediante prototipos, pruebas y análisis empíricos y discusiones con expertos. Resultados: la investigación demostró que los aerosoles son retenidos por la barrera física de celulosa introducida en la estructura de las máscaras, lo que motivó la segunda fase del estudio sobre la efectividad de estos materiales en una unidad de la Red Brasileña de Laboratorios Analíticos de Salud. Conclusión: la fabricación de máscaras de tela es un fenómeno mundial importante y urgente para hacer frente a la pandemia de COVID-19. Ante la crisis de oferta y los parámetros resaltados en este estudio, se cree que el uso de este equipamiento puede extenderse a sectores no críticos de las unidades de salud, así como a la población en general.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Equipo de Protección Personal/normas , Betacoronavirus , Máscaras/normas , Ensayo de Materiales , Brasil , Celulosa , Filtros , Capacidad de Reacción , Pandemias/prevención & control
3.
Rev. enferm. UERJ ; 28: e50360, jan.-dez. 2020.
Artículo en Inglés, Portugués | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermería | ID: biblio-1097275

RESUMEN

Objetivo: descrever as recomendações sobre o uso racional e seguro dos equipamentos de proteção individual (EPI) no transcorrer da cadeia assistencial de pessoas com suspeita ou confirmação de contaminação pelo novo coronavírus. Conteúdo: o novo coronavírus é responsável pela doença Covid-19, e dentre as pessoas com maior risco de desenvolver a infecção estão os trabalhadores de saúde, devido ao contato muito próximo a pacientes. Desse modo, a utilização de EPI é recomendação prioritária a estes trabalhadores. Todavia, em função do desabastecimento internacional e nacional relacionado a estes equipamentos, o uso racional é fundamental a fim de evitar que o impacto do desabastecimento seja ainda maior. Conclusão: o uso de EPI é indispensável aos trabalhadores de saúde durante a pandemia de Covid-19, contudo, é imprescindível coordenar a cadeia de fornecimento destes insumos, implementar estratégias que minimizem a necessidade de EPI e garantir o uso de maneira adequada.


Objective: to describe the recommendations on the rational, safe use of personal protective equipment (PPE) throughout the chain of care for people with suspected or confirmed contamination by the new coronavirus. Content: the new coronavirus is responsible for the disease Covid-19, and among those at high risk of infection are health workers in very close contact with patients. It is thus a priority recommendation for these workers to use PPE. However, international and national shortages of this equipment make rational use essential in order to prevent even greater impact from these shortages. Conclusion: it is essential that health workers use PPE during the Covid-19 pandemic, but it is also essential to coordinate the supply chain for these inputs, implement strategies that minimize the need for PPE and ensure proper use.


Objetivo: describir las recomendaciones sobre el uso racional y seguro del equipo de protección personal (EPP) en toda la cadena de atención para las personas con sospecha o confirmación de contaminación por el nuevo coronavirus. Contenido: el nuevo coronavirus es responsable de la enfermedad de Covid-19, y entre aquellos con alto riesgo de infección se encuentran los trabajadores de la salud en contacto muy cercano con los pacientes. Por lo tanto, es una recomendación prioritaria para estos trabajadores usar EPP. Sin embargo, la escasez internacional y nacional de este equipo hace que el uso racional sea esencial para evitar un impacto aún mayor de esta escasez. Conclusión: es esencial que los trabajadores de la salud usen EPP durante la pandemia de Covid-19, pero también es esencial coordinar la cadena de suministro para estos insumos, implementar estrategias que minimicen la necesidad de EPP y garantizar un uso adecuado.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Equipo de Protección Personal/provisión & distribución , Betacoronavirus , Máscaras/provisión & distribución , Riesgos Laborales , Contención de Riesgos Biológicos/normas , Equipo de Protección Personal/normas , Máscaras/normas
4.
PLoS One ; 15(11): e0241662, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33147261

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic is an unprecedented public health threat, both in scope and response. With no vaccine available, the public is advised to practice non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPI) including social distancing, mask-wearing, and washing hands. However, little is known about public perceptions of the effectiveness of these measures, and high perceived effectiveness is likely to be critical in order to achieve widespread adoption of NPI. METHODS: In May 2020, we conducted a cross-sectional survey among U.S. adults (N = 3,474). The primary outcome was a six-item measure assessing perceived effectiveness of recommended behaviors to prevent SARS-CoV-2 infection from 1 (not at all effective) to 5 (extremely effective). The sample was divided into "higher" and "lower" perceived effectiveness groups. Covariates included demographics, healthcare characteristics, and health beliefs. Variables that were significant at p<0.01 in bivariate analyses were entered into a multivariable logistic regression and a best-fit model was created using a cutoff of p<0.01 to stay in the model. RESULTS: Mean age was 45.5 years and most participants were non-Hispanic White (63%) and female (52.4%). The high perceived effectiveness group was slightly larger than the low perceived effectiveness group (52.7% vs. 47.3%). Almost all health belief variables were significant in the best-fit regression model. COVID-19-related worry (aOR = 1.82; 95% CI = 1.64-2.02), and perceived threat to physical health (aOR = 1.32; 95% CI = 1.20-1.45) were positively associated with perceived effectiveness while perceived severity of COVID-19 (0.84; 95% CI = 0.73-0.96) and perceived likelihood of infection (0.85; 95% CI = 0.77-0.94) switched directions in the adjusted model and were negatively associated with perceived effectiveness. CONCLUSIONS: This research indicates people generally believe NPI are effective, but there was variability based on health beliefs and there are mixed rates of engagement in these behaviors. Public health efforts should focus on increasing perceived severity and threat of SARS-CoV-2-related disease, while promoting NPI as effective in reducing threat.


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus/patogenicidad , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Infecciones por Coronavirus/psicología , Pandemias/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/psicología , Adulto , Estudios Transversales , Grupo de Ascendencia Continental Europea/estadística & datos numéricos , Femenino , Desinfección de las Manos , Humanos , Masculino , Máscaras/estadística & datos numéricos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Salud Pública/estadística & datos numéricos , Distancia Social , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
5.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33171843

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: High compliance in wearing a mask is a crucial factor for stopping the transmission of COVID-19. Since the beginning of the pandemic, social media has been a key communication channel for citizens. This study focused on analyzing content from Twitter related to masks during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: Twitter data were collected using the keyword "mask" from 27 June 2020 to 4 July 2020. The total number of tweets gathered were n = 452,430. A systematic random sample of 1% (n = 4525) of tweets was analyzed using social network analysis. NodeXL (Social Media Research Foundation, California, CA, USA) was used to identify users ranked influential by betweenness centrality and was used to identify key hashtags and content. RESULTS: The overall shape of the network resembled a community network because there was a range of users conversing amongst each other in different clusters. It was found that a range of accounts were influential and/or mentioned within the network. These ranged from ordinary citizens, politicians, and popular culture figures. The most common theme and popular hashtags to emerge from the data encouraged the public to wear masks. CONCLUSION: Towards the end of June 2020, Twitter was utilized by the public to encourage others to wear masks and discussions around masks included a wide range of users.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus , Máscaras , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral , Medios de Comunicación Sociales , Betacoronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Humanos , Pandemias/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Salud Pública , Red Social
6.
J Acoust Soc Am ; 148(4): 2322, 2020 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33138475

RESUMEN

Respiratory droplets emitted during speech can transmit oral bacteria and infectious viruses to others, including COVID-19. Loud speech can generate significantly higher numbers of potentially infectious respiratory droplets. This study assessed the effect of speech volume on respiratory emission of oral bacteria as an indicator of potential pathogen transmission risk. Loud speech (average 83 dBA, peak 94 dBA) caused significantly higher emission of oral bacteria (p = 0.004 compared to no speech) within 1 ft from the speaker. N99 respirators and simple cloth masks both significantly reduced emission of oral bacteria. This study demonstrates that loud speech without face coverings increases emission of respiratory droplets that carry oral bacteria and may also carry other pathogens such as COVID-19.


Asunto(s)
Microbiología del Aire , Bacterias/patogenicidad , Infecciones Bacterianas/transmisión , Exposición por Inhalación , Boca/microbiología , Respiración , Acústica del Lenguaje , Aerosoles , Infecciones Bacterianas/microbiología , Infecciones Bacterianas/prevención & control , Humanos , Exposición por Inhalación/prevención & control , Máscaras , Equipo de Protección Personal , Dispositivos de Protección Respiratoria
7.
Niger Postgrad Med J ; 27(4): 261-267, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33154276

RESUMEN

COVID-19, a highly infectious disease, caused by a novel virus, the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has brought about an unprecedented threat to global health. First reported in Wuhan, China, in December 2019, it has now spread to all continents of the world becoming a pandemic. There is no known treatment or vaccine for it although many candidate drugs and vaccines are in various clinical trial phases. For now, non-pharmacological interventions (NPIs) have become the mainstay of response for COVID-19 and are being used across the world to flatten the epidemiologic curve with some success. This review focussed on identifying which NPIs have been effective. NPIs that are effective include isolation and quarantine, physical distancing, use of face masks and hand hygiene. These measures are best used in combination and simultaneously. The evidence is that they should be instituted early in the pandemic and for sustained periods. They should also be implemented in the context of the cultural and socioeconomic conditions of the populace. Ineffective NPIs include ultraviolet irradiation and spraying of outdoor spaces and individuals. We recommend that decision makers weigh the evidence carefully, as it applies to the local setting to inform public health decisions.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/terapia , Neumonía Viral/terapia , Betacoronavirus , Higiene de las Manos , Humanos , Máscaras , Nigeria , Pandemias , Cuarentena , Aislamiento Social
9.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33153145

RESUMEN

Wearing face masks is recommended for the prevention of contracting or exposing others to cardiorespiratory infections, such as COVID-19. Controversy exists on whether wearing face masks during vigorous exercise affects performance. We used a randomized, counterbalanced cross-over design to evaluate the effects of wearing a surgical mask, a cloth mask, or no mask in 14 participants (7 men and 7 women; 28.2 ± 8.7 y) during a cycle ergometry test to exhaustion. Arterial oxygen saturation (pulse oximetry) and tissue oxygenation index (indicator of hemoglobin saturation/desaturation) at vastus lateralis (near-infrared spectroscopy) were assessed throughout the exercise tests. Wearing face masks had no effect on performance (time to exhaustion (mean ± SD): no mask 622 ± 141 s, surgical mask 657 ± 158 s, cloth mask 637 ± 153 s (p = 0.20); peak power: no mask 234 ± 56 W, surgical mask 241 ± 57 W, cloth mask 241 ± 51 W (p = 0.49)). When expressed relative to peak exercise performance, no differences were evident between wearing or not wearing a mask for arterial oxygen saturation, tissue oxygenation index, rating of perceived exertion, or heart rate at any time during the exercise tests. Wearing a face mask during vigorous exercise had no discernable detrimental effect on blood or muscle oxygenation, and exercise performance in young, healthy participants (ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT04557605).


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Ejercicio Físico , Máscaras/clasificación , Pandemias/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Adulto , Betacoronavirus , Prueba de Esfuerzo , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Oximetría , Consumo de Oxígeno , Adulto Joven
10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33153155

RESUMEN

The role of aerosolized SARS-CoV-2 viruses in airborne transmission of COVID-19 has been debated. The aerosols are transmitted through breathing and vocalization by infectious subjects. Some authors state that this represents the dominant route of spreading, while others dismiss the option. Here we present an adjustable algorithm to estimate the infection risk for different indoor environments, constrained by published data of human aerosol emissions, SARS-CoV-2 viral loads, infective dose and other parameters. We evaluate typical indoor settings such as an office, a classroom, choir practice, and a reception/party. Our results suggest that aerosols from highly infective subjects can effectively transmit COVID-19 in indoor environments. This "highly infective" category represents approximately 20% of the patients who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2. We find that "super infective" subjects, representing the top 5-10% of subjects with a positive test, plus an unknown fraction of less-but still highly infective, high aerosol-emitting subjects-may cause COVID-19 clusters (>10 infections). In general, active room ventilation and the ubiquitous wearing of face masks (i.e., by all subjects) may reduce the individual infection risk by a factor of five to ten, similar to high-volume, high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filtering. A particularly effective mitigation measure is the use of high-quality masks, which can drastically reduce the indoor infection risk through aerosols.


Asunto(s)
Aerosoles , Infecciones por Coronavirus/transmisión , Modelos Teóricos , Neumonía Viral/transmisión , Microbiología del Aire , Algoritmos , Betacoronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Filtración , Humanos , Máscaras , Pandemias/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Ventilación
11.
J Drugs Dermatol ; 19(11): 1127-1129, 2020 Nov 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33196736

RESUMEN

As the coronavirus pandemic continues into the second half of 2020, states across the US remain steadfast in their search to determine the safest methods of returning to normalcy. Without a readily available, effective COVID-19 vaccine, and as the numbers of infected individuals continues to climb, the best practices to ensure public safety are rooted in good personal hygiene and prevention of transmission of the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2. To that end, in addition to properly wearing adequate facial covering, individuals should properly wash their hands to prevent direct auto-inoculation. J Drugs Dermatol. 2020;19(11): 1127-1129 doi:10.36849/JDD.2020.5557.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Desinfección de las Manos/normas , Pandemias/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/transmisión , Humanos , Máscaras , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/transmisión , Estados Unidos/epidemiología
12.
Braz Oral Res ; 34: e123, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33146319

RESUMEN

During the COVID-19 pandemic the use of cloth masks has increased dramatically due to the shortage of medical masks. However, the efficiency of this material is controversial. We aimed to investigate the efficiency of cloth masks in reducing transmission and contamination by droplets and aerosols for the general population and healthcare workers. Electronic databases were searched without year or language restrictions. Clinical and laboratorial studies were included. The risk of bias (RoB) was assessed using an adapted quality checklist for laboratory-based studies. ROBINS-I tool and Cochrane RoB 2.0 were used to evaluate non-randomized (n-RCT) and randomized clinical trials (RCT), respectively. The quality of the evidence was assessed through GRADE tool. From the eleven studies selected, eight were laboratory-based studies, one non-randomized and one RCT supported by laboratory data. Between the evaluated fabrics only three presented a filtration efficiency > 90%. Hybrid of cotton/chiffon (95%CI 95.2 to 98.8), hybrid of cotton/silk (95%CI 92.2 to 95.8) and cotton quilt (95%CI 94.2 to 97.8). However, cloth masks are not recommended for healthcare workers. A meta-analysis was not feasible due to a high methodological heterogeneity. The overall quality of evidence ranged from very low to moderate. Despite the lower efficiency compared to medical masks, laboratorial results may underestimate the efficiency of cloth masks in real life. Cloth mask efficiency is higher when made of hybrid fabrics (cotton/chiffon, cotton/silk) and cotton quilt, mainly with multiple layers.


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus , Máscaras , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral , Humanos
13.
J Korean Med Sci ; 35(42): e380, 2020 Nov 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33140592

RESUMEN

There were two rallies of medical students and trainee doctors, where 9,000 participants gathered. We performed polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based universal screening for the participants using pooling at a tertiary care hospital. Around 609 (94%) of 646 participants underwent PCR tests for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2; all of them tested negative. Our data suggested low transmission rates in open air mass gatherings when appropriate personal protective practices were followed.


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus/aislamiento & purificación , Técnicas de Laboratorio Clínico , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles/métodos , Infecciones por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Neumonía Viral/diagnóstico , Reacción en Cadena de la Polimerasa , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Higiene de las Manos , Humanos , Internado y Residencia , Máscaras , Tamizaje Masivo , Pandemias , Médicos , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , República de Corea/epidemiología , Aislamiento Social , Estudiantes de Medicina , Centros de Atención Terciaria
15.
PLoS One ; 15(11): e0241949, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33170871

RESUMEN

The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic has overwhelmingly demonstrated the need to accurately evaluate the effects of implementing new or altering existing nonpharmaceutical interventions. Since these interventions applied at the societal level cannot be evaluated through traditional experimental means, public health officials and other decision makers must rely on statistical and mathematical epidemiological models. Nonpharmaceutical interventions are typically focused on contacts between members of a population, and yet most epidemiological models rely on homogeneous mixing which has repeatedly been shown to be an unrealistic representation of contact patterns. An alternative approach is individual based models (IBMs), but these are often time intensive and computationally expensive to implement, requiring a high degree of expertise and computational resources. More often, decision makers need to know the effects of potential public policy decisions in a very short time window using limited resources. This paper presents a computation algorithm for an IBM designed to evaluate nonpharmaceutical interventions. By utilizing recursive relationships, our method can quickly compute the expected epidemiological outcomes even for large populations based on any arbitrary contact network. We utilize our methods to evaluate the effects of various mitigation measures in the District of Columbia, USA, at various times and to various degrees. Rcode for our method is provided in the supplementry material, thereby allowing others to utilize our approach for other regions.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Modelos Teóricos , Neumonía Viral/diagnóstico , Algoritmos , Betacoronavirus/aislamiento & purificación , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Infecciones por Coronavirus/virología , Brotes de Enfermedades , District of Columbia/epidemiología , Humanos , Máscaras , Pandemias/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/virología , Cuarentena
16.
Rev Soc Bras Med Trop ; 53: e20200527, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33174963

RESUMEN

Even though most current recommendations include the general use of masks to prevent community transmission of SARS-Cov-2, the effectiveness of this measure is still debated. The studies on this policy include physical filtering tests with inanimate microparticles, randomized clinical trials, observational studies, ecological analyses, and even computational modeling of epidemics. Much of the so-called evidence is inferred from studies on different respiratory viruses and epidemiological settings. Heterogeneity is a major factor limiting the generalization of inferences. In this article, we reviewed the empirical and rational bases of mask use and how to understand these recommendations compared to other policies of social distancing, restrictions on non-essential services, and lockdown. We conclude that recent studies suggest a synergistic effect of the use of masks and social distancing rather than opposing effects of the two recommendations. Developing social communication approaches that clarify the need to combine different strategies is a challenge for public health authorities.


Asunto(s)
Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles/instrumentación , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Máscaras , Pandemias/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Betacoronavirus , Humanos
17.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(45): 1691-1694, 2020 Nov 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33180757

RESUMEN

Mitigation measures, including stay-at-home orders and public mask wearing, together with routine public health interventions such as case investigation with contact tracing and immediate self-quarantine after exposure, are recommended to prevent and control the transmission of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) (1-3). On March 11, the first COVID-19 case in Delaware was reported to the Delaware Division of Public Health (DPH). The state responded to ongoing community transmission with investigation of all identified cases (commencing March 11), issuance of statewide stay-at-home orders (March 24-June 1), a statewide public mask mandate (from April 28), and contact tracing (starting May 12). The relationship among implementation of mitigation strategies, case investigations, and contact tracing and COVID-19 incidence and associated hospitalization and mortality was examined during March-June 2020. Incidence declined by 82%, hospitalization by 88%, and mortality by 100% from late April to June 2020, as the mask mandate and contact tracing were added to case investigations and the stay-at-home order. Among 9,762 laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 cases reported during March 11-June 25, 2020, two thirds (6,527; 67%) of patients were interviewed, and 5,823 (60%) reported completing isolation. Among 2,834 contacts reported, 882 (31%) were interviewed and among these contacts, 721 (82%) reported completing quarantine. Implementation of mitigation measures, including mandated mask use coupled with public health interventions, was followed by reductions in COVID-19 incidence and associated hospitalizations and mortality. The combination of state-mandated community mitigation efforts and routine public health interventions can reduce the occurrence of new COVID-19 cases, hospitalizations, and deaths.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Pandemias/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Salud Pública/legislación & jurisprudencia , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Trazado de Contacto , Infecciones por Coronavirus/mortalidad , Infecciones por Coronavirus/terapia , Infecciones por Coronavirus/transmisión , Delaware/epidemiología , Femenino , Hospitalización/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Máscaras/estadística & datos numéricos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Neumonía Viral/mortalidad , Neumonía Viral/terapia , Neumonía Viral/transmisión , Cuarentena/legislación & jurisprudencia , Adulto Joven
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