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1.
Sci Total Environ ; 750: 141630, 2021 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33182171

RESUMEN

Exposure levels of neonicotinoids (NEO) in young children remain unknown, despite their widespread use and the plausible vulnerability of toddlers to environmental toxicants. Herein we aimed to clarify the exposure levels and sources of NEOs in young Japanese children. Disposable diapers were collected from 1036 children (16-23 months old) participating in an adjunct study of the Japan Environment and Children's Study between 2015 and 2016. Six NEOs and one metabolite in urine extracted from a diaper from each child were analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. A relative potency factor approach was used to assess the cumulative exposure to NEOs equivalent to dinotefuran levels (DINRPF). The 95th percentile urinary concentration of DINRPF was 157 µg/L and 380 µg/g creatinine (Cr). Receiver operating characteristic curve analyses for the propensity scores of the possible exposure-related factors revealed that the discriminatory powers determining whether Cr-adjusted and Cr-unadjusted DINRPF concentrations exceeding the 95th percentile values were higher for the amount of each foodstuff ingested on the survey day (areas under the curve were 0.62 and 0.75, respectively) than for the exposure-related behaviors (0.60 and 0.71, respectively) or for mothers' attitudes toward food selection and preparation (0.54 and 0.57, respectively). Use of a mosquito coil, insect repellent, and mothproof net for a screen door, and playing on a lawn were associated with increased urinary NEO levels (odds ratio [OR]: 2.0-2.9), while care about the child's nutritional balance by mothers reduced urinary NEO levels (OR: 0.23-0.41). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study that dealt with urinary concentrations and possible exposure sources of NEOs in a large number of young children. Attention to the children's behavior and diet might result in the reduction of a high exposure to NEOs in young children.


Asunto(s)
Insecticidas , Preescolar , Cromatografía Líquida de Alta Presión , Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales , Femenino , Humanos , Insecticidas/análisis , Japón , Madres , Neonicotinoides
2.
Texto & contexto enferm ; 29: e20180517, Jan.-Dec. 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermería | ID: biblio-1094554

RESUMEN

ABSTRACT Objective: to know how mothers affected by the Zika virus during pregnancy became aware on the diagnosis of Congenital Zika Virus Syndrome in their child and to understand the way in which the communication of the diagnosis was transmitted. Method: a qualitative approach study, with interpretative research, based on the Resilience, Stress, Adjustment and Family Adaptation Model. The research was conducted in a Specialized Rehabilitation Center in a city of Paraíba (Brazil), from June to November 2017, with 40 mothers of children with congenital Zika virus syndrome. The empirical material was produced from a semi-structured script developed by the researcher, related to the different phases and components of the adaptation and resilience process. The findings were submitted to content analysis. Results: two thematic categories were unveiled: The discovery of Congenital Zika Virus Syndrome: period of diagnosis and maternal expectations, and How to communicate the diagnosis: implications for the discovery of Congenital Zika Virus Syndrome. Conclusion: Communication of the diagnosis and professional conduct at the time of information play important roles in re-signifying the meaning of congenital malformation. The interaction established by the health professional and their posture are directly related to the satisfaction about the information received.


RESUMEN Objetivos: conocer de qué manera las madres afectadas por el virus del Zika se enteraron del diagnóstico del Síndrome Congénito del Virus del Zika en sus hijos, y determinar cómo se comunicó el diagnóstico. Método: estudio de enfoque cualitativo, con investigación interpretativa, fundamentado en el Modelo de Resiliencia, Estrés, Ajustes y Adaptación Familiar. La investigación se realizó en un Centro Especializado en Rehabilitación de un municipio da Paraíba (Brasil) entre junio y noviembre de 2017 con 40 madres de niños con el Síndrome Congénito del Virus del Zika. El material empírico se produjo a partir de un guión con carácter semiestructurado desarrollado por la investigadora, relacionado con las diferentes fases y componentes del proceso de adaptación y resiliencia. Los hallazgos se sometieron a análisis de contenido. Resultados: surgieron dos categorías temáticas: La detección del Síndrome Congénito del Virus del Zika: período del diagnóstico y expectativas maternas, y Cómo comunicar el diagnóstico: implicancias al momento de detectar el Síndrome Congénito del Virus del Zika. Conclusión: comunicar el diagnóstico y la conducta profesional al momento de dar la noticia tienen un peso importante en la resignificación del sentido de la malformación congénita. La interacción que establece el profesional de la salud y su postura están directamente relacionadas con el nivel de satisfacción con respecto a la información recibida.


RESUMO Objetivo: conhecer como as mães acometidas pelo Zika vírus na gestação souberam do diagnóstico da Síndrome Congênita do Zika vírus em seu(sua) filho(a) e apreender a forma com que a comunicação do diagnóstico foi transmitida. Método: estudo de abordagem qualitativa, com investigação interpretativa, fundamentado no Modelo de Resiliência, Estresse, Ajustamento e Adaptação Familiar. A pesquisa foi realizada em um Centro Especializado em Reabilitação de um município da Paraíba (Brasil), no período de junho a novembro de 2017, com 40 mães de crianças com a Síndrome Congênita do Zika vírus. O material empírico foi produzido a partir de um roteiro com caráter semiestruturado desenvolvido pela pesquisadora, relacionado com as diferentes fases e componentes do processo de adaptação e resiliência. Os achados foram submetidos à analise de conteúdo. Resultados: foram desveladas duas categorias temáticas: A descoberta da Síndrome Congênita do Zika vírus: período do diagnóstico e expectativas maternas, e A forma da comunicação do diagnóstico: implicações diante da descoberta da Síndrome Congênita do Zika vírus. Conclusão: a comunicação do diagnóstico e a conduta profissional no momento da informação possuem papéis importantes na ressignificação do sentido da malformação congênita. A interação estabelecida pelo profissional de saúde e sua postura estão diretamente relacionadas com a satisfação sobre a informação recebida.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Femenino , Salud de la Mujer , Virus Zika , Microcefalia , Madres , Sistema Único de Salud , Diagnóstico
3.
Prax Kinderpsychol Kinderpsychiatr ; 69(7): 625-642, 2020 Oct.
Artículo en Alemán | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33146086

RESUMEN

Parental Resolution of the Child's Disability Diagnosis in the Reaction to Diagnosis Interview (RDI) and Effects on the Play Interaction with the Child Examining 37 qualitative interviews with mothers and fathers of a child with intellectual disability it was observed that the emotions and traumatic experiences, associated with the child's diagnosis, still burden the relationship with the child even after several years, so that many affected cannot come to resolution. On the other hand, resolution of the diagnosis was indicated for 65 % of the parents, enabling them to reclaim lost space for building a relationship with their child. While these parents significantly more often report purposeless and responsive play interaction with their children, non-resolved parents still seem to be driven to counteract the disability by playing educational games or playing games, which promote the development. In a parallel music therapeutic study, the effects of parental resolution also are monitored in children's free play interaction: Children of resolved parents interact more often in a dialogic relationship, whereas children of non-resolved parents are less able to balance dyadic turn-taking and interaction control in free music play.


Asunto(s)
Niños con Discapacidad/psicología , Relaciones Padres-Hijo , Padres/psicología , Juego e Implementos de Juego/psicología , Niño , Emociones , Padre/psicología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Madres/psicología
4.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 92(4): e20201292, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33146238

RESUMEN

Since the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic, publications have highlighted the disproportionate impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on academic mothers, mostly focusing on the impact of social distancing and quarantine. A few months later, despite the lack of effective vaccines or therapeutics in sight, many economic activities are being resumed. Nurseries and schools are expected to be among the latest to reopen, which will amplify the impacts of the pandemic on academic mothers. In this letter, we unwrap the pandemic impacts on academic mothers and describe a set of specific short-, medium- and long-term policies that, if implemented, could reduce setbacks for gender equality during the pandemic and can help to level the playing field for academic mothers.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus , Madres , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral , Betacoronavirus , Brasil , Femenino , Humanos
5.
Rev Infirm ; 69(264): 30-32, 2020 Oct.
Artículo en Francés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33129474

RESUMEN

World Breastfeeding Week is held every year from 1-7 August to promote breastfeeding as a way to make infants around the world healthier. In French Guiana, caregivers work within a network to support this approach with young mothers, as evidenced by a midwife who has worked for several years on site, particularly in remote prevention and health centres and at the Kourou Hospital Centre.


Asunto(s)
Prioridades en Salud , Madres , Salud Pública , Lactancia Materna , Femenino , Guyana Francesa , Hospitales , Humanos , Lactante
6.
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 54(10): 1111-1114, 2020 Oct 06.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33131229

RESUMEN

Objective: To investigate cytomegalovirus detoxification and associated factors among preschool children in Yinan County, Shandong Province. Methods: Two kindergartens were selected from the county and township of Yinan respectively. A total of 250 children were investigated in October 2018. Case information was obtained through the child's guardian. Saliva samples of children and their mothers were collected for cytomegalovirus realtime-PCR detection.The status of CMV detoxification of children was explored and the associated factors were analyzed. Results: A total of 242 preschool children were investigated, and the detoxification rate of cytomegalovirus among them was 22.31% (54/242, 95%CI: 17.0%-27.6%). Logistic regression analysis showed that the rate of detoxification was higher in children whose mothers were cytomegalovirus detoxified (OR=12.39, 95%CI:1.73-88.65)and whose school was located in the county (OR=3.58, 95%CI:1.34-9.55). Conclusions: The detoxification rate of cytomegalovirus in preschool children is high, and there is mutual transmission between children and mothers. Women of childbearing age should pay attention to prevent congenital cytomegalovirus infection when they come into contact with children.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Citomegalovirus , Citomegalovirus , Preescolar , Citomegalovirus/genética , Infecciones por Citomegalovirus/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Lactante , Madres , Reacción en Cadena en Tiempo Real de la Polimerasa , Saliva
7.
Wiad Lek ; 73(9 cz. 2): 1895-1899, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33148830

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: The aim: To determine the morphometric parameters of the parenchymal and stromal liver components of healthy newborns. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Material and methods: The morphometric investigation included 45 liver tissue biopsies of healthy newborns. All morphometric parameters of the parenchymal and stromal liver components were calculated using the Avtandilov microscopic morphometric grid. It was inserted into the microscope ocular tube with a total × 200 microscope magnification. The number of points that were found on the corresponding types of parenchymal and stromal liver components was calculated. In every case, it was selected 10 random microscopic areas and then all data were obtained, calculated and presented as percentages. RESULTS: Results: Morphometric parameters of hepatocytes: mononuclear hepatocytes - 93.5±7.1 %, two-nuclear hepatocytes - 6.5±1.2 %, BMHC (bi-/mononuclear hepatocytes coefficient) - 0.06±0.01, hepatocytes with fat vacuoles - 0.5±0.2 %. Parenchymal and stromal liver components: parenchyma - 74.2±4.3 %, stroma (including blood vessels and bile ducts) - 25.8±2.6 %, SPI (stroma/parenchyma index) - 0.34±0.01. Morphometric parameters of all of the liver components: hepatocytes - 74.2±4.3 %, portal tracts - 3.1±0.6 %, central veins - 9.3±1.4 %, sinusoids - 10.5±1.3 %, bile ducts - 2.9±0.2 %. Expression level parameters: fibronectin - 17.3±2.5 %, collagen type I - 9.7±1.9 %, collagen type III - 10.1±0.9 %, collagen type IV - 5.9±0.2 %. Parameters of liver fibrosis biomarkers: APRI (index) - 0.19±0.01, а FIB-4 (index) - 0.022±0.001. CONCLUSION: Conclusions: The morphometric parameters of the parenchymal and stromal liver components of healthy newborns can be used as a control group in the study of any pathological conditions of the liver of newborns.


Asunto(s)
Tejido Conectivo , Madres , Femenino , Hepatocitos , Humanos , Recién Nacido , Cirrosis Hepática , Embarazo
8.
BMC Med ; 18(1): 347, 2020 11 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33143711

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Evidence concerning the long-term impact of Covid-19 in pregnancy on mother's psychological disorder and infant's developmental delay is unknown. METHODS: This study is a longitudinal single-arm cohort study conducted in China between May 1 and July 31, 2020. Seventy-two pregnant patients with Covid-19 participated in follow-up surveys until 3 months after giving birth (57 cases) or having abortion (15 cases). We collected data from medical records regarding Covid-19, delivery or abortion, testing results of maternal and neonatal specimens, and questionnaires of quarantine, mother-baby separation, feeding, and measuring of mothers' mental disorders and infants' neurobehavioral disorders. RESULTS: All cases infected in the first trimester and 1/3 of cases infected in the second trimester had an abortion to terminate the pregnancy. 22.2% of pregnant patients were suffering from post-traumatic stress disorder or depression at 3 months after delivery or induced abortion. Among 57 live births, only one neonate was positive of nucleic acid testing for throat swab, but negative in repeated tests subsequently. The median duration of mother-baby separation was 35 days (interquartile range 16 to 52 days). After the termination of maternal quarantine, 49.1% of mothers chose to prolong the mother-baby separation (median 8 days; IQR 5 to 23 days). The breastfeeding rate was 8.8% at 1 week after birth, 19.3% at the age of 1 month, and 36.8% at the age of 3 months, respectively. The proportion of "monitoring" and "risk" in the social-emotional developmental domain at the age of 3 months was 22.7% and 63.6%, respectively. After the adjustment of preterm, neonatal sex, admitted to NICU, and the mother's Covid-19 condition, the negative associations were significantly identified (p < 0.05) between mother-baby separation days and three developmental domains: communication, gross motor, and personal-social. CONCLUSIONS: There is no definite evidence on vertical transmission of SARS-CoV-2. In addition to control infection risk, researchers and healthcare providers should pay more attention to maternal mental health and infant's feeding, closeness with parents, and early development.


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus , Desarrollo Infantil , Infecciones por Coronavirus/psicología , Conducta del Lactante/psicología , Transmisión Vertical de Enfermedad Infecciosa , Neumonía Viral/psicología , Complicaciones Infecciosas del Embarazo/psicología , Adulto , Desarrollo Infantil/fisiología , China/epidemiología , Estudios de Cohortes , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/transmisión , Femenino , Estudios de Seguimiento , Humanos , Lactante , Conducta del Lactante/fisiología , Recién Nacido , Estudios Longitudinales , Masculino , Madres/psicología , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/transmisión , Embarazo , Complicaciones Infecciosas del Embarazo/epidemiología , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
10.
Rev Med Suisse ; 16(712): 2050-2054, 2020 Oct 28.
Artículo en Francés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33112519

RESUMEN

Mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) is almost inexistent in Switzerland nowadays. This success has been achieved with systematic screening of HIV in pregnant women, provision of antiretroviral treatment (ART), elective cesarean-section (CS), neonatal antiretroviral prophylaxis (ARP) and avoidance of breastfeeding. Elective CS and neonatal ARP are no longer recommended when the viral load (VL) is suppressed. Recent studies have shown that the risk of HIV MTCT through breastfeeding is extremely rare if not zero when the mother is treated, has a suppressed VL and is correctly followed-up. It is time to be open to discuss the risks and benefits of breastfeeding with HIV-infected pregnant women and to enter in a shared decision-making process, as recommended by the new Swiss guidelines. Close monitoring is mandatory in case of breastfeeding.


Asunto(s)
Lactancia Materna , Infecciones por VIH/prevención & control , Infecciones por VIH/transmisión , Transmisión Vertical de Enfermedad Infecciosa/prevención & control , Complicaciones Infecciosas del Embarazo/tratamiento farmacológico , Fármacos Anti-VIH/uso terapéutico , Lactancia Materna/efectos adversos , Femenino , Infecciones por VIH/diagnóstico , Infecciones por VIH/tratamiento farmacológico , Humanos , Madres/estadística & datos numéricos , Embarazo , Complicaciones Infecciosas del Embarazo/diagnóstico , Suiza/epidemiología
11.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 41(9): 1527-1530, 2020 Sep 10.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33076612

RESUMEN

Objective: To evaluate the association between parental alcohol use and alcohol use in children and adolescents in China and provide scientific evidence for the prevention and control of alcohol use in children and adolescents. Methods: A total of 2 785 children and adolescents aged 8-17 years selected through convenient cluster sampling from urban area of Ji'nan, Shandong province were recruited. A standardized questionnaire was used to collect information about alcohol use from the participants and their parents. Multivariable logistic regression model was used to analyze the association between parental alcohol use and alcohol use in children and adolescents. Results: The prevalence of alcohol use in children and adolescents, fathers and mothers were 11.2% (n=311), 58.6%(n=1 633), and 7.3%(n=204), respectively. Compared with children and adolescents with fathers who did not drink, those with fathers who drunk frequently (OR=1.36, 95%CI: 1.03-1.80) and abused alcohol (OR=2.09, 95%CI: 1.44-3.05) were more likely to drink alcohol. Compared with children and adolescents with mothers who did not drink, those with mothers who drunk frequently were also more likely to drink alcohol (OR=2.72, 95%CI: 1.89-3.91). Compared with children and adolescents with parents who did not drink, those with either of parents who drunk frequently (OR=1.58, 95%CI: 1.20-2.09), or with both parents who drunk frequently (OR=4.12, 95%CI: 2.73-6.20) were more likely to use alcohol. In subgroup analyses by sex and age, the results in boys and adolescents aged 13-17 years were similar with the overall results. However, father's alcohol abuse or frequent drinking of both father and mother was associated with alcohol use in girls and children aged 8-12 years. Conclusions: Parental alcohol use might be one important influencing factor of alcohol use in children and adolescents. Parental alcohol use should be considered in the establishment of the strategies for prevention and control alcohol use in children and adolescents.


Asunto(s)
Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas , Padres , Adolescente , Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/epidemiología , Niño , China/epidemiología , Padre , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Madres
12.
Afr J AIDS Res ; 19(3): 231-241, 2020 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33119456

RESUMEN

Research on adolescent sexuality, health and parenting has gained much attention in recent years. This growing body of research, however, has arguably limited qualitative outputs on HIV-positive adolescent mothers' sexual and reproductive health choices, needs, and rights in South Africa that could lead to informed policymaking. Through in-depth interviews conducted with a select group of ten HIV-positive adolescents and three key informants, the article explores the sexual, motherhood, risk discourses and reproductive health issues and rights of HIV-positive adolescent mothers as they come to terms with choices they have made and the challenges ahead. The findings highlight the dominant narratives on what are deemed to be the forces that shape these adolescent mothers' new social realities. With existing policies in place for adolescents, it is argued that a "one-size-fits-all" policy approach does not work, especially for HIV-positive adolescent mothers. Drawing on this identified gap and the tensions between individual needs, and the public welfare provision, the article highlights the need for tailored policy that will accommodate and promote the overall well-being of HIV-positive adolescent mothers and their children.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por VIH/psicología , Mentores , Madres/psicología , Grupo Paritario , Adolescente/legislación & jurisprudencia , Femenino , Infecciones por VIH/epidemiología , Humanos , Mentores/legislación & jurisprudencia , Madres/legislación & jurisprudencia , Narración , Formulación de Políticas , Salud Reproductiva , Conducta Sexual , Sudáfrica/epidemiología
13.
Nervenarzt ; 91(11): 1069-1079, 2020 Nov.
Artículo en Alemán | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33104818

RESUMEN

Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) are a common cause of a congenital developmental disability acquired in the womb due to alcohol consumption by the mother during pregnancy. The physical and mental consequences persist into adulthood. The 4­digit code is an evidence-based method for diagnosing the full spectrum of outcomes, i.e. the full picture of fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS), partial fetal alcohol syndrome (pFAS), alcohol-related neurodevelopmental disorder (ARND) and alcohol-related birth defects (ARBD). The four key diagnostic features are (1) growth disorder, (2) facial dysmorphia, (3) central nervous system (CNS) structural and functional abnormalities and (4) prenatal alcohol exposure. Even if the disorder cannot be cured, supportive therapeutic interventions can improve the quality of life and independence and psychiatric comorbidities can be treated.


Asunto(s)
Trastornos del Espectro Alcohólico Fetal , Efectos Tardíos de la Exposición Prenatal , Adulto , Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas , Femenino , Trastornos del Espectro Alcohólico Fetal/diagnóstico , Trastornos del Espectro Alcohólico Fetal/epidemiología , Trastornos del Espectro Alcohólico Fetal/terapia , Humanos , Madres , Embarazo , Efectos Tardíos de la Exposición Prenatal/diagnóstico , Calidad de Vida
14.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 118(5): 306-312, oct 2020. tab
Artículo en Inglés, Español | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1122006

RESUMEN

Antecedentes. Los prematuros de muy bajo peso al nacer suelen generar estrés en sus madres, que puede persistir más de seis meses luego del nacimiento. Este trastorno se denomina estrés postraumático crónico (EPTC).Objetivo. Detectar frecuencia y síntomas del EPTC en madres de prematuros de muy bajo peso al nacer menores de 32 semanas de gestación.Métodos. Estudio transversal, mediante una encuesta voluntaria autoadministrada a madres con embarazo único. Se empleó la Escala de trauma de Davidson.Resultados. Se realizaron 172 encuestas; se eliminaron 26 incompletas. De 146 madres incorporadas, 64 (el 44 %) presentaron estrés. Las madres con EPTC tuvieron un 46,8 % de prematuros nacidos < 28 semanas vs. un 31,7 % en madres sin EPTC (p: 0,032). Los prematuros con peso < 1000 g fueron más frecuentes en madres con EPTC, el 53 % vs. el 34 %en madres sin estrés(p: 0,011). No hubo diferencias entre grupos de madres en morbilidad neonatal (p: 0,072). La morbilidad grave fue más frecuente en madres con EPTC, el 44 %. vs. el 28 % (p: < 0,004). Las madres con menor escolaridad tuvieron EPTC significativamente mayor (p: 0,013). No hubo diferencias en la edad materna (p: 0,313), edad de los niños (p: 0,405) y días de hospitalización en la Unidad (p: 0,316).Conclusión. El 44 % de las madres de prematuros de muy bajo peso al nacer tuvieron EPTC, significativamente más frecuente en prematuros ≤ 28 semanas, con peso < 1000 g, morbilidad grave y menor escolaridad materna


Background. The birth of very low birth weight (VLBW) preterm infants causes stress in mothers, which may continue for over 6 months. This is called chronic post-traumatic stress disorder (CPTSD).Objective. To detect CPTSD frequency and symptoms among mothers of VLBW preterm infants born before 32 weeks of gestation.Methods. Cross-sectional cohort study in mothers using a survey based on the Davidson Trauma Scale.Results. A total of 172 surveys were administered but 146 were included; 82 (56 %) did not have stress symptoms, while 64 (44 %) had CPTSD. Mothers with CPTSD accounted for 46.8 % of preterm infants born at ≤ 28 weeks versus 31.7 % in those without CPTSD (p = 0.032). Preterm infants with a birth weight < 1000 g were significantly more frequent among mothers with CPTSD, 53 % versus 34 % among those without stress (p = 0.011). No differences were observed in neonatal morbidity (p = 0.072). Severe morbidity in preterm infants was significantly more common among those with CPTSD, 43.8 % versus 28 % (p ≤ 0.004).Mothers who had a lower education accounted significantly for more cases of CPTSD (p = 0.013). No significant differences were seen in maternal age (p = 0.313), children's age (p = 0.405), and length of stay (p = 0.316).Conclusion. Among the mothers of VLBW preterm infants, 44 % had CPTSD, and this was significantly more common among those who had preterm infants born at ≤28 weeks, a birth weight <1000 g, severe morbidity, and a lower level of education.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Femenino , Trastornos por Estrés Postraumático , Estrés Psicológico , Estudios Transversales , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Edad Materna , Recién Nacido de muy Bajo Peso , Madres/psicología
15.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 1559, 2020 Oct 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33066763

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Undernutrition among under five children in India is a major public health problem. Despite India's growth in the economy, the child mortality rate due to undernutrition is still high in both urban and rural areas. Studies that focus on urban slums are scarce. Hence the present study was carried out to assess the prevalence and determinants of undernutrition in children under five in Maharashtra, India. METHODS: A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted in 16 randomly selected clusters in two districts of Maharashtra state, India. Data were collected through house to house survey by interviewing mothers of under five children. Total 2929 mothers and their 3671 under five children were covered. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was carried out to identify the determinants of child nutritional status seperately in urban and rural areas. RESULTS: The mean age of the children was 2.38 years (±SD 1.36) and mean age of mothers was 24.25 years (± SD 6.37). Overall prevalence of stunting among children under five was 45.9%, wasting was 17.1 and 35.4% children were underweight. Prevalence of wasting, stunting and underweight were more seen in an urban slum than a rural area. In the rural areas exclusive breast feeding (p < 0.001) and acute diarrhea (p = 0.001) were associated with wasting, children with birth order 2 or less than 2 were associated with stunting and exclusive breast feeding (p < 0.05) and low maternal education were associated with underweight. Whereas in the urban slums exclusive breast feeding (p < 0.05) was associated with wasting, sex of the child (p < 0.05) and type of family (p < 0.05) were associated with stunting,and low income of the family (p < 0.05) was associated with underweight. CONCLUSIONS: Factors like sex of the child, birth order,exclusive breast feeding,economic status of the family, type of family,acute diarrhea and maternal education have influence on nutritional status of the child. Improvement of maternal education will improve the nutritional status of the child. Strategies are needed to improve the economic status of the community. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Trial registration number: CTRI/2017/12/010881 ; Registration date:14/12/2017. Retrospectively registered.


Asunto(s)
Trastornos de la Nutrición del Niño/epidemiología , Áreas de Pobreza , Población Rural/estadística & datos numéricos , Población Urbana/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto , Preescolar , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , India/epidemiología , Lactante , Masculino , Madres/estadística & datos numéricos , Prevalencia , Factores de Riesgo , Factores Socioeconómicos
16.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(39): 1385-1390, 2020 Oct 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33001877

RESUMEN

Homicide is the 13th leading cause of death among infants (i.e., children aged <1 year) in the United States (1). Infant homicides occurring within the first 24 hours of life (i.e., neonaticide) are primarily perpetrated by the mother, who might be of young age, unmarried, have lower educational attainment, and is most likely associated with concealment of an unintended pregnancy and nonhospital birthing (2). After the first day of life, infant homicides might be associated with other factors (e.g., child abuse and neglect or caregiver frustration) (2). A 2002 study of the age variation in homicide risk in U.S. infants during 1989-1998 found that the overall infant homicide rate was 8.3 per 100,000 person-years, and on the first day of life was 222.2 per 100,000 person-years, a homicide rate at least 10 times greater than that for any other time of life (3). Because of this period of heightened risk, by 2008 all 50 states* and Puerto Rico had enacted Safe Haven Laws. These laws allow a parent† to legally surrender an infant who might otherwise be abandoned or endangered (4). CDC analyzed infant homicides in the United States during 2008-2017 to determine whether rates changed after nationwide implementation of Safe Haven Laws, and to examine the association between infant homicide rates and state-specific Safe Haven age limits. During 2008-2017, the overall infant homicide rate was 7.2 per 100,000 person-years, and on the first day of life was 74.0 per 100,000 person-years, representing a 66.7% decrease from 1989-1998. However, the homicide rate on first day of life was still 5.4 times higher than that for any other time in life. No obvious association was found between infant homicide rates and Safe Haven age limits. States are encouraged to evaluate the effectiveness of their Safe Haven Laws and other prevention strategies to ensure they are achieving the intended benefits of preventing infant homicides. Programs and policies that strengthen economic supports, provide affordable childcare, and enhance and improve skills for young parents might contribute to the prevention of infant homicides.


Asunto(s)
Maltrato a los Niños/legislación & jurisprudencia , Niño Abandonado/legislación & jurisprudencia , Homicidio/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto , Femenino , Homicidio/prevención & control , Humanos , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Masculino , Madres/estadística & datos numéricos , Riesgo , Factores Socioeconómicos , Estados Unidos/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
17.
Psychiatr Danub ; 32(Suppl 3): 360-363, 2020 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33030453

RESUMEN

The establishment of the United Nations after World War II raised hopes of a new era of peace. This was over-optimistic. Between 1945 and 1992, there were 149 major wars, killing more than 23 million people. Recent developments in warfare have significantly heightened the dangers for children. During the last decade child war victims have included: 2 million killed; 4-5 million disabled; 12 million left homeless; more than 1 million orphaned or separated from their parents; some 10 million psychologically traumatized. Researches indicate that children do develop PTSD after experiencing very stressful, life-threatening events such as happen in war. Wars of 21st century are often guerrilla-type civil wars in which women and children are not only the main victims, but are deliberately targeted. Thousands are displaced both internally and across borders. Wars at the end of nineties of 20th century in the region of ex Yugoslavian countries brought all the cruelty of war vivid again on European ground. Population were exposed to death, threatened death, actual or threatened serious injury, or actual or threatened sexual violence. During the War in Bosnia and Herzegovina 1992-1995 there were about 100 000 people killed (20% woman and 3.5% children) and about 18 000 children were orphaned because of war. Children are not capable to regulate their emotions and hyper-arousal on their own. It depends of the way how their parents (caretaker) regulate her/his own emotions. During the war weak child's ego is paralyzed with intensive stimuli and floating anxiety, it does not manage to make constructive solution for traumatic experiences in such a short time. Mothers with small children are especially vulnerable group during the war time: they are supposed to take care about children and feel happiness, what is almost impossible Severe war experiences could cause depressive symptoms in mothers, what reduce their emotional disposability and could lead in different form of the child's neglecting. PTSD symptoms were lasting longer in children if their mothers have had functioning problems. Traumatization of mothers is connected with different behavior problems in their children. Wars are continuing all over the world and there is a continuity of researches about their consequences on children. Any programs that intend to mitigate the psychological effects of such trauma need to adopt a public health approach aimed at reaching many thousands.


Asunto(s)
Trastornos por Estrés Postraumático/epidemiología , Guerra/psicología , Guerra/estadística & datos numéricos , Bosnia y Herzegovina/epidemiología , Niño , Humanos , Madres/psicología , Problema de Conducta , Trastornos por Estrés Postraumático/psicología , Violencia/psicología , Violencia/estadística & datos numéricos , Heridas Relacionadas con la Guerra/epidemiología , Heridas Relacionadas con la Guerra/psicología
18.
Psychiatr Danub ; 32(Suppl 3): 367-370, 2020 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33030455

RESUMEN

Although family should be the basis for the development and formation of a child's personality, violence is mostly done in the family, and remains undiscovered for a long time. The real number of abused children is much more than that displayed in the registered cases. The secrecy of the problem is an important feature of this phenomenon. Families in which abuse takes place are mostly isolated. Social isolation does not come about by chance; secrecy is usually encouraged by an abuser to control over famoly members. In most cases, social reaction to violence is late, inadequate and focused on the consequences, but not on the causes. "Abuse implies an act of execution that directly inflicts damage, while neglect implies an act of non-fulfillment of something that is necessary for the well-being of a child". The most common forms of domestic violence are physical, emotional abuse in the presence of violence against the mother, and in a lesser extent sexual abuse. In addition, there is physical, emotional, educational and medical neglect. The presence of violence against the mother and the feeling of impotence leave the same consequences as the endured violence. It is considered that children living in violent families are likely to live under cumulative stress. Traumatic responses include a wide range of conditions from acute stress reactions through post-traumatic stress disorder to complex long-lasting, repeated trauma syndrome. All children will not react to this kind of experience in the same way, with the protective and risk factors in developmental psychopathology having a significant role to play. Because of their developmental vulnerability and dependency, children are at greater risk of violence than adults. Researches point to the need for a multidisciplinary approach to treatment and prevention of child abuse, with greater interaction between health institutions, relevant centers for social work, police, court, government and non-governmental sector, and the existence of adequate family and criminal laws.


Asunto(s)
Maltrato a los Niños/psicología , Violencia Doméstica/psicología , Trauma Psicológico/psicología , Adulto , Niño , Maltrato a los Niños/legislación & jurisprudencia , Maltrato a los Niños/prevención & control , Maltrato a los Niños/terapia , Violencia Doméstica/legislación & jurisprudencia , Violencia Doméstica/prevención & control , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Madres/psicología , Trauma Psicológico/prevención & control , Trauma Psicológico/terapia , Factores de Riesgo , Instituciones Académicas , Trastornos por Estrés Postraumático/prevención & control , Trastornos por Estrés Postraumático/psicología , Trastornos por Estrés Postraumático/terapia
19.
Rev Lat Am Enfermagem ; 28: e3364, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33027402

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: to analyze the relationship between maternal self-efficacy to breastfeed and sociodemographic, obstetric, and neonatal variables; between the duration of exclusive breastfeeding and sociodemographic variables; and between the breastfeeding self-efficacy and the duration of exclusive breastfeeding at the intervals of 30, 60, and 180 days postpartum. METHOD: a longitudinal and prospective study conducted with 224 women. A sociodemographic questionnaire, the Breastfeeding Self-Efficacy Scale - Short Form, and a questionnaire on breastfeeding and child feeding were used for collecting the data. Fisher's exact test and Pearson's correlation coefficient test were used for analysis. RESULTS: there was no association between breastfeeding self-efficacy and the duration of exclusive breastfeeding identified at 30, 60, and 180 days. Self-efficacy was associated with the type of delivery and complications in the postpartum period. There was also an association between religion and exclusive breastfeeding 30 and 60 days postpartum, and assistance with baby care and exclusive breastfeeding at 60 days. CONCLUSION: It was identified that the type of delivery, complications in the postpartum period, religion, and assistance with baby care corroborate to increase maternal confidence in the ability to breastfeed.


Asunto(s)
Lactancia Materna , Autoeficacia , Adulto , Niño , Femenino , Humanos , Madres , Periodo Posparto , Embarazo , Estudios Prospectivos
20.
BMC Psychol ; 8(1): 107, 2020 Oct 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33076981

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Professional support to enhance the early parent-infant relationship in the first months after birth is recommended, but little is known about the effect of universal interventions. The objective was to investigate the effect of health visitors' use of the Newborn Behavioral Observations system in new families. METHODS: A cluster-randomised study was conducted in four Danish municipalities. Health visitors' geographical districts constituted the units for randomisation (n = 17). In the intervention group, 1332 families received NBO from 3 weeks after birth; in the comparison group, 1234 received usual care. Self-administered questionnaires were collected at baseline one to two weeks after birth, and at follow-up three and nine months postpartum. The outcomes were change over time measured by The Karitane Parenting Confidence Scale (KPCS), The Major Depression Inventory (MDI), The Ages and Stages Questionnaire: social-emotional (ASQ:SE) and The Mother and Baby Interaction Scale (MABIC). Data were analysed with mixed-effects linear regression using the intention-to-treat approach. RESULTS: At baseline, no significant differences between the two groups were seen regarding maternal and infant factors. At follow-up three and nine months after birth, the change in maternal confidence and mood, infant's socio-emotional behaviour, and early parent-infant relationship moved in a slightly more positive direction in the intervention group than in the comparison group, though not statistically significant. The only significant effect was that the intervention mothers reported higher level of knowledge about infant's communication skills, response to cues, and how to sooth and establish a relation with the infant, compared to the comparison group. CONCLUSIONS: We found no effect of the NBO system delivered in a universal context to all families in a community setting. The only significant difference between groups was a higher maternal degree of knowledge regarding early parenting in the intervention group. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov ID: NCT03070652 . Registrated February 22, 2017.


Asunto(s)
Técnicas de Observación Conductual , Responsabilidad Parental/psicología , Psicología Infantil , Adulto , Femenino , Humanos , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Masculino , Relaciones Madre-Hijo/psicología , Madres/psicología
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