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1.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33003508

RESUMEN

Sleep disparities exist among Hispanics/Latinos, although little work has characterized individuals at the United States (US)-Mexico border, particularly as it relates to acculturation. This study examined the association of Anglo and Mexican acculturation to various facets of sleep health among those of Mexican descent at the US-Mexico border. Data were collected from N = 100 adults of Mexican descent in the city of Nogales, Arizona (AZ). Surveys were presented in English or Spanish. Acculturation was assessed with the Acculturation Scale for Mexican-Americans (ARSMA-II). Insomnia was assessed with the Insomnia Severity Index (ISI), sleepiness was assessed with the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), sleep apnea risk was assessed with the Multivariable Apnea Prediction (MAP) index, weekday and weekend sleep duration and efficiency were assessed with the Sleep Timing Questionnaire, sleep quality was assessed with the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), and sleep duration and sleep medication use were assessed with PSQI items. No associations were found between Mexican acculturation and any sleep outcomes in adjusted analyses. Anglo acculturation was associated with less weekend sleep duration and efficiency, worse insomnia severity and sleep quality, and more sleep apnea risk and sleep medication use. These results support the idea that sleep disparities may depend on the degree of acculturation, which should be considered in risk screening and interventions.


Asunto(s)
Aculturación , Americanos Mexicanos/psicología , Trastornos del Inicio y del Mantenimiento del Sueño/etnología , Trastornos del Sueño-Vigilia/etnología , Sueño/fisiología , Adulto , Arizona/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , México/etnología , Persona de Mediana Edad , Trastornos del Inicio y del Mantenimiento del Sueño/psicología , Trastornos del Sueño-Vigilia/psicología , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Estados Unidos/epidemiología
2.
Neurology ; 95(19): e2605-e2609, 2020 11 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33004606

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Asylum seekers experience a high burden of physical and psychological trauma, yet there is a scarcity of literature regarding the epidemiology and sequelae of head injury (HI) in asylum seekers. We examined HI prevalence and association with neuropsychiatric comorbidities in asylum seekers. METHODS: A retrospective cross-sectional study was performed through review of 139 medical affidavits from an affidavit database. Affidavits written from 2010 to 2018 were included. Demographic and case-related data were collected and classified based on the presence of HI. For neuropsychiatric sequelae, the primary study outcome was headache and the secondary outcomes were depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, and anxiety. Multivariable logistic regression was performed to examine the association between HI and neuropsychiatric sequelae, adjusted for demographic and clinical characteristics. RESULTS: A total of 139 medical affidavits of asylum seekers were included. The mean age was 27.4 ± 12.1 years, 56.8% were female, and 38.8% were <19 years. Almost half (42.5%) explicitly self-reported history of HI. Compared to clients who did not report HI, clients with HI were older and more likely to report a history of headache, physical abuse, physical trauma, concussion, and loss of consciousness. After adjustment for demographic and clinical characteristics, clients with HI had greater odds for neuropsychological sequelae such as headache (odds ratio [OR] 4.2, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.0-8.7) and depression (OR 2.5, 95% CI 1.1-5.7). CONCLUSIONS: We observed a high prevalence of HI in asylum seekers. Comprehensive screening for HI and neuropsychiatric comorbidities is encouraged when evaluating asylum seekers.


Asunto(s)
Ansiedad/epidemiología , Traumatismos Craneocerebrales/epidemiología , Depresión/epidemiología , Cefalea/epidemiología , Refugiados/estadística & datos numéricos , Trastornos por Estrés Postraumático/epidemiología , Violencia/estadística & datos numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Ansiedad/psicología , Conmoción Encefálica/epidemiología , Conmoción Encefálica/psicología , Traumatismos Craneocerebrales/psicología , Estudios Transversales , Depresión/psicología , El Salvador/etnología , Femenino , Guatemala/etnología , Haití/etnología , Cefalea/psicología , Honduras/etnología , Humanos , Masculino , Trastornos de la Memoria/epidemiología , Trastornos de la Memoria/psicología , México/etnología , Nicaragua/etnología , Oportunidad Relativa , Cuestionario de Salud del Paciente , Prevalencia , Trauma Psicológico/epidemiología , Trauma Psicológico/psicología , Refugiados/psicología , Estudios Retrospectivos , Distribución por Sexo , Delitos Sexuales/psicología , Delitos Sexuales/estadística & datos numéricos , Trastornos del Inicio y del Mantenimiento del Sueño/epidemiología , Trastornos del Inicio y del Mantenimiento del Sueño/psicología , Trastornos por Estrés Postraumático/psicología , Inconsciencia/epidemiología , Inconsciencia/psicología , Estados Unidos/epidemiología , Heridas y Traumatismos/epidemiología , Heridas y Traumatismos/psicología , Adulto Joven
3.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238885, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32960895

RESUMEN

This study presents evidence of two tuyères, or blowpipe tips, used in metalworking at the Postclassic period city of Mayapán. Blowpipe technology has long been hypothesized to be the production technique for introducing oxygen to furnaces during the metal casting process on the basis of ethnohistorical depictions of the process in ancient Mesoamerica. To our knowledge, the tuyères recovered at Mayapán are the first archaeologically documented tuyères for pre-Hispanic Mesoamerica. The dimensions, internal perforation, vitrification, and presence of copper prills within the ceramic fabric, suggest that they were used in pyrotechnological production, likely metalworking, and is consistent with previous evidence for small-scale metalworking at Mayapán. Blowpipe use in metallurgical production is a logical extension of a much longer tradition of blowgun use in hunting, which was likely already present in Mesoamerica by the time metal was introduced to West Mexico from South America. Furthermore, the dimensions of the Mayapán tuyères are consistent with the internal diameter of ethnohistorically-documented blowguns from Jacaltenango in the southwest Maya region. We conducted replication experiments that suggest that when combined with wooden blowpipes, the Mayapán tuyères would have been ideal for small-scale, furnace-based metallurgy, of the type identified at Mayapán from Postclassic period contexts.


Asunto(s)
Arqueología/instrumentación , Metalurgia/historia , Historia Antigua , Humanos , Metalurgia/instrumentación , México/etnología
5.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med ; 202(11): 1567-1575, 2020 12 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32645277

RESUMEN

Rationale: Most U.S. residents who develop tuberculosis (TB) were born abroad, and U.S. TB incidence is increasingly driven by infection risks in other countries.Objectives: To estimate the potential impact of effective global TB control on health and economic outcomes in the United States.Methods: We estimated outcomes using linked mathematical models of TB epidemiology in the United States and migrants' birth countries. A base-case scenario extrapolated country-specific TB incidence trends. We compared this with scenarios in which countries achieve 90% TB incidence reductions between 2015 and 2035, as targeted by the World Health Organization's End TB Strategy ("effective global TB control"). We also considered pessimistic scenarios of flat TB incidence trends in individual countries.Measurements and Main Results: We estimated TB cases, deaths, and costs and the total economic burden of TB in the United States. Compared with the base-case scenario, effective global TB control would avert 40,000 (95% uncertainty interval, 29,000-55,000) TB cases in the United States in 2020-2035. TB incidence rates in 2035 would be 43% (95% uncertainty interval, 34-54%) lower than in the base-case scenario, and 49% (95% uncertainty interval, 44-55%) lower than in 2020. Summed over 2020-2035, this represents 0.8 billion dollars (95% uncertainty interval, 0.6-1.0 billion dollars) in averted healthcare costs and $2.5 billion dollars (95% uncertainty interval, 1.7-3.6 billion dollars) in productivity gains. The total U.S. economic burden of TB (including the value of averted TB deaths) would be 21% (95% uncertainty interval, 16-28%) lower (18 billion dollars [95% uncertainty level, 8-32 billion dollars]).Conclusions: In addition to producing major health benefits for high-burden countries, strengthened efforts to achieve effective global TB control could produce substantial health and economic benefits for the United States.


Asunto(s)
Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles , Emigrantes e Inmigrantes/estadística & datos numéricos , Salud Global , Tuberculosis/epidemiología , Tuberculosis/prevención & control , China/epidemiología , China/etnología , Erradicación de la Enfermedad , Costos de la Atención en Salud , Humanos , Incidencia , India/epidemiología , India/etnología , México/epidemiología , México/etnología , Modelos Teóricos , Filipinas/epidemiología , Filipinas/etnología , Tuberculosis/economía , Tuberculosis/mortalidad , Estados Unidos/epidemiología , Vietnam/epidemiología , Vietnam/etnología
6.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32604719

RESUMEN

The prevalence of obesity has been persistent amongst Hispanics over the last 20 years. Socioeconomic inequities have led to delayed diagnosis and treatment of chronic medical conditions related to obesity. Factors contributing include lack of insurance and insufficient health education. It is well-documented that obesity amongst Hispanics is higher in comparison to non-Hispanics, but it is not well-understood how the socioeconomic context along with Hispanic ethnic concentration impact the prevalence of obesity within a community. Specifically studying obesity within Hispanic dominant regions of the United States, along the Texas-Mexico border will aid in understanding this relationship. El Paso, Texas is predominantly Mexican-origin Hispanic, making up 83% of the county's total population. Through the use of electronic medical records, BMI averages along with obesity prevalence were analyzed for 161 census tracts in the El Paso County. Geographic weighted regression and Hot Spot technology were used to analyze the data. This study did identify a positive association between Hispanic ethnic concentration and obesity prevalence within the El Paso County. Median income did have a direct effect on obesity prevalence while evidence demonstrates that higher education is protective for health.


Asunto(s)
Registros Electrónicos de Salud , Hispanoamericanos , Obesidad , Humanos , México/etnología , Obesidad/etnología , Texas/epidemiología , Estados Unidos
7.
Cancer Res ; 80(9): 1893-1901, 2020 05 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32245796

RESUMEN

Women of Latin American origin in the United States are more likely to be diagnosed with advanced breast cancer and have a higher risk of mortality than non-Hispanic White women. Studies in U.S. Latinas and Latin American women have reported a high incidence of HER2 positive (+) tumors; however, the factors contributing to this observation are unknown. Genome-wide genotype data for 1,312 patients from the Peruvian Genetics and Genomics of Breast Cancer Study (PEGEN-BC) were used to estimate genetic ancestry. We tested the association between HER2 status and genetic ancestry using logistic and multinomial logistic regression models. Findings were replicated in 616 samples from Mexico and Colombia. Average Indigenous American (IA) ancestry differed by subtype. In multivariate models, the odds of having an HER2+ tumor increased by a factor of 1.20 with every 10% increase in IA ancestry proportion (95% CI, 1.07-1.35; P = 0.001). The association between HER2 status and IA ancestry was independently replicated in samples from Mexico and Colombia. Results suggest that the high prevalence of HER2+ tumors in Latinas could be due in part to the presence of population-specific genetic variant(s) affecting HER2 expression in breast cancer. SIGNIFICANCE: The positive association between Indigenous American genetic ancestry and HER2+ breast cancer suggests that the high incidence of HER2+ subtypes in Latinas might be due to population and subtype-specific genetic risk variants.


Asunto(s)
Neoplasias de la Mama/química , Neoplasias de la Mama/etnología , Hispanoamericanos/genética , Receptor ErbB-2/análisis , Adulto , Grupo de Ascendencia Continental Africana/etnología , Grupo de Ascendencia Continental Africana/estadística & datos numéricos , Anciano , Grupo de Ascendencia Continental Asiática/etnología , Grupo de Ascendencia Continental Asiática/estadística & datos numéricos , Neoplasias de la Mama/genética , Colombia/etnología , Grupo de Ascendencia Continental Europea/etnología , Grupo de Ascendencia Continental Europea/estadística & datos numéricos , Femenino , Humanos , Indios Norteamericanos , Indios Sudamericanos , América Latina/etnología , Modelos Lineales , Modelos Logísticos , México/etnología , Persona de Mediana Edad , Perú/etnología , Receptor ErbB-2/genética , Receptores Estrogénicos/sangre , Receptores de Progesterona/sangre , Estados Unidos , Adulto Joven
8.
Dev Psychol ; 56(5): 993-1008, 2020 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32134308

RESUMEN

To advance understanding of parents' and adolescents' unique and shared perspectives of familism, a core cultural value in Mexican-origin families, our study addressed 2 goals. First, we identified family members' unique and shared perspectives of familism values using multitrait-multimethod confirmatory factor analysis (Kenny & Kashy, 1992). Second, we examined links between family members' unique and shared perspectives of familism values and mother-youth and father-youth warmth and conflict. Participants were mothers, fathers, and 2 siblings (Mage = 15.48 years for older and Mage = 12.55 years for younger siblings) from 246 Mexican-origin families who were interviewed in their homes on 2 occasions over 5 years. Results indicated that familism values operated as an individual-level process more so than a family-level process and that youth's familism values were most consistently linked to parent-youth relationship quality. These findings provide novel insights into investigating family system dynamics involving familism values, suggest that youth's familism values may keep them connected to their families during adolescence, and highlight potential implications for prevention and intervention programs geared toward Mexican-origin families. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).


Asunto(s)
Relaciones Familiares/etnología , Americanos Mexicanos/psicología , Relaciones Padres-Hijo/etnología , Padres/psicología , Adolescente , Femenino , Humanos , Estudios Longitudinales , Masculino , México/etnología
9.
Pediatrics ; 145(4)2020 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32188643

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Mexican-origin women breastfeed at similar rates as white women in the United States, yet they usually breastfeed for less time. In our study, we seek to identify differences in Mexican-origin women's breastfeeding intentions, initiation, continuation, and supplementation across nativity and country-of-education groups. METHODS: The data are from a prospective cohort study of postpartum women ages 18 to 44 recruited from 8 Texas hospitals. We included 1235 Mexican-origin women who were born and educated in either Texas or Mexico. Women were interviewed at delivery and at 3, 6, 12, 18, and 24 months post partum. Breastfeeding intentions and initiation were reported at baseline, continuation was collected at each interview, and weeks until supplementation was assessed for both solids and formula. Women were classified into 3 categories: born and educated in Mexico, born and educated in the United States, and born in Mexico and educated in the United States. RESULTS: Breastfeeding initiation and continuation varied by nativity and country of birth, although all women reported similar breastfeeding intentions. Women born and educated in Mexico initiated and continued breastfeeding in higher proportions than women born and educated in the United States. Mexican-born and US-educated women formed an intermediate group. Early supplementation with formula and solid foods was similar across groups, and early supplementation with formula negatively impacted duration across all groups. CONCLUSIONS: Nativity and country of education are important predictors of breastfeeding and should be assessed in pediatric and postpartum settings to tailor breastfeeding support. Support is especially warranted among US-born women, and additional educational interventions should be developed to forestall early supplementation with formula across all acculturation groups.


Asunto(s)
Lactancia Materna/etnología , Aculturación , Adulto , Lactancia Materna/psicología , Lactancia Materna/estadística & datos numéricos , Suplementos Dietéticos/estadística & datos numéricos , Escolaridad , Femenino , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Hispanoamericanos/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Fórmulas Infantiles/estadística & datos numéricos , Recién Nacido , Intención , México/etnología , Madres/educación , Estudios Prospectivos , Texas , Factores de Tiempo , Estados Unidos
10.
J Fam Psychol ; 34(5): 642-651, 2020 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32162941

RESUMEN

Negativity in the family environment during the perinatal period is likely to have detrimental effects on maternal well-being, especially among low-income ethnic minority mothers who are at increased risk for experiencing postpartum depressive symptoms. With a sample of 322 Mexican and Mexican American families, this study used latent class growth analysis to identify meaningful subgroups of women based on their perceived family negativity reported prenatally and at 6, 12, 18, and 24 weeks postpartum. A 4-trajectory model of family negativity fit the data well: low-stable (58%), moderate-increasing (26%), high-decreasing (8%), and high-increasing (8%). Higher prenatal depressive symptomatology predicted membership in the moderate-increasing, high-decreasing, and high-increasing trajectories, relative to the low-stable trajectory. Findings suggest substantial heterogeneity in family negativity, identifying three significant growth patterns during the perinatal period with differential implications for maternal depressive symptomatology at 24 weeks and 12 months after delivery. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).


Asunto(s)
Trastorno Depresivo/etnología , Familia/etnología , Americanos Mexicanos/estadística & datos numéricos , Periodo Posparto/etnología , Pobreza/etnología , Complicaciones del Embarazo/etnología , Adulto , Depresión Posparto/etnología , Femenino , Humanos , Estudios Longitudinales , México/etnología , Embarazo , Estados Unidos/etnología
11.
Gac Med Mex ; 156(1): 17-21, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32026882

RESUMEN

Introduction: In the United States, information on the Mexican-American population is available through the Health and Aging Brain among Latino Elders (HABLE) study; in Mexico, the results of the Mexican Health and Aging Study (MHAS) are available. Objective: To compare the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors between men and women of the HABLE and MHAS studies. Method: The prevalence of hypertension, diabetes, hypercholesterolemia and abdominal obesity was transversely analyzed in 559 HABLE participants and compared with data from 13,663 MHAS participants. The comparison was made using Student's t-test and the chi-square test, according to the type of variable. Results: The analysis showed that the prevalence of hypertension (50 %, 95 % CI = 41.8-51.8), diabetes (35.5 %, 95 % CI = 27.6-43.8) and abdominal obesity (59.3 %, 95 % CI = 50.5-68.1) were significantly higher in HABLE males, whereas females had a higher prevalence of diabetes (36.8 %, 95 % CI = 32.2-41.5) and abdominal obesity (89.6 %, 95 % CI = 86.6-92.5). Hypercholesterolemia had a higher prevalence in MHAS females (53.3%, 95% CI = 50.3-56.2). Conclusion: The prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors was higher in Mexican American HABLE participants, than in Mexican MHAS participants.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/etiología , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiología , Hipercolesterolemia/epidemiología , Hipertensión/epidemiología , Obesidad Abdominal/epidemiología , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/etnología , Estudios Transversales , Diabetes Mellitus/etnología , Femenino , Encuestas Epidemiológicas/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Hipercolesterolemia/etnología , Hipertensión/etnología , Estudios Longitudinales , Masculino , Americanos Mexicanos/estadística & datos numéricos , México/epidemiología , México/etnología , Persona de Mediana Edad , Obesidad Abdominal/etnología , Factores de Riesgo , Distribución por Sexo , Estados Unidos/epidemiología
12.
Rev. ADM ; 77(1): 46-50, ene.-feb. 2020. ilus
Artículo en Español | LILACS | ID: biblio-1088104

RESUMEN

El día del odontólogo tradicionalmente se festeja el 9 de febrero, en conmemoración a Santa Apolonia, quien el 9 de febrero del año 248 d.C., por no renunciar a su fe cristiana, es martirizada quitándole los dientes. Sin embargo, existe una historia de origen maya, escrita en el Popol Vuh, la de Vucub Caquix, ave mítica antropomorfa, a quien se le extraen los dientes. Este hecho acontece antes de la creación del mundo, el 13 de agosto del año 3114 a.C. Este hallazgo surge al relacionar el Popol Vuh con las imágenes representadas en la vasija maya K 1226, la estela 25 de Izapa y las inscripciones de la estela de Cobá, Quintana Roo. Por lo anterior, proponemos que este acontecimiento podría tomarse en cuenta para conmemorar en México el día del dentista el 13 de agosto, puesto que ello sería una forma de revalorar y reafirmar nuestra identidad prehispánica (AU)


The dentist's day is traditionally celebrated on February 9, in commemoration of Santa Apolonia, who on February 9 of the year 248 AD, for not giving up her Christian faith, is martyred by taking her teeth. However, there is a story of Mayan origin, written in Popol Vuh, that of Vucub Caquix, a mythical anthropomorphic bird, whose teeth are extracted. This fact occurs before the creation of the world, on August 13, 3114 BC. This finding arises when the Popol Vuh is related to the images represented in the Mayan vessel K 1226, stela 25 of Izapa and the inscriptions of the stela de Cobá, Quintana Roo. Therefore, we propose that this event could be taken into account to commemorate August 13, as the day of the dentist, as a way to revalue and reaffirm our pre-Hispanic identity (AU)


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Animales , Indios Norteamericanos , Cultura Indígena , Cosmovisión , Historia de la Odontología , Aniversarios y Eventos Especiales , Santos , México/etnología , Mitología
13.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 3248, 2020 02 24.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32094421

RESUMEN

Here we studied HLA blocks and haplotypes in a group of 218 Lacandon Maya Native American using a high-resolution next generation sequencing (NGS) method. We assessed the genetic diversity of HLA class I and class II in this population, and determined the most probable ancestry of Lacandon Maya HLA class I and class II haplotypes. Importantly, this Native American group showed a high degree of both HLA homozygosity and linkage disequilibrium across the HLA region and also lower class II HLA allelic diversity than most previously reported populations (including other Native American groups). Distinctive alleles present in the Lacandon population include HLA-A*24:14 and HLA-B*40:08. Furthermore, in Lacandons we observed a high frequency of haplotypes containing the allele HLA-DRB1*04:11, a relatively frequent allele in comparison with other neighboring indigenous groups. The specific demographic history of the Lacandon population including inbreeding, as well as pathogen selection, may have elevated the frequencies of a small number of HLA class II alleles and DNA blocks. To assess the possible role of different selective pressures in determining Native American HLA diversity, we evaluated the relationship between genetic diversity at HLA-A, HLA-B and HLA-DRB1 and pathogen richness for a global dataset and for Native American populations alone. In keeping with previous studies of such relationships we included distance from Africa as a covariate. After correction for multiple comparisons we did not find any significant relationship between pathogen diversity and HLA genetic diversity (as measured by polymorphism information content) in either our global dataset or the Native American subset of the dataset. We found the expected negative relationship between genetic diversity and distance from Africa in the global dataset, but no relationship between HLA genetic diversity and distance from Africa when Native American populations were considered alone.


Asunto(s)
Variación Genética , Genética de Población , Haplotipos , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidad Clase II/genética , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidad Clase I/genética , Desequilibrio de Ligamiento , Adolescente , Adulto , África , Alelos , Femenino , Frecuencia de los Genes , Genotipo , Geografía , Antígenos HLA-A/genética , Antígenos HLA-B/genética , Cadenas HLA-DRB1/genética , Homocigoto , Humanos , Masculino , México/etnología , Persona de Mediana Edad , Análisis de Componente Principal , Adulto Joven
14.
PLoS One ; 15(1): e0227149, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31935218

RESUMEN

Racism is a neglected but relevant cause of health disparities within multi-ethnic societies. Different types of racism and other expressions of discrimination must be recognized, critically analyzed, and actively reverted. This paper is based on anthropological fieldwork conducted in three medical facilities in the indigenous region Sierra de Totonacapan in the highlands of Veracruz in Mexico and analyzes maternal health and identifies levels of racism as perceived by female indigenous patients. Applying a theoretical framework that defines racism at three levels, namely, institutionalized, personally mediated, and internalized racism. We empirically distinguish and acknowledge human rights omissions and violations and then analyze the sources of racism in close relation to an intersectional view on gender-, class-, and race-based forms of discrimination. Finally, in addition to investment in health goods and skilled birth attendants, we propose an intercultural competence approach to manage racism, among other ideologies. This approach targets health professionals as conscious, reflexive, and transformative actors of intercultural interactions with culturally diverse patients.


Asunto(s)
Prestación de Atención de Salud/etnología , Personal de Salud/psicología , Disparidades en Atención de Salud/etnología , Servicios de Salud Materna , Racismo/etnología , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Barreras de Comunicación , Diversidad Cultural , Prestación de Atención de Salud/economía , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Salud Materna , México/etnología , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pobreza , Relaciones Profesional-Paciente , Estudios Retrospectivos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Adulto Joven
15.
Gerontologist ; 60(2): 239-249, 2020 02 24.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31774118

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Globally, obesity influences the risk of many major chronic diseases. Our study examines the association between individual nativity and neighborhood level concentration of immigrants with 10-year changes in weight, body mass index (BMI), and waist circumference (WC) among older Latinos. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: The Sacramento Area Latino Study on Aging (SALSA) is a population-based prospective study of community-dwelling older adults of Mexican origin (baseline ages 58-101 years). The primary outcome was repeated measures of weight over a 10-year period for 1,628 respondents. Nativity was defined by participants' reported place of birth (US-born or Latin American foreign born). Neighborhood immigrant concentration was measured as the percentage of foreign born at census tract level (2000 US Census). We used linear mixed models with repeated measures of weight, height, BMI, and WC as dependent variables (level 1), clustered within individuals (level 2) and neighborhood migrant concentration (level 3). RESULTS: Foreign born (FB) respondents had lower baseline weight than the US-born (mean, 160 vs. 171 lbs, p < .0001). Over time, weight differences between the FB and the US-born decreased by 1.7 lbs/5 years as US-born weight decreased more rapidly. We observed a significant interaction between individual nativity and neighborhood immigrant concentration (p = .012). We found similar patterns for BMI, but did not find statistically significant differences in WC trajectories. DISCUSSION AND IMPLICATIONS: Our study observed significant differences by foreign born vs. US nativity in baseline weight/BMI and in their trajectories over time. Additionally, we found weight/BMI differences in neighborhood immigrant concentration for the FB, but not for the US-born.


Asunto(s)
Envejecimiento/etnología , Composición Corporal , Obesidad/epidemiología , Características de la Residencia/estadística & datos numéricos , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Índice de Masa Corporal , California/etnología , Emigrantes e Inmigrantes/estadística & datos numéricos , Femenino , Hispanoamericanos/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Modelos Lineales , Masculino , Americanos Mexicanos/estadística & datos numéricos , México/etnología , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estudios Prospectivos , Circunferencia de la Cintura/etnología
16.
J Immigr Minor Health ; 22(1): 110-119, 2020 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30810968

RESUMEN

In Mexico, tattooed migrants face discrimination and are at high-risk of incarceration, thus, we assessed whether receiving laser tattoo removal affected the likelihood of incarceration. In 2015-2016, 89 adults ages ≥ 18 years with visible tattoos were recruited at a free-clinic to receive laser tattoo removal or assigned to the wait-list; all completed baseline and 6-month questionnaires. Overall, 97.8% of participants ever migrated to the USA. In multivariate analyses restricted to migrants (n = 87), those receiving laser tattoo removal [Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR) 0.27, 95% CI 0.07-0.89] and possessing a Mexican Voting card (AOR 0.14; 95% CI 0.03-0.58) were significantly less likely than wait-list participants to be incarcerated at 6-months. Previously incarcerated participants were significantly more likely to be incarcerated at follow-up. Tattoo removal may reduce incarceration among Mexican migrants. Future studies can assess other health and social benefits of tattoo removal for migrants/deportees returning to Mexico.


Asunto(s)
Terapia por Luz de Baja Intensidad/estadística & datos numéricos , Americanos Mexicanos/estadística & datos numéricos , Prisioneros/estadística & datos numéricos , Tatuaje/estadística & datos numéricos , Migrantes/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto , Factores de Edad , Femenino , Humanos , Relaciones Interpersonales , Láseres de Estado Sólido , Masculino , México/etnología , Persona de Mediana Edad , Factores Sexuales , Factores Socioeconómicos , Factores de Tiempo , Estados Unidos/epidemiología , Listas de Espera
17.
J Lesbian Stud ; 24(2): 77-93, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31258009

RESUMEN

Mainstream research on lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender Los Angeles (LA) has ignored Latinx queer communities until recently, and lesbian Latinas, particularly those who are migrants and/or refugees, have been especially marginalized. Building on scholarship and creative work by Chicana, Latina, women of color feminist, queer of color, and queer migration activists and scholars, this essay contributes to research on Mexican, Central American, and Latina lesbians in LA. In her research on sexually non-conforming Latinas, Katie L. Acosta argues that to better understand Latinas' sexualities in all their complexities, future scholarly work should address the pleasures and desires of Latina lesbians, as well as the quality and stability of the relationships they nurture in the borderlands. Building on queer migration research and using what Nan Alamilla Boyd and Horacio Roque Ramírez call "queer oral history," this article focuses on two everyday lesbians in LA whose stories add depth to our understandings of LA queer history and to the lives of queer migrants in the city. The narratives of Luna and Dulce, migrant lesbians from Mexico and Guatemala, respectively, provide a context for better understanding diverse experiences of migrant Latina lesbians in LA. Situating their lives within ongoing research on lesbian Latinas, this essay focuses on three themes-migration, leisure spaces, and family-to explore how these inform the women's everyday choices and shape their practices of freedom. Their stories and perspectives have been instrumental in enabling me to develop an interdisciplinary theoretical framework that I call "finding sequins in the rubble," through which we can recognize and understand how queer Latinx communities engage in processes of queer-world making and radical possibility through everyday acts of resilience and self-care in the midst of familial, institutional, and state violence.


Asunto(s)
Hispanoamericanos , Homosexualidad Femenina/etnología , Minorías Sexuales y de Género , Migrantes , Adulto , Femenino , Guatemala/etnología , Humanos , Los Angeles/etnología , México/etnología
18.
Pediatr Cardiol ; 41(1): 202-205, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31342117

RESUMEN

Pediatric cardiology and cardiovascular surgery have witnessed significant advancements over the last two decades. In spite of this progress, congenital heart disease (CHD) still remains as one of the major causes of death in infants and young children in the United States. Many patient-related and patient-independent factors influence the outcomes in patients with CHD, one of which is the geographical location. In the US-Mexico border, management and outcomes of patients with CHD are further complicated by additional problems stemming from complex interplay between two different health systems, and socioeconomic disparities. In this article, the authors evaluate the various interplaying factors and describe the difficulties facing the practicing pediatric cardiologists in a US-Mexico border city.


Asunto(s)
Cardiología/organización & administración , Prestación de Atención de Salud/organización & administración , Cardiopatías Congénitas/cirugía , Cardiología/legislación & jurisprudencia , Prestación de Atención de Salud/legislación & jurisprudencia , Cardiopatías Congénitas/economía , Humanos , Lactante , Cooperación Internacional , México/etnología , Texas
19.
Am J Health Promot ; 34(1): 15-24, 2020 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31455085

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: To determine whether group education is as effective as individual education in improving cervical cancer screening uptake along the US-Mexico border. DESIGN: Cluster randomized controlled study. SETTING: El Paso and Hudspeth Counties, Texas. PARTICIPANTS: Three hundred women aged 21 to 65 years, uninsured, due for a Pap test, no prior history of cervical cancer or hysterectomy. INTERVENTION: Theory-based, culturally appropriate program comprised of outreach, educational session, navigation services, and no-cost cervical cancer testing. MEASURES: Baseline, immediate postintervention, and 4-month follow-up surveys measured knowledge and theoretical constructs from the Health Belief Model, Theory of Reasoned Action, and the Social Cognitive Theory. ANALYSIS: Relative risk regression analyses to assess the effects of educational delivery mode on the uptake of screening. Mixed effect models to analyze changes in psychosocial variables. RESULTS: One hundred and fifty women assigned to each educational group; 99% Hispanic. Of all, 85.7% completed the follow-up survey. Differences in screening rate at follow-up were analyzed by education type. Overall screening rate at follow-up was 73.2%, no significant difference by education type (individual: 77.6%, group: 68.9% P = .124). Significant increases among group education at follow-up for knowledge, perceived susceptibility, perceived seriousness, and subjective norms and significant decrease for perceived benefits. CONCLUSION: This study provides evidence to support the effectiveness of group education to promote cervical cancer screening among vulnerable Hispanic women and offers an additional method to address cervical cancer disparities.


Asunto(s)
Competencia Cultural , Detección Precoz del Cáncer , Educación en Salud , Hispanoamericanos , Tamizaje Masivo , Área sin Atención Médica , Neoplasias del Cuello Uterino/etnología , Neoplasias del Cuello Uterino/prevención & control , Adulto , Anciano , Análisis por Conglomerados , Femenino , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Humanos , México/etnología , Persona de Mediana Edad , Texas , Adulto Joven
20.
Arch Womens Ment Health ; 23(3): 421-428, 2020 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31222621

RESUMEN

Few studies have examined the association between maternal and youth mental health among US Latinos, or its variation by nativity, country of origin, ethnic subgroup, and time in the mainland US. Using 2007-2014 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey data linking Latino youth (N = 15,686 aged 5-17 years) and their mothers, we estimated multivariate models of the relationship between probable maternal mental illness (a composite of measures) and youth mental health impairment (Columbia Impairment Scale). Children of mothers with probable mental illness were more than three times as likely to have impairment as children of mothers without mental illness (p < 0.01). In adjusted models, there was an 8.5-point (95% CI 5.1, 11.8) increased prevalence of child impairment associated with mother's probable mental illness among mainland US-born youth and mothers and a 6.0-point (95% CI 3.7, 8.3) increased prevalence among US-born youth of foreign/island-born mothers. There was no significant difference in the prevalence of youth impairment associated with maternal mental illness when both youth and mother were born outside of the mainland US. For the Puerto Rican subgroup, the association between maternal and youth mental health was greatest among island-born mothers and mainland US-born youth; for the Mexican subgroup, the link was strongest among US-born mothers and youth. While there were large point differences between those groups, the difference was not statistically significant. This study suggests a protective effect of island/foreign-born nativity on symptom association between Latino mothers and children. Considerations for future research and practice stemming from this finding are discussed.


Asunto(s)
Emigrantes e Inmigrantes/psicología , Hispanoamericanos/psicología , Trastornos Mentales/etnología , Salud Mental/etnología , Madres/psicología , Trastornos del Neurodesarrollo/etnología , Adolescente , Adulto , Niño , Preescolar , Grupos Étnicos/psicología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , México/etnología , Persona de Mediana Edad , Prevalencia , Puerto Rico/etnología , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Estados Unidos/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
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