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1.
Nutrients ; 15(2)2023 Jan 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36678303

RESUMEN

Prenatal health is important for both mother and child. Additionally, the offspring's development is affected by the mother's diet. The aim of this study was to assess whether a Clinical Decision Support System (CDSS) can improve adherence to the Mediterranean diet in early pregnancy and whether this change is accompanied by changes in nutritional status and psychological parameters. We designed a three month randomised controlled clinical trial which was applied to 40 healthy pregnant women (20 in the CDSS and 20 in the control group). Medical history, biochemical, anthropometric measurements, dietary, and a psychological distress assessment were applied before and at the end of the intervention. Pregnant women in the CDSS group experienced a greater increase in adherence to the Mediterranean diet, as assessed via MedDietScore, in the first trimester of their pregnancy compared to women in the control group (p < 0.01). Furthermore, an improved nutritional status was observed in pregnant women who were supported by CDSS. Anxiety and depression levels showed a greater reduction in the CDSS group compared to the control group (p = 0.048). In conclusion, support by a CDSS during the first trimester of pregnancy may be beneficial for the nutritional status of the mother, as well as for her anxiety and depression status.


Asunto(s)
Sistemas de Apoyo a Decisiones Clínicas , Dieta Mediterránea , Femenino , Humanos , Embarazo , Madres , Estado Nutricional , Mujeres Embarazadas
2.
BMC Pediatr ; 23(1): 31, 2023 Jan 19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36658521

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Sudden Unexpected Infant Deaths (SUID) can occur between 1 month and 1 year of age and are inequitably distributed with a greater burden in populations with numerous health disparities. Modifying the infant sleep environment to promote safe sleep is the most effective risk reduction strategy to reduce SUID. The provision of baby boxes with a mattress and infant supplies has been part of a larger anti-poverty social justice maternity package for decades in Finland. While infant mortality rates have generally improved after the maternity package was introduced, little is known about whether the provision of the baby box increased safe sleep practices. The purpose of the study was to evaluate whether the provision of a Finnish-style baby box reinforced safe infant sleep practice in the home in a low-resource community in Ecuador. METHODS: In this longitudinal randomized controlled trial all participants received the same safe sleep education in their third trimester of pregnancy (n = 100). This was followed by randomization into two groups; the control received a diaper bag and newborn gifts, and the intervention group received a baby box and the same gifts at each timepoint. Four infant sleep practices (room sharing, bed sharing/co-sleeping, position, and soft items in the sleep environment) were assessed at 1 month and 1 months post-delivery during a home visit where safe sleep education was also reinforced with both groups. RESULTS: Those in the baby box group were 2.5 times more likely to report safe sleep practices compared with mothers in the diaper bag group at 1 month (odds ratio [OR] = 2.45 and 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.03-5.86; χ2 = 4.1, p = .043). The group difference was also present at 6-months post-birth: those in the baby box group were 2.9 times more likely to report safe sleep practices compared with those in the diaper bag group (OR = 2.86 and 95% CI: 1.16-7.05; χ2 = 5.2, p = .022). CONCLUSIONS: While not all participants used the box regularly, the mothers who received the box were more likely to practice safe sleep at 1 month and 6 months. This suggests the baby box may have served as an important prompt towards safer infant sleep practice. TRIAL REGISTRATION: (Clinical Trial Registry, per clinicaltrials.gov : not applicable under 42 CFR 11.22(b) as the study Facility Location was not in the United States (took place in Ecuador), does not involve FDA IND or IDE, and does not involve a drug, biological or device product that is manufactured in and exported from the US for study in another country. The University of San Francisco Quito, Research Ethics Committee in Human Beings approved the study, #2017- 127 M. The University of Kentucky Office of Research Integrity also approved the study, IRB # 42965).


Asunto(s)
Muerte Súbita del Lactante , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Niño , Humanos , Femenino , Estados Unidos , Embarazo , Ecuador , Muerte Súbita del Lactante/prevención & control , Madres , Sueño , Mortalidad Infantil , Cuidado del Lactante
3.
J Health Popul Nutr ; 42(1): 4, 2023 Jan 19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36658658

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Inequalities in child feeding practices are evident in urban slums in developing nations. Our study identified the determinants of complementary feeding (CF) practices in the informal settings of Pune, India, a district close to the business capital of India. METHODS: Employing a cross-sectional study design, 1066 mother-children dyads were surveyed. Five indicators defined by the WHO were used to study complementary feeding practices. Determinants of complementary feeding practices were identified using multivariate analyses. RESULTS: Timely initiation of CF was reported by 42%. Minimum acceptable diet (MAD), minimum meal frequency (MMF), and Diet Diversity Score > 4 were achieved by 14.9%, 76.5%, and 16.4%, respectively. Continued breastfeeding (CBF) at 2 years, and feeding processed foods were practiced by 94% and 50%, respectively. Among the maternal characteristics, a mother's age > 30 years at pregnancy was less likely to achieve DD [AOR: 0.195 (CI 0.047-0.809)] and MAD [AOR: 0.231 (CI 0.056-0.960)]. Mothers with lower education were less likely to meet MMF [AOR: 0.302 (0.113-0.807)], MAD [AOR: 0.505 (CI 0.295-0.867)] and to introduce formula feeds (FF) [AOR: 0.417 (0.193- 0.899)]. Among obstetric characteristics, birth spacing < 33 months was less likely to achieve DD [AOR: 0.594 (CI 0.365-0.965)] and CBF [AOR: 0.562 (CI: 0.322-0.982)]. Receiving IYCF counseling only during postnatal care hindered the timely initiation of CF [AOR: 0.638 (0.415-0.981)]. Very Low Birth Weight increased the odds of achieving DD [AOR: 2.384 (1.007-5.644)] and MAD [AOR: 2.588(CI: 1.054-6.352)], while low birth weight increased the odds of children being introduced to processed foods [AOR: 1.370 (CI: 1.056-1.776)]. Concerning socio-economic status, being above the poverty line increased the odds of achieving MMF, [AOR: 1.851 (1.005-3.407)]. Other backward castes showed higher odds of achieving MAD [AOR: 2.191 (1.208-3.973)] and undisclosed caste in our study setting decreased the odds of FF [AOR: 0.339 (0.170-0.677)]. Bottle feeding interfered with MMF [AOR: 0.440 (0.317-0.611)] and CBF [AOR: 0.153 (0.105-0.224)]. CONCLUSION: Investing in maternal education and IYCF counseling during both ANC and PNC to provide nutritious complementary foods alongside addressing poverty should be a national priority to prevent the double burden of undernutrition at an early age in informal settings.


Asunto(s)
Conducta Alimentaria , Áreas de Pobreza , Lactante , Femenino , Embarazo , Humanos , Estudios Transversales , India , Fenómenos Fisiológicos Nutricionales del Lactante , Lactancia Materna , Madres/psicología , Dieta
4.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36674072

RESUMEN

Low Birth weight (LBW) infants pose a serious public health concern worldwide in both the short and long term for infants and their mothers. Infant weight prediction prior to birth can help to identify risk factors and reduce the risk of infant morbidity and mortality. Although many Machine Learning (ML) algorithms have been proposed for LBW prediction using maternal features and produced considerable model performance, their performance needs to be improved so that they can be adapted in real-world clinical settings. Existing algorithms used for LBW classification often fail to capture structural information from the tabular dataset of patients with different complications. Therefore, to improve the LBW classification performance, we propose a solution by transforming the tabular data into a knowledge graph with the aim that patients from the same class (normal or LBW) exhibit similar patterns in the graphs. To achieve this, several features related to each node are extracted such as node embedding using node2vec algorithm, node degree, node similarity, nearest neighbors, etc. Our method is evaluated on a real-life dataset obtained from a large cohort study in the United Arab Emirates which contains data from 3453 patients. Multiple experiments were performed using the seven most commonly used ML models on the original dataset, graph features, and a combination of features, respectively. Experimental results show that our proposed method achieved the best performance with an area under the curve of 0.834 which is over 6% improvement compared to using the original risk factors without transforming them into knowledge graphs. Furthermore, we provide the clinical relevance of the proposed model that are important for the model to be adapted in clinical settings.


Asunto(s)
Recién Nacido de Bajo Peso , Madres , Recién Nacido , Embarazo , Femenino , Humanos , Lactante , Estudios de Cohortes , Peso al Nacer , Parto
5.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36674168

RESUMEN

The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between the altitude of residence and the low birth weight (LBW) of the children of pregnant Peruvian women using a nationally representative database. An analysis of individual-level data from the last 13 years (from 2009 to 2021) of the Demographic and Family Health Survey was performed. The outcome variable was LBW, defined as birth weight less than 2500 g, while the independent variable was the altitude of residence in meters above sea level (masl). To estimate the association between the two variables, the crude and adjusted generalized linear model of the Poisson family with a log link was used along with crude and adjusted prevalence ratios, which were estimated with their respective 95% confidence interval. A total of 151,873 women aged 15-49 years were included between 2009 and 2021. The pooled proportion of LBW was 7.0%. As the main finding, the children of mothers residing at an altitude from 2500 to 3499 masl and ≥3500 masl had a higher probability of LBW. It was found that the children of mothers residing at an altitude above 2500 masl were more likely to have LBW. Our results will help to strengthen the cultural practice of maternal health care and increase its coverage in women residing in high-altitude regions.


Asunto(s)
Altitud , Recién Nacido de Bajo Peso , Recién Nacido , Embarazo , Humanos , Femenino , Niño , Perú/epidemiología , Peso al Nacer , Madres
6.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36674176

RESUMEN

Childhood overweight is a growing global public health challenge and is prevalent in many countries. We aimed at exploring the prevalence of childhood overweight and the association of maternal body mass index (BMI), maternal demographic factors, and child-related factors with childhood overweight among Kenyan children aged 0-59 months. This study utilized Kenya's 2014 demographic and health survey, which was based on national representative cross-sectional data. A total of 8316 children and their mothers' data were analyzed. Overweight in children and maternal BMI were defined using WHO standard criteria. Multivariate logistics regression models were used to study the association of maternal BMI and childhood overweight. Nationally 5% of Kenyan children aged 0-59 months are overweight (5.5% male vs. 3.8% female). The highest prevalence in overweight among children was found in Central region (6.9%) and lowest in North Eastern (3.1%) which could be explained by the various economic disparities. Maternal BMI with underweight was associated with lower odds (OR 0.30, 95% CI 0.14-0.64) whereas, overweight and obesity were associated with higher odds of overweight (OR for overweight 1.64, 95% CI 1.28-2.11 and OR for obesity 1.74, 95% CI 1.22-2.47) among their children compared to normal weight mothers. Overweight among children is of great concern and therefore initiatives to tackle both child and maternal health are urgently needed.


Asunto(s)
Sobrepeso , Obesidad Pediátrica , Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Índice de Masa Corporal , Sobrepeso/epidemiología , Obesidad Pediátrica/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Kenia/epidemiología , Madres , Prevalencia , Factores de Riesgo
7.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36674207

RESUMEN

Parenting children with disabilities has consistently been reported to be associated with stress, and even more so among mothers who are primary caregivers. In non-Western contexts such as the United Arab Emirates (UAE), there is a dearth of research on maternal mental health in relation to raising children with disabilities and related mitigation strategies. During the COVID-19 pandemic (2020-2021), the Federal Government of the UAE used the Save the Child's Stress Checklist to assess the stress levels of 635 mothers who were raising children with disabilities in the northern part of the country. In the pre-test, an estimated 6% (36/635) of the mothers were found to be experiencing high levels of stress. Consequently, virtual stress management training was conducted, and 12 of the 36 mothers completed the full training. Wilcoxon's ranked test showed a reduction in their total, physical, emotional and cognitive stress at the end of the training. This study demonstrates the pressing need for ongoing training programmes to improve the mental health of mothers of children with disabilities in the UAE and similar contexts.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Niños con Discapacidad , Niño , Femenino , Humanos , Emiratos Árabes Unidos/epidemiología , Pandemias , Madres/psicología
8.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36674268

RESUMEN

Exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) is not a norm in many communities in South Africa despite the World Health Organizations' recommendations for EBF in the first six months of infant's life. Thus, South Africa continues to observe suboptimal and poor practices of EBF. The purpose of the study was to explore the experiences of mothers who are HIV-positive and negative on EBF and examine the extent to which initiation and sustenance of EBF is influenced by cultural beliefs, societal norms, and family norms and practices in Mpumalanga Province. Three focus group discussions and twelve in-depth interviews were conducted among thirty mothers who were purposively selected during their visits to the facilities for childcare services. Interviews were audiotaped, transcribed verbatim, and transcripts were analysed through thematic analysis using NVivo version 10. Mothers were aged between 18 and 42 years, most were unemployed and were living in poor sociodemographic backgrounds in extended family households. We found evidence of factors that influence the decision to EBF and mix feed infants among mothers. Traditional and cultural beliefs and norms that exist within their communities informed decisions mothers took to EBF. These beliefs existed alongside mothers' opinions on breastfeeding (BF) and HIV infection, as well as the fears of harming the baby through HIV infection, leading to early cessation of BF. Mothers were also advised by family members, friends, and even some healthcare workers to use traditional medicines while BF. The association of EBF with sagging breasts and weight loss as well as discomfort with public BF are personal beliefs that influenced initiation and early cessation of EBF. Breastfeeding messages ought to be context specific to improve the knowledge, understanding, acceptance and practice of EBF among HIV-positive and negative mothers. Culturally appropriate counselling messages that address the known cultural practices of the populations affected are essential to changing the beliefs and norms of the communities including extended families of EBF mothers.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por VIH , Seropositividad para VIH , Lactante , Femenino , Humanos , Adolescente , Adulto Joven , Adulto , Lactancia Materna , Sudáfrica , Madres , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Sustento , Atención Primaria de Salud
9.
Nutrients ; 15(1)2023 Jan 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36615889

RESUMEN

Stunting remains a public health concern in developing countries. Factors related to stunting have been categorized using various frameworks. Family plays an important role in providing nutrients for children; however, no review specifies this aspect for identifying family characteristics related to stunting. This study aimed to identify family household characteristics related to stunting among children aged less than 5 years. A scoping review was undertaken with sources from PubMed, CINAHL, and Scopus, using the keywords "family characteristics" AND "growth". Inclusion criteria were (1) correlational study; (2) published between 2018 and 31 July 2022; (3) families with children under the age of 5 years; and (4) independent variable any measure of stunting factors from family and household factors. Of 376 articles, only 20 met the inclusion criteria of the study. The family household characteristics included individual factors (sex age, history of diarrhea, and birthplace), family factors (family headship, primary caregiver/mother, social-cultural orientation, and family system factors), and environmental factors. Various child variables, family factors, and environmental factors (the type of home, floor type, water access, source of drinking water, and household electricity) were identified as being associated with stunting. Therefore, these factors should be evaluated to prevent and control stunting, and they should be incorporated into health programs targeting stunting.


Asunto(s)
Trastornos del Crecimiento , Madres , Niño , Femenino , Humanos , Lactante , Trastornos del Crecimiento/epidemiología , Trastornos del Crecimiento/etiología , Trastornos del Crecimiento/prevención & control , Composición Familiar , Nutrientes , Salud Pública
10.
Nutrients ; 15(1)2023 Jan 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36615900

RESUMEN

There is rising concern about population mental health. Personality and mental health traits manifest early. Sufficient nutrition is fundamental to early development. However, little is known about early life dietary impact on later mental health. The aim of this study was to investigate associations of exposure to a healthy and sustainable antenatal and early childhood diet with personality traits and symptoms of depression and anxiety measured at 8 years of age. This study is based on the Norwegian Mother, Father and Child Cohort Study (MoBa) and uses data from the Medical Birth Registry of Norway (MBRN) including 40,566 participants. Mental health measures and personality traits were assessed at 8 years. Dietary data from pregnancy, child age 6 and 18 months and 3 and 7 years were used. With few exceptions, inverse associations were observed between healthier diet at all time points and depression and anxiety symptom scores at age 8. We found positive associations between diet scores at almost all time points and extraversion, benevolence, conscientiousness and imagination. Inverse associations were observed between diet scores and neuroticism. Combined, these findings underpin a probable impact of both maternal pregnancy diet and early childhood diet on several aspects of child mental health.


Asunto(s)
Salud Mental , Madres , Humanos , Niño , Femenino , Preescolar , Embarazo , Lactante , Masculino , Estudios de Cohortes , Madres/psicología , Dieta , Personalidad , Padre , Noruega/epidemiología
11.
PLoS One ; 18(1): e0280083, 2023.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36598928

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: To eliminate measles, which is a devastating contagious disease, Ethiopia introduced the measles-containing second dose vaccine (MCV2) that will be given in the second year of life. Despite its paramount benefit, the coverage was low worldwide and, in Ethiopia, there is scarce evidence on the geographic variations and factors associated with uptake of MCV2. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to explore the spatial variations and the individual and contextual factors of uptake of measles-containing second dose vaccine among children aged 24 to 35 months in Ethiopia. METHODS: We used the 2019 Ethiopian Mini Demographic and Health Survey data. A total weighted sample of 800 children aged 24 to 35 months was used. Multilevel analysis was employed and an adjusted odds ratio (AOR) with a 95% confidence interval (CI) was reported. Factors with a p-value<0.05 in the multivariable analysis were declared to be significant predictors of MCV2 uptake. To explore the spatial variations of MCV2 uptake, we have conducted spatial analysis using both Arc GIS version 10.7 and SaTScan version 9.6 software. RESULTS: The proportion of MCV2 uptake was 9.84% (95% CI: 7.96%, 12.11%). Children whose mothers were aged 20-34 years (AOR = 0.19; 95%CI: 0.05, 0.69) and 35-49 years (AOR = 0.21; 95%CI: 0.04, 0.90), being the 4th-5th child (AOR = 4.02; 95%CI: 1.45, 11.14) and 6th and above child (AOR = 4.12; 95%CI: 1.42, 13.05) and children who did not receive full childhood vaccinations (AOR = 0.44; 95%CI: 0.25, 0.77) were significantly associated with MCV2 uptake. Besides, MCV2 uptake was clustered in Ethiopia (Global Moran's I = 0.074, p-value <0.01). The primary cluster spatial window was detected in the Benishangul-Gumuz region with LLR = 10.05 and p = 0.011. CONCLUSION: The uptake of MCV2 in Ethiopia was low. Maternal age, birth order, and uptake of the other basic vaccines were associated with MCV2 uptake. Besides, MCV2 uptake was clustered in Ethiopia and the primary cluster spatial window was located in the Benishangul-Gumuz region. Therefore, special concern should be given to regions with lower MCV2 uptake such as the Benishangul-Gumuz region. Besides, it is better to give attention to basic vaccination programs.


Asunto(s)
Sarampión , Femenino , Humanos , Niño , Etiopía , Sarampión/prevención & control , Madres , Análisis Multinivel , Análisis Espacial
12.
BMC Pediatr ; 23(1): 10, 2023 Jan 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36600219

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Globally, neonatal mortality is decreasing, and road maps such as the Early Newborn Action Plan set ambitious targets for 2030. Despite this, deaths in the first weeks of life continue to rise as a percentage of total child mortality. Neonatal sepsis with early onset continues to be a significant cause of death and illness. The majority of sepsis-related deaths occur in developing nations, where the prevalence and causes of newborn sepsis are yet unknown. As a result, the goal of this study was to determine the prevalence of early-onset sepsis and identify determinant factors. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 368 study participants in referral hospitals of East and West Gojjam Zones from March 1st to April 30th, 2019. Study participants were selected at random using lottery method. Face-to-face interviews with index mothers for maternal variables and neonatal record review for neonatal variables were used to collect data using a structured pretested questionnaire. Data were entered into Epidata 3.1 and then exported to STATA/SE software version 14. Finally, the logistic regression model was used for analysis. Statistical significance was declared at P < 0.05 after multivariable logistic regression. RESULTS: A total of 368 newborns and their index mothers took part in this study. The mean age of the newborns was 4.69 days (± 1.93SD). Early-onset neonatal sepsis was seen in 34% of the babies. Nulliparity (AOR: 3.3, 95% CI: 1.1-9.5), duration of labor > 18 h after rupture of membranes (AOR: 11.3, 95% CI: 3.0-41.8), gestational age of 32-37 weeks (AOR: 3.2, 95% CI: 1.2-8.5), and neonates who require resuscitation at birth (AOR: 4, 95% CI: 1.4 -11.8) were all found to be significantly associated with early-onset neonatal sepsis. CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION: Early-onset neonatal sepsis was found to be high in this study. Early-onset neonatal sepsis was found to be associated with maternal, obstetric, and neonatal variables. Comprehensive prevention strategies that target the identified risk factors should be implemented right away.


Asunto(s)
Sepsis Neonatal , Sepsis , Embarazo , Femenino , Lactante , Niño , Humanos , Recién Nacido , Sepsis Neonatal/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Etiopía/epidemiología , Prevalencia , Madres , Sepsis/epidemiología , Hospitales Públicos , Derivación y Consulta
13.
PLoS One ; 18(1): e0280053, 2023.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36626377

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Mother and newborn skin-to-skin contact (SSC) plays a key role in breastfeeding practices of mothers. In this study, we examined the association between mother and newborn SSC and timely initiation of breastfeeding in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). METHODS: This cross-sectional study utilized nationally representative data from the Demographic and Health Surveys of 17 countries in SSA from 2015 to 2020. Multilevel binary logistic regression analysis was performed to examine the association between mother and newborn SSC and timely initiation of breastfeeding. The results are presented using adjusted odds ratios (aOR), with 95% confidence interval (CI). RESULTS: The pooled prevalences of mother and newborn SSC and timely initiation of breastfeeding were 45.68% (95% CI = 34.12-57.23) and 62.89% (95% CI = 55.67-70.11), respectively. Mothers who practiced newborn SSC were more likely to practice timely initiation of breastfeeding compared to those who did not practice SSC [aOR = 1.68, 95% CI = 1.58, 1.78] and this persisted after controlling for all the covariates [aOR = 1.38, 95% CI = 1.29, 1.47]. At the country level, mother and newborn SSC increased the odds of timely initiation of breastfeeding in Angola [aOR = 1.99, 95% CI = 1.44, 2.76], Cameroon [aOR = 1.43, 95% CI = 1.02, 1.99], Ethiopia [aOR = 1.62, 95% CI = 1.16, 2.28], Guinea [aOR = 1.69, 95% CI = 1.10, 2.60], Liberia [aOR = 2.03, 95% CI = 1.33, 3.12], Malawi [aOR = 1.47, 95% CI = 1.02, 2.12], Mali [aOR = 1.42, 95% CI = 1.10, 1.84], Sierra Leone [aOR = 1.87, 95% CI = 1.23, 2.83], South Africa [aOR = 2.59, 95% CI = 1.41, 4.76], Tanzania [aOR = 1.60, 95% CI = 1.27, 2.01], Uganda [aOR = 1.43, 95% CI = 1.02, 1.99], Zambia [aOR = 1.86, 95% CI = 1.50, 2.30], and Zimbabwe [aOR = 1.65, 95% CI = 1.24, 2.21]. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of SCC was relatively low but timely initiation of breastfeeding was high. Mother and newborn SSC is a strong predictor of timely initiation of breastfeeding in SSA. To enhance timely initiation of breastfeeding after birth, this study recommends that more child and maternal healthcare interventions focused on improving mother and newborn SSC should be implemented.


Asunto(s)
Lactancia Materna , Madres , Recién Nacido , Femenino , Embarazo , Niño , Humanos , Estudios Transversales , Piel , Etiopía
14.
BMC Pediatr ; 23(1): 26, 2023 Jan 17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36647037

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Sub-Saharan African countries are a high-burden region of neonatal mortality and showed slow progress in its reduction. In developing countries, as long as the current trend of mortality persists, achieving a sustainable development target for neonatal mortality would be challenging. The aim of this study was to detect significant geographic areas and identify community and individual-level predictors of neonatal mortality in Ethiopia to draw attention to a policy. METHODS: A weighted total sample of 24,136 mothers from the 2019 mini-Ethiopian demographic and health survey data were included in the analysis. Global Moran's I statistics was run to check the clustering of neonatal mortality and then kriging interpolation was done to predict the magnitude of neonatal mortality in Ethiopia. In addition, SaTScan analysis was also executed to identify hot spot clusters of neonatal mortality. Finally, a multilevel mixed-effect logistic regression model was used to identify community and individual-level predictors of early neonatal and neonatal mortality. RESULTS: The lifetime early neonatal and neonatal mortality among mothers in Ethiopia was 5.08 (95% CI: 4.13-6.03) and 6.54 (5.55, 7.52) per 1000 births respectively. Neonatal mortality was spatially clustered in the country and the SaTScan analysis identified significant hotspot areas of neonatal mortality in the Amhara and Afar regions and some areas of the Somali and Oromia regions. Its predicted magnitude was > 8 per 1000 births in wide areas of the Amhara and Benishangul regions. A multilevel mixed-effect logistics regression analysis identified that a lower level of maternal education, being a twin neonate, and being a male neonate were predictors of both early neonatal and neonatal mortality. Whereas, the younger age of mothers predicted neonatal mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Neonatal mortality in Ethiopia is geographically clustered and sociodemographic and obstetric factors played a significant role. Policy direction should focus on evidence-based practices like midwives-led community and facility-based continuum of care from preconception to postnatal periods to possibly reduce neonatal mortality.


Asunto(s)
Mortalidad Infantil , Madres , Embarazo , Femenino , Recién Nacido , Humanos , Masculino , Encuestas Epidemiológicas , Análisis Multinivel , Etiopía/epidemiología , Análisis Espacial
15.
BMC Public Health ; 23(1): 113, 2023 Jan 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36647046

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Parental work stress and impaired mental health seem to have intensified during the current COVID-19 pandemic. Both can have a negative impact on parent-child bonding: psychosocial work stress in the course of a spillover effect from work to family and symptoms of impaired mental health as part of a crossover effect from parent to child. This potentially affects the child's development in the long term. METHOD: This cross-sectional study examined the relationship between psychosocial work stress and parent-child bonding during the early COVID-19 pandemic (May-June 2020). Symptoms of depression and aggressiveness were considered as mediators of this relationship. The sample consisted of employees in Eastern Germany (n = 380; 42.9% mothers, 57.1% fathers), aged 24-55 years, with children aged 0-36 months. RESULTS: In the total sample, an association was only found after adjusting for potential confounders, indicating that higher psychosocial work stress is associated with weaker bonding between the parent and child (ß = 0.148, p = .017, 95% CI [0.566, 5.614]). The separate analyses for mothers and fathers did not reveal a statistically significant relationship between psychosocial work stress and parent-child bonding. In the total sample, the higher the psychosocial work stress was, the higher were the parental symptoms of depression (ß = 0.372, p < .001, 95% CI [3.417, 5.696]) and aggressiveness ß = 0.254, p < .001, 95% CI [1.008, 3.208]). The mental health symptoms in turn were related to weaker parent-child bonding (symptoms of depression ß = 0.320, p < .001, 95% CI [0.345, 0.749]; symptoms of aggressiveness ß = 0.394, p < .001, 95% CI [0.697, 1.287]). The results furthermore suggested that parental mental health symptoms mediate the association between psychosocial work stress and parent-child bonding (symptoms of depression, ab = 2.491, 95% CI [1.472, 3.577] and of aggressiveness, ab = 2.091, 95% CI [1.147, 3.279]). The mediation effect was also found in the separate analyses for the mothers and fathers. DISCUSSION: The results of this study during the early COVID-19 pandemic in Germany highlight the importance of prevention as well as intervention measures in relation to psychosocial work stress that may play a debilitating role in the context of family relationships. In addition, the results suggest that both employers and employees should be made aware of the importance of psychosocial work stress, as it can have a negative impact on mental health, which in turn may have a major influence on family relationships.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Estrés Laboral , Femenino , Humanos , Depresión/epidemiología , Depresión/psicología , Estudios Transversales , Pandemias , Padres/psicología , Madres/psicología , Relaciones Padres-Hijo
16.
Int J Equity Health ; 22(1): 13, 2023 Jan 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36647134

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: There are persistent ethnic gaps in uptake of child healthcare services in New Zealand (NZ), despite increasing policy to promote equitable access. We examined ethnic differences in the uptake of immunisation and primary healthcare services at different ages and quantified the contribution of relevant explanatory factors, in order to identify potential points of intervention. METHODS: We used data from the Growing Up in New Zealand birth cohort study, including children born between 2009 and 2010. Econometric approaches were used to explore underlying mechanisms behind ethnic differences in service uptake. Multivariable regression was used to adjust for mother, child, household, socioeconomic, mobility, and social factors. Decomposition analysis was used to assess the proportion of each ethnic gap that could be explained, as well as the main drivers behind the explained component. These analyses were repeated for four data time-points. RESULTS: Six thousand eight hundred twenty-two mothers were enrolled during the antenatal survey, and children were followed up at 9-months, 2-years and 4-years. In univariable models, there were ethnic gaps in uptake of immunisation and primary care services. After adjusting for covariates in multivariable models, compared to NZ Europeans, Asian and Pacific children had higher timeliness and completeness of immunisation at all time-points, while indigenous Maori had lower timeliness of first-year vaccines despite high intentions to immunise. Asian and Pacific mothers were less likely to have their first-choice lead maternity caregiver (LMC) than NZ Europeans mothers, and Maori and Asian mothers were less likely to be satisfied with their general practitioner (GP) at 2-years. Healthcare utilisation was strongly influenced by socio-economic, mobility and social factors including ethnic discrimination. In decomposition models comparing Maori to NZ Europeans, the strongest drivers for timely first-year immunisations and GP satisfaction (2-years) were household composition and household income. Gaps between Pacific and NZ Europeans in timely first-year immunisations and choice of maternity carer were largely unexplained by factors included in the models. CONCLUSIONS: Ethnic gaps in uptake of child healthcare services vary by ethnicity, service, and time-point, and are driven by different factors. Addressing healthcare disparities will require interventions tailored to specific ethnic groups, as well as addressing underlying social determinants and structural racism. Gaps that remain unexplained by our models require further investigation.


Asunto(s)
Etnicidad , Madres , Humanos , Femenino , Niño , Embarazo , Nueva Zelanda , Estudios de Cohortes , Disparidades en Atención de Salud
17.
Int Breastfeed J ; 18(1): 4, 2023 Jan 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36647140

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Conflicting advice and non-evidence-based recommendations have a negative effect on breastfeeding. Since 2011, the National Food Agency in Sweden has informed parents that they can introduce tiny tastings (1 mL of solid food, i.e. other sources of nutrition than breastmilk/formula) to infants from four months of age. It is unknown how national recommendations, which differ from the Word Health Organisation's recommendation, affect breastfeeding. We hypothesised that introduction of tiny tastings of solid foods would shorten the duration of continued breastfeeding. METHODS: This retrospective study utilises data from the longitudinal 'Swedish Pregnancy Planning Study', in which mothers were recruited at antenatal clinics on a national level. The participants completed three questionnaires up to one year after birth (n = 1,251). Linear regression models were used to analyse the association between the introduction of solid foods and the duration of breastfeeding. RESULTS: As hypothesised, introduction of tiny tastings shortened the duration of continued breastfeeding. Half of all infants (48%) were fed with tiny tastings already in the fourth month. The correlation analysis showed that the earlier the infants started with tiny tastings, the earlier they ate larger amounts of solid food. In a multivariate linear regression analysis, five factors were identified as having a negative effect on the duration of breastfeeding: low infant age upon introduction of tiny tastings, low maternal age, low level of maternal education, high maternal BMI and twin birth. CONCLUSIONS: Early introduction of tiny tastings of solid foods shortened the duration of breastfeeding. It is difficult to influence most conditions that affect breastfeeding, for example, the mother's educational level, BMI, age and if she has given birth to twins. In contrast, national guidelines can always be updated. Recommendations from the Swedish authorities should adhere to the WHO's recommendation, which states exclusive breastfeeding for six months and continued breastfeeding for at least two years or longer.


Asunto(s)
Lactancia Materna , Leche Humana , Lactante , Humanos , Femenino , Embarazo , Estudios Retrospectivos , Madres , Estudios Longitudinales
18.
Environ Health ; 22(1): 8, 2023 Jan 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36641468

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Environmental exposures during pregnancy and early childhood can have acute and chronic adverse health impacts. As minoritized populations are more likely to reside in areas with greater pollution, it is important to understand their views and lived experiences to inform action. The purpose of this community-driven qualitative research study was to understand how urban Latina mothers in Los Angeles County, California perceived environmental health and risks. METHODS: We conducted semi-structured individual interviews with Latina pregnant women and mothers of young children, recruited through existing collaborations with community organizations. Interviews conducted in either English or Spanish and were coded inductively according to a modified grounded theory approach. RESULTS: Thirty-six Latina mothers completed interviews between August-October 2016. Participants lived primarily in low-income communities of South-Central Los Angeles and East Los Angeles. We identified three major themes based on the participants' responses during interviews: Defining the Environment, Environment & Health Risks, and Social & Political Responsibility. Women defined their environment in terms of both "nature" and "hazards." They consistently identified foul odors, dirtiness, noise, trash, bugs, smoke, and other visible blights as indicators of household and neighborhood environmental hazards. They expressed fear and uncertainty about how their environment could affect their health and that of their children, as well as specific concerns about respiratory health, asthma, allergies, cancer, and adverse pregnancy outcomes. Mothers often changed individual behaviors around diet and cleaning during pregnancy but were frustrated by power imbalances that left them unable to change their home or neighborhood environments, despite their desire to do so. DISCUSSION: Our study is among the first to describe how urban Latina mothers perceive and experience environmental health risks during pregnancy and early childhood. Our research suggests additional attention is needed by public health professionals and researchers to address the environmental health risks that matter most to urban Latina mothers. They also highlight the tension that many urban Latina mothers feel between wanting to protect their families' health and well-being and feeling powerless to change their environment. Broad policy changes, rather than additional individual recommendations, are needed to address the concerns of this vulnerable population.


Asunto(s)
Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales , Madres , Niño , Femenino , Humanos , Preescolar , Embarazo , Madres/psicología , Los Angeles , Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales/efectos adversos , Salud Ambiental , Hispánicos o Latinos
19.
Ugeskr Laeger ; 185(1)2023 Jan 02.
Artículo en Danés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36629290

RESUMEN

Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a mental disorder with the greatest incidence amongst women of the childbearing age. The prevalence of AN in pregnancy is marginal, yet the risk of exacerbation or reactivation is significant. Adverse perinatal complications of mental and physical nature pertain to both mother and child and through early diagnosis and monitoring during the perinatal period manageable. This preview describes the importance of enabling optimal perinatal care through a multidisciplinary management team.


Asunto(s)
Anorexia Nerviosa , Complicaciones del Embarazo , Trastornos Psicóticos , Femenino , Humanos , Embarazo , Madres , Periodo Posparto , Complicaciones del Embarazo/etiología , Prevalencia , Trastornos Psicóticos/complicaciones
20.
BMJ Open Qual ; 12(1)2023 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36593071

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Following the first COVID-19 peak in 2020, came the seasonal childbirth peak at Hôpital Universitaire de Mirebalais (HUM). This peak is associated with overcrowding on the labour and delivery (L&D) ward. Lack of sufficient bed-space for sick neonates in the neonatal ICU at HUM, has led to overcrowding and lengthy stays of sick newborns on L&D. These conditions contribute to the subsequent lack of bed-space for newly postpartum mothers and potentially decreases quality of care for both new mothers and neonates. METHODS: A Maternity Task Force was created by hospital leadership to address these urgent needs. The team's objective was to eliminate mothers and newborns laying on the floor in L&D. The Six-Sigma/DMAIC quality improvement methodology was used as the problem was urgent, demanded rapid results and centred around the process of patient flow in the institution. Process flow chart and Ishikawa diagrams were used to identify the root causes of the issues. RESULTS: An average of 22% of postpartum women did not have a bed preintervention and 0% of postpartum women were laying on the floor post intervention. An average of 33% of newborns received paediatric care on the maternity ward pre-intervention compared with an average of 17% postintervention. The team did not achieve its objective for this second indicator, which was to have less than 10% of sick newborns on the maternity ward receiving paediatric care. CONCLUSION: HUM hospital leadership took the vital decision to form the Maternity Task Force to make changes, which consequently led to a sustainable positive and lasting impact on the lives of new mothers and their babies at the institution. The objective of 0 postpartum mothers and newborns on the ground was achieved and fewer newborns receive intensive paediatric care on the maternity ward as a result of our interventions.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Mejoramiento de la Calidad , Embarazo , Femenino , Humanos , Haití , Madres , Hospitales Universitarios
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