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1.
Sci Total Environ ; 781: 146691, 2021 Aug 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34594059

RESUMEN

Levels of total mercury were measured in tissue of six species of migratory fish (alewife, American shad, blueback herring, rainbow smelt, striped bass, and sea lamprey), and in roe of American shad for two consecutive years collected from the Penobscot River or its estuary. The resultant mercury levels were compared to reference doses as established in the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Integrated Risk Information System and wildlife values. Mercury concentrations ranged from 4 µg/kg ww in roe to 1040 µg/kg ww in sea lamprey. Sea lamprey contained the highest amounts of mercury for both seasons of sampling. Current health advisories are set at sufficient levels to protect fishers from harmful consumption of the fish for mercury alone, except for sea lamprey. Based upon published wildlife values for mink, otter, and eagle, consumption of rainbow smelt, striped bass, or sea lamprey poses a risk to mink; striped bass and sea lamprey to otter; and sea lamprey to eagle. For future consideration, the resultant data may serve as a reference point for both human health and wildlife risk assessments for the consumption of anadromous fish. U.S. EPA works with federally recognized Tribes across the nation greatly impacted by restrictions on sustenance fishing, to develop culturally sensitive risk assessments.


Asunto(s)
Mercurio , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua , Animales , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Estuarios , Peces , Humanos , Maine , Mercurio/análisis , Ríos , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/análisis
2.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 27(12): 3111-3114, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34465415

RESUMEN

We used wastewater surveillance to identify 2 coronavirus disease outbreaks at a college in Maine, USA. Cumulative increases of >1 log10 severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 RNA in consecutive 24-hour composite samples preceded the outbreaks. For 76% of cases, RNA was identified in grab samples from residence halls <7 days before case discovery.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Aguas Residuales , Humanos , Maine , SARS-CoV-2 , Monitoreo Epidemiológico Basado en Aguas Residuales
3.
PLoS One ; 16(7): e0253914, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34288940

RESUMEN

The northern shrimp (Pandalus borealis Krøyer) population in the Gulf of Maine collapsed during an extreme heatwave that occurred across the Northwest Atlantic Ocean in 2012. Northern shrimp is a boreal species, and reaches its southern limit in the Gulf of Maine. Here we investigate proximate causes for the population collapse using data from fishery-independent surveys, environmental monitoring, and the commercial fishery. We first examined spatial data to confirm that the decline in population estimates was not due to a major displacement of the population, and then tested hypotheses related to fishing mortality and shifts in predation pressure. Fishing mortality may have contributed but could not explain the magnitude of the decline or the disappearance of pre-exploitable size individuals. Stomach contents analysis and biomass trends revealed no new fish predators of shrimp. However, longfin squid (Doryteuthis pealeii Lesueur) was unique among all species in showing time-series biomass peaks during spring, summer and fall of 2012, and spatial overlap with northern shrimp was unusually high in 2012. Longfin squid is a voracious and opportunistic predator that consumes crustaceans as well as fish. We hypothesize that the warmer temperatures of 2012 not only led to expansion of longfin squid distribution in Gulf of Maine, but had differential effects on migration phenology that further increased spatial overlap with northern shrimp. The weight of our evidence suggests that longfin squid predation was likely a significant factor in the collapse of northern shrimp in the Gulf of Maine.


Asunto(s)
Distribución Animal , Cambio Climático , Decapodiformes/fisiología , Explotaciones Pesqueras/estadística & datos numéricos , Pandalidae , Conducta Predatoria , Animales , Océano Atlántico , Calor , Maine , Modelos Teóricos , Dinámica Poblacional , Estaciones del Año
4.
Environ Entomol ; 50(5): 1203-1216, 2021 10 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34175937

RESUMEN

The browntail moth (Euproctis chrysorrhoea (L.)) is a forest pest that was accidentally introduced in the late 1800's and spread throughout New England in the early part of the 20th Century. At its peak range expansion in 1915 it encompassed an area of 150,000 km2 after which populations declined. By the 1960s, its distribution had receded to relic populations on outer Cape Cod, MA, and islands in Casco Bay, ME. In 1989 browntail moth resurged in Maine, with periodic, moderate outbreaks before a dramatic increase of the population occurred in 2016. We examined the pattern of annual defoliation by browntail moth since its resurgence in the 1990s as well as variation in populations throughout infested areas in Maine during three years of the recent outbreak, 2016-2018, relative to differences in weather, parasitism and habitat characteristics. Levels of defoliation over 24 yr were predicted by the preceding spring precipitation (-, negative effect) and the year's previous late summer and early fall temperatures (+, positive effect) when first to third instar larvae feed and then construct winter hibernacula. Late summer temperatures predicted the abundance of hibernacula across outbreak areas (+). Early spring temperatures (+) and early and late spring precipitation (-) predicted early summer larval and pupal nest abundance. Warmer fall temperatures result in more mature populations coming out of winter hibernacula in the spring, whereas spring precipitation drives epizootic outbreaks of Entomophaga aulicae (Reichardt in Bail) Humber (Entomophthorales: Entomophthoraceae). with parasitoids playing a lesser role. Climate trends indicate continued increases in fall temperatures since browntail moth resurgence.


Asunto(s)
Entomophthorales , Mariposas Nocturnas , Animales , Larva , Maine
5.
J Environ Manage ; 293: 112823, 2021 Sep 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34044234

RESUMEN

The International Convention for the Control and Management of Ships' Ballast Water and Sediments (BWM Convention) aims to mitigate the introduction risk of harmful aquatic organisms and pathogens (HAOP) via ships' ballast water and sediments. The BWM Convention has set regulations for ships to utilise exceptions and exemptions from ballast water management under specific circumstances. This study evaluated local and regional case studies to provide clarity for situations, where ships could be excepted or exempted from ballast water management without risking recipient locations to new introductions of HAOP. Ships may be excepted from ballast water management if all ballasting operations are conducted in the same location (Regulation A-3.5 of the BWM Convention). The same location case study determined whether the entire Vuosaari harbour (Helsinki, Finland) should be considered as the same location based on salinity and composition of HAOP between the two harbour terminals. The Vuosaari harbour case study revealed mismatching occurrences of HAOP between the harbour terminals, supporting the recommendation that exceptions based on the same location concept should be limited to the smallest feasible areas within a harbour. The other case studies evaluated whether ballast water exemptions could be granted for ships using two existing risk assessment (RA) methods (Joint Harmonised Procedure [JHP] and Same Risk Area [SRA]), consistent with Regulation A-4 of the BWM Convention. The JHP method compares salinity and presence of target species (TS) between donor and recipient ports to indicate the introduction risk (high or low) attributed to transferring unmanaged ballast water. The SRA method uses a biophysical model to determine whether HAOP could naturally disperse between ports, regardless of their transportation in ballast water. The results of the JHP case study for the Baltic Sea and North-East Atlantic Ocean determined that over 97% of shipping routes within these regions resulted in a high-risk indication. The one route assessed in the Gulf of Maine, North America also resulted in a high-risk outcome. The SRA assessment resulted in an overall weak connectivity between all ports assessed within the Gulf of the St. Lawrence, indicating that a SRA-based exemption would not be appropriate for the entire study area. In summary, exceptions and exemptions should not be considered as common alternatives for ballast water management. The availability of recent and detailed species occurrence data was considered the most important factor to conduct a successful and reliable RA. SRA models should include biological factors that influence larval dispersal and recruitment potential (e.g., pelagic larval duration, settlement period) to provide a more realistic estimation of natural dispersal.


Asunto(s)
Especies Introducidas , Agua , Océano Atlántico , Finlandia , Maine , América del Norte , Navíos , Abastecimiento de Agua
6.
Public Health Nutr ; 24(15): 5127-5132, 2021 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34030759

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Online grocery shopping could improve access to healthy food, but it may not be equally accessible to all populations - especially those at higher risk for food insecurity. The current study aimed to compare the socio-demographic characteristics of families who ordered groceries online v. those who only shopped in-store. DESIGN: We analysed enrollment survey and 44 weeks of individually linked grocery transaction data. We used univariate χ2 and t-tests and logistic regression to assess differences in socio-demographic characteristics between households that only shopped in-store and those that shopped online with curbside pickup (online only or online and in-store). SETTING: Two Maine supermarkets. PARTICIPANTS: 863 parents or caregivers of children under 18 years old enrolled in two fruit and vegetable incentive trials. RESULTS: Participants had a total of 32 757 transactions. In univariate assessments, online shoppers had higher incomes (P < 0 0001), were less likely to participate in Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children or Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP; P < 0 0001) and were more likely to be female (P = 0·04). Most online shoppers were 30-39 years old, and few were 50 years or older (P = 0·003). After controlling for age, gender, race/ethnicity, number of children, number of adults, income and SNAP participation, female primary shoppers (OR = 2·75, P = 0·003), number of children (OR = 1·27, P = 0·04) and income (OR = 3·91 for 186-300 % federal poverty line (FPL) and OR = 6·92 for >300 % FPL, P < 0·0001) were significantly associated with likelihood of shopping online. CONCLUSIONS: In the current study of Maine families, low-income shoppers were significantly less likely to utilise online grocery ordering with curbside pickup. Future studies could focus on elucidating barriers and developing strategies to improve access.


Asunto(s)
Asistencia Alimentaria , Pobreza , Adolescente , Adulto , Niño , Composición Familiar , Femenino , Abastecimiento de Alimentos , Humanos , Renta , Lactante , Maine , Masculino
7.
Cancer Causes Control ; 32(7): 783-790, 2021 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33866458

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: We examined associations between the 2010 Affordable Care Act (ACA) provisions, 2011 Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommendation, and 2014 ACA-related health insurance reforms with HPV vaccine initiation rates by sex and health insurance type. METHODS: Using 2009-2015 public and private health insurance claims for 551,764 males and females aged 9-26 years (referred to as youth) from Maine, New Hampshire, and Massachusetts, we conducted linear regression models to examine the associations between three policy changes and HPV vaccine initiation rates by sex and health insurance type. RESULTS: In 2009, HPV vaccine initiation rates for males and females were 0.003 and 0.604 per 100 enrollees, respectively. Among males, the 2010 ACA provisions and ACIP recommendation were associated with significant increases in HPV vaccine uptake among those with private plans (0.207 [0.137, 0.278] and 0.419 [0.353, 0.486], respectively) and Medicaid (0.157 [0.083, 0.230] and 0.322 [0.257, 0.386], respectively). Among females, the 2010 ACA provisions were associated with significant increases in HPV vaccine uptake among Medicaid enrollees only (0.123 [0.033, 0.214]). The ACA-related health insurance reforms were associated with significant increases in HPV vaccine uptake for male and female Medicaid enrollees (0.257 [0.137, 0.377] and 0.214 [0.102, 0.327], respectively), but no differences among privately insured youth. By 2015, there were no differences in HPV vaccine initiation rates between males (0.278) and females (0.305). CONCLUSIONS: Both ACA provisions and the ACIP recommendation were associated with significant increases in HPV vaccine initiation rates among privately and publicly insured males in three New England states, closing the gender gap. In contrast, females and youth with private insurance did not exhibit the same changes in HPV vaccine uptake over the study period.


Asunto(s)
Política de Salud , Vacunas contra Papillomavirus/uso terapéutico , Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act , Adolescente , Adulto , Comités Consultivos , Niño , Femenino , Humanos , Revisión de Utilización de Seguros , Modelos Lineales , Maine , Masculino , Massachusetts , Medicaid , New Hampshire , Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act/organización & administración , Estados Unidos , Vacunación , Adulto Joven
8.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 168: 112378, 2021 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33930648

RESUMEN

This study explored whether winter flounder, a benthic species, are potentially exposed to contaminants such as heavy metals released from the sediment of the Bay of Fundy/Gulf of Maine, both critical habitats identified to have increases in heavy metal levels. Experimentally in fish, exposure to certain heavy metals resulted in reduced weight for length and structural abnormalities, but it is unknown if this occurs in wild fish. Winter flounder (n = 72), harvested between 2015 and 2018 from the aforementioned western Atlantic region of Canada/USA, had detectable levels of most heavy metals, with some exhibiting levels of concern (arsenic, cadmium, lead, selenium, zinc) in muscle, liver, and kidney. A 1.4% incidence of structural abnormalities was noted. When compared to 1980 regionally matched flounder data, the 2018 flounder had significantly reduced weight for length, exacerbated with age. Clearly winter flounder are affected by worsening heavy metal contaminant levels in this geographic area.


Asunto(s)
Lenguado , Metales Pesados , Animales , Canadá , Hígado , Maine
9.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 304, 2021 02 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33549075

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Although all 11- or 12-year-olds in the US were recommended to receive a 3-dose series of the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine within a 12-month period prior to 2016, rates of completion of the HPV vaccine series remained suboptimal. The effects of the Affordable Care Act (ACA), including private insurance coverage with no cost-sharing and health insurance expansions, on HPV vaccine completion are largely unknown. The aim of this study was to examine the associations between the ACA's 2010 provisions and 2014 insurance expansions with HPV vaccine completion by sex and health insurance type. METHODS: Using 2009-2015 public and private health insurance claims from Maine, New Hampshire, and Massachusetts, we identified 9-to-26-year-olds who had at least one HPV vaccine dose. We conducted a logistic regression model to examine the associations between the ACA policy changes with HPV vaccine completion (defined as receiving a 3-dose series within 12 months from the date of initiation) as well as interactions by sex and health insurance type. RESULTS: Over the study period, among females and males who initiated the HPV vaccine, 27.6 and 28.0%, respectively, completed the series within 12 months. Among females, the 2010 ACA provision was associated with a 4.3 percentage point increases in HPV vaccine completion for the privately-insured (0.043; 95% CI: 0.036-0.061) and a 5.7 percentage point increase for Medicaid enrollees (0.057; 95% CI: 0.032-0.081). The 2014 health insurance expansions were associated with a 9.4 percentage point increase in vaccine completion for females with private insurance (0.094; 95% CI: 0.082-0.107) and a 8.5 percentage point increase for Medicaid enrollees (0.085; 95% CI: 0.068-0.102). Among males, the 2014 ACA reforms were associated with a 5.1 percentage point increase in HPV vaccine completion for the privately-insured (0.051; 95% CI: 0.039-0.063) and a 3.4 percentage point increase for Medicaid enrollees (0.034; 95% CI: 0.017-0.050). In a sensitivity analysis, findings were similar with HPV vaccine completion within 18 months. CONCLUSIONS: Despite low HPV vaccine completion overall, both sets of ACA provisions were associated with increases in completion among females and males. Our results suggest that expanding Medicaid across the remaining states could increase HPV vaccine completion among publicly-insured youth and prevent HPV-related cancers.


Asunto(s)
Vacunas contra Papillomavirus , Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act , Adolescente , Femenino , Humanos , Cobertura del Seguro , Seguro de Salud , Maine , Masculino , Massachusetts , Medicaid , New Hampshire , Políticas , Estados Unidos
10.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(2): e210138, 2021 02 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33630088

RESUMEN

Importance: Recent studies have revealed increases in population-level cannabis use after legalization of recreational cannabis. However, the association of cannabis legalization with maternal cannabis use during important life stages remains unknown. Objective: To investigate the association of legalization of recreational cannabis with maternal cannabis use during the preconception, prenatal, and postpartum periods. Design, Setting, and Participants: This repeated cross-sectional study used state-level data on women who delivered live-born infants in the US from the Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System from January 2004 to December 2018. Data from 2 states that had legalized recreational cannabis (Alaska and Maine) and 2 states that had not legalized recreational cannabis (New Hampshire and Vermont) were used. Women completed surveys 2 to 6 months after delivery, reporting preconception, prenatal, and postpartum cannabis use. Exposure: State recreational cannabis legalization. Main Outcomes and Measures: The 3 primary outcomes were self-reported cannabis use during the 12 months before pregnancy (preconception), during pregnancy (prenatal), and the 2 to 6 months after pregnancy (postpartum). A difference-in-differences analysis was used to compare changes in the prevalence of maternal cannabis use during each period before and after state legalization of recreational cannabis, controlling for maternal characteristics (age, race/ethnicity, educational level, income, cigarette smoking, and breastfeeding) and state fixed effects. State-specific survey weights were used. Results: The analytic sample included 23 082 women in the preconception period, 23 859 in the prenatal period, and 26 610 in the postpartum period. In each analysis, most women were married (range among all groups, 63.9%-64.8%), aged 25 to 34 years (preconception, 55.4%; prenatal, 55.9%; postpartum, 56.1%), and had an annual household income less than $50 000 (preconception, 55.7%; prenatal, 56.3%; postpartum, 55.5%). In adjusted analyses, preconception and postpartum cannabis use increased significantly in states that had legalized recreational cannabis compared with states that had not legalized it (preconception risk difference, 0.0457 [95% CI, 0.0013-0.0900]; P = .04; postpartum risk difference, 0.0539 [95% CI, 0.0259-0.0818]; P < .001). The risk difference for prenatal cannabis use was not significant (0.0070; 95% CI, -0.0120 to 0.0260; P = .47). Conclusions and Relevance: In this repeated cross-sectional study, recreational cannabis legalization was associated with changes in maternal cannabis use before and after pregnancy. The findings suggest that future studies should undertake an interdisciplinary approach to maximize benefit and application of findings to future public health, health care, and policy sectors.


Asunto(s)
Control de Medicamentos y Narcóticos/legislación & jurisprudencia , Uso de la Marihuana/epidemiología , Periodo Posparto , Embarazo , Adolescente , Adulto , Alaska/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Maine/epidemiología , Uso de la Marihuana/legislación & jurisprudencia , New Hampshire/epidemiología , Prevalencia , Vermont/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
11.
Int J Cancer ; 148(12): 2915-2923, 2021 06 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33506540

RESUMEN

Twin studies suggest a familial aggregation of bladder cancer, but elements of this increased familial risk of bladder cancer are not well understood. To characterize familial risk of bladder cancer, we examined the relationship between family history of bladder and other types of cancer among first-degree relatives and risk of bladder cancer in 1193 bladder cancer cases and 1418 controls in a large population-based case-control study. Multivariate logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the association between family history of bladder cancer (defined as at least one first-degree family member with bladder cancer or a cancer of any other site). We also evaluated cancer aggregation of specific sites in family members. Participants with a first-degree relative with bladder cancer had nearly double the risk of bladder cancer (OR = 1.8, 95% CI 1.2-2.9) as those without a family history of bladder cancer. Risk was increased for having a sibling with bladder cancer (OR = 2.6, 95% CI 1.3-5.3) compared to no siblings with cancer. Bladder cancer risk was elevated when participants reported a first-degree relative with a history of female genital cancer (OR = 1.5, 95% CI 1.1-2.1), melanoma (OR = 1.9, 95% CI 1.02-3.6), and tobacco-associated cancer (OR = 1.3, 95% CI 1.06-1.6). These findings add to evidence of a familial predisposition to bladder cancer. Clarification of the aggregation of bladder cancer in families and with other cancer sites will be of interest as many loci and common polymorphisms related to bladder cancer have yet to be identified in large genomic studies.


Asunto(s)
Neoplasias de los Genitales Femeninos/epidemiología , Melanoma/epidemiología , Fumar/epidemiología , Neoplasias de la Vejiga Urinaria/epidemiología , Adulto , Anciano , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Femenino , Humanos , Maine/epidemiología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , New Hampshire/epidemiología , Linaje , Medición de Riesgo , Fumar/efectos adversos , Estudios en Gemelos como Asunto , Vermont/epidemiología
12.
J Osteopath Med ; 121(1): 85-96, 2021 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33512388

RESUMEN

Context: Osteopathic manipulative medicine (OMM) has been shown to successfully alleviate some pregnancy-related pain. However, most of the published data focuses on the third trimester and postpartum period or musculoskeletal indications. Objective: To explore OMM use among obstetrical providers and determine the frequency of use by trimester and by clinical indications across multiple types of women's healthcare practices in Southern and Central Maine. Methods: An anonymous, 43-item survey, presented in English, was emailed to 172 eligible providers (physicians, nurse practitioners, and certified nurse midwives with obstetrics privileges at one of two main delivery centers in southern and central Maine) via an encrypted database system in January 2018. Follow-up email reminders were sent weekly for three weeks. Questions addressed use of OMM for specific indications, knowledge of OMM, and perceived barriers use of OMM. Results: The survey response rate was 73 of 172 (42%); 95% of respondents were physicians (n=69). Due to the low response rate of non-physicians, only data from physicians was included in the study. Data were summarized descriptively as frequencies (n [%]). The highest rates of OMM utilization were during the third trimester (35 [51.5%]) and postpartum (41 [60.3%]) periods, while the lowest rates of utilization were in the intrapartum (eight [11.9%]) and first trimester periods (26 [38.3%]). Osteopathic physicians (n=19) used OMM more frequently in the first, second, and third trimesters, as well as the intrapartum period (10 [52.6%]; 11 [57.9%]; 14 [73.7%]; and six [31.6%], respectively) compared with their allopathic physician (n=50) counterparts (nine [8%]; 15 [30%]; 21 [42%]; and two [4%], respectively). While osteopathic physicians reported higher frequencies of OMM use and referral for non-musculoskeletal indications such as constipation, edema, and nasal congestion (13 [68.4%]; 11 [57.9%]; 10 [52.6%], respectively), musculoskeletal complaints were the most frequently cited indication for OMM use among both osteopathic and allopathic physicians (low back, 67 [97.1%]; pelvis, 65 [94.2%]; coccyx, 50 [72.5%]; and head, 49 [71%]). Conclusion: These results suggest that more education is needed about OMM use in the obstetric population, particularly during early trimesters and the intrapartum period, as well as for visceral and lymphatic complaints of pregnancy.


Asunto(s)
Manipulación Osteopática , Medicina Osteopática , Médicos Osteopáticos , Femenino , Humanos , Maine , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
13.
Glob Chang Biol ; 27(10): 2049-2060, 2021 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33462956

RESUMEN

While the effect of nitrogen (N) deposition on belowground carbon (C) cycling varies, emerging evidence shows that forest soils dominated by trees that associate with ectomycorrhizal fungi (ECM) store more C than soils dominated by trees that associate with arbuscular mycorrhizae (AM) with increasing N deposition. We hypothesized that this is due to unique nutrient cycling responses to N between AM and ECM-dominated soils. ECM trees primarily obtain N through fungal mining of soil organic matter subsidized by root-C. As such, we expected the largest N-induced responses of C and N cycling to occur in ECM rhizospheres and be driven by fungi. Conversely, as AM trees rely on bacterial scavengers in bulk soils to cycle N, we predicted the largest AM responses to be driven by shifts in bacteria and occur in bulk soils. To test this hypothesis, we measured microbial community composition, metatranscriptome profiles, and extracellular enzyme activity in bulk, rhizosphere, and organic horizon (OH) soils in AM and ECM-dominated soils at Bear Brook Watershed in Maine, USA. After 27 years of N fertilization, fungal community composition shifted across ECM soils, but bacterial communities shifted across AM soils. These shifts were mirrored by enhanced C relative to N mining enzyme activities in both mycorrhizal types, but this occurred in different soil fractions. In ECM stands these shifts occurred in rhizosphere soils, but in AM stands they occurred in bulk soils. Additionally, ECM OH soils exhibited the opposite response with declines in C relative to N mining. As rhizosphere soils account for only a small portion of total soil volume relative to bulk soils, coupled with declines in C to N enzyme activity in ECM OH soils, we posit that this may partly explain why ECM soils store more C than AM soils as N inputs increase.


Asunto(s)
Microbiota , Micorrizas , Fertilización , Maine , Nitrógeno , Suelo , Microbiología del Suelo , Árboles
14.
J Med Entomol ; 58(1): 125-138, 2021 01 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32901284

RESUMEN

Geographical range expansions of blacklegged tick [Ixodes scapularis Say (Acari: Ixodidae)] populations over time in the United States have been attributed to a mosaic of factors including 20th century reforestation followed by suburbanization, burgeoning populations of the white-tailed deer [Odocoileus virginianus Zimmerman (Artiodactyla: Cervidae)], and, at the northern edge of I. scapularis' range, climate change. Maine, a high Lyme disease incidence state, has been experiencing warmer and shorter winter seasons, and relatively more so in its northern tier. Maine served as a case study to investigate the interacting impacts of deer and seasonal climatology on the spatial and temporal distribution of I. scapularis. A passive tick surveillance dataset indexed abundance of I. scapularis nymphs for the state, 1990-2013. With Maine's wildlife management districts as the spatial unit, we used a generalized additive model to assess linear and nonlinear relationships between I. scapularis nymph abundance and predictors. Nymph submission rate increased with increasing deer densities up to ~5 deer/km2 (13 deer/mi2), but beyond this threshold did not vary with deer density. This corroborated the idea of a saturating relationship between I. scapularis and deer density. Nymphs also were associated with warmer minimum winter temperatures, earlier degree-day accumulation, and higher relative humidity. However, nymph abundance only increased with warmer winters and degree-day accumulation where deer density exceeded ~2 deer/km2 (~6/mi2). Anticipated increases in I. scapularis in the northern tier could be partially mitigated through deer herd management.


Asunto(s)
Ciervos/parasitología , Modelos Teóricos , Infestaciones por Garrapatas/veterinaria , Animales , Animales Salvajes/parasitología , Cambio Climático , Vectores de Enfermedades , Seguimiento de Parámetros Ecológicos , Humedad , Incidencia , Ixodes/fisiología , Enfermedad de Lyme/epidemiología , Maine/epidemiología , Ninfa/fisiología , Densidad de Población , Estaciones del Año , Temperatura , Infestaciones por Garrapatas/epidemiología
15.
J Vasc Access ; 22(1): 81-89, 2021 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32484002

RESUMEN

Peripheral intravenous catheters are frequently used devices in emergency departments. Many patients now present with difficult anatomy and are labeled as difficult intravenous access patients. A common technology to address this challenge is ultrasound. While studies have examined the ability to train emergency staff, few have addressed how this should be done and the outcomes associated with such training. No studies were found with dedicated vascular access specialist teams in emergency departments. An emergency department vascular access specialist team was formed at a hospital in Bangor, Maine, United States to train, validate, and proctor clinicians with ultrasound-guided peripheral intravenous devices. A quality review of this process was compiled and determined that appropriate clinicians with dedicated training and guidance can achieve higher levels of procedural success. Furthermore, evidence substantiates that frequent practice is linked to a higher quality of care and that a significant need for such teams is present. This review examines how a team was implemented and its impact both department- and facility-wide. It is possible that hospitals benefit from the services of vascular access specialists to provide higher quality care. Successful implementation of such specialist teams requires foundational knowledge and skills in vascular access with ongoing quality measures to ensure competency and compliance with evidence-based practices.


Asunto(s)
Cateterismo Periférico , Competencia Clínica , Prestación Integrada de Atención de Salud/organización & administración , Servicio de Urgencia en Hospital/organización & administración , Evaluación de Procesos y Resultados en Atención de Salud/organización & administración , Grupo de Atención al Paciente/organización & administración , Ultrasonografía Intervencional , Humanos , Maine , Desarrollo de Programa , Evaluación de Programas y Proyectos de Salud , Mejoramiento de la Calidad/organización & administración , Indicadores de Calidad de la Atención de Salud/organización & administración
16.
Drug Alcohol Depend ; 218: 108416, 2021 01 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33278761

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: U.S. research examining the illicit drug supply remains rare even though the information could help reduce overdoses. Relatively little is known regarding how often opioids are found in stimulants and whether temporal and geographic trends exist. We examined trends in fentanyl-cocaine and fentanyl-methamphetamine combinations in the national illicit drug supply. METHODS: We analysed serial cross-sectional data from the National Forensic Laboratory Information System (NFLIS) collected between January 2011 and December 2016. We restricted the analysis to cocaine (N = 1,389,968) and methamphetamine (n = 1,407,474) samples and calculated proportions containing fentanyl (including 23 related analogs) over time. RESULTS: The combined presence of fentanyl and cocaine steadily increased nationally between 2012-2016 (p = 0.01), and the number of such samples tripled from 2015 to 2016 (n = 423 to n = 1,325). Similarly, the combined presence of fentanyl and methamphetamine increased 179 % from 2015 to 2016 (n = 82-n = 272). Patterns varied widely by state; in 2016, fentanyl-cocaine samples were most common in New Hampshire (7.2 %), Connecticut (5.4 %), Ohio (2.6 %) and Massachusetts (2.1 %), whereas fentanyl-methamphetamine samples were most often in New Hampshire (6.1 %), Massachusetts (5.6 %), Vermont (2.4 %) and Maine (1.2 %). CONCLUSIONS: Although relatively uncommon, the presence of fentanyl in the stimulant supply increased significantly between 2011 and 2016, with the greatest increases occuring between 2015-2016; the presence of these products was concentrated in the U.S. Northeast. Given these trends, strengthening community-based drug checking programs and surveillance within the public health infrastructure could help promote timely responses to novel threats posed by rapid shifts in the drug supply that may lead to inadvertent exposures.


Asunto(s)
Sobredosis de Droga/epidemiología , Fentanilo/envenenamiento , Drogas Ilícitas/envenenamiento , Analgésicos Opioides/envenenamiento , Estimulantes del Sistema Nervioso Central , Cocaína , Connecticut , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Maine/epidemiología , Massachusetts , Metanfetamina , New Hampshire , Ohio , Salud Pública , Estados Unidos/epidemiología
17.
J Environ Manage ; 278(Pt 2): 111585, 2021 Jan 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33197686

RESUMEN

The United States Environmental Protection Agency and the Houlton Band of Maliseet Indians (HBMI) built a stream temperature spatial statistical network (SSN) model for the Meduxnekeag Watershed. The headwaters of the Meduxnekeag Watershed are in Maine, United States of America and the outlet is in New Brunswick, Canada, creating an additional challenge because many datasets are constrained to political boundaries. The release of the High-Resolution National Hydrology Dataset Plus included transboundary watersheds and enabled creation of fine resolution (1:24,000) SSN temperature models consistent with management scales for riparian buffers. SSN models were developed for July, August, and September median stream temperatures and the growing season maximum (GSM). Fitted SSN models had relatively high R2 values (0.88-0.96) and all final models included significant parameters for shade-attenuated solar radiation, reference flow, air temperature, and bankfull depth or width. Fitted models predicted stream temperatures during a dry (2010) and wet (2011) year. Monthly models predicted the fewest cold water (<19.0 °C) reaches in July with 28% in the dry and 68% in the wet year. September had >99% cold water reaches, and August results were intermediate between July and September. GSM predictions found 81% of stream reaches could not support salmonid survival (>27.0 °C) in the dry year and 59% of the reaches were warmwater (22.5-27.0 °C) in the wet year. The model was used to predict stream temperatures following restoration scenarios of a forested 30-m or 90-m buffer of stream segments bordered by agricultural or developed land. The restoration scenarios expanded cold water habitat based on monthly median temperatures and decreased the habitat area with GSM above survival thresholds, with little difference in effectiveness of the two buffer widths. These results will guide riparian restoration projects by the HBMI to expand habitat for cold water fishes.


Asunto(s)
Ecosistema , Ríos , Animales , Canadá , Bosques , Maine
18.
Ticks Tick Borne Dis ; 12(2): 101634, 2021 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33370715

RESUMEN

Over the past three decades, citizens of Maine in the northeastern United States have experienced increasing blacklegged tick (Ixodes scapularis) abundance and rising incidence of Lyme and other tick-borne diseases. White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) overabundance has been considered one cause of the high incidence of tick-borne diseases on offshore islands of New England. Most of Maine's 15 offshore, unbridged island communities have a history of concern about ticks, Lyme disease, and white-tailed deer overabundance, but have been challenged to keep deer numbers down through hunting or culls. This history has led to perennial, often divisive community debates about whether and how to reduce the size of their deer herds. In 2016 we conducted a convenience sample survey of year-round and summer residents of Maine's offshore islands to quantify the level of concern about Lyme disease, and assess the motivations and level of support for deer herd reduction. Among respondents, 84 % agreed Lyme disease was a problem on their island and 61 % supported deer herd reduction. Agreement that Lyme disease was a problem was associated with having acquired tick-borne disease as well as with tick bites without disease. Respondents ranked deer overabundance as a top cause of tick abundance and tick-borne disease and supported deer herd reduction as an approach to reduce the risk of Lyme disease. Other problems associated with deer overabundance (vehicle collisions, damage to landscaping, and damage to forests) also motivated support for deer reduction. Approval of doe permits, an expanded archery season, and sharpshooting as reduction methods was greater than an expanded firearms season. Respondents felt responsibility for tick control fell to the town for the most part, and recognized that multiple factors have contributed to the tick problem in Maine, not just deer.


Asunto(s)
Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Ciervos , Ixodes , Enfermedad de Lyme/psicología , Animales , Islas , Enfermedad de Lyme/prevención & control , Maine , Regulación de la Población
19.
Environ Res ; 192: 110460, 2021 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33217437

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Participatory science or citizen science is increasingly being recognized for providing benefits to scientists and community members alike. However, most participatory science projects include community researchers only in the sample collection phase of the research project. Here we describe how a rural tribal community and urban university utilized participatory science methods to engage community researchers across an entire research study, creating numerous opportunities for mutual capacity building. OBJECTIVES: Researchers from MIT and the Sipayik Environmental Department, a tribal government department, partnered to co-launch a participatory science project to analyze municipal and private well drinking water quality in households in three Maine communities. The objective was to provide households with information about metals, primarily lead and arsenic, in their drinking water, and to improve public education, community partnerships, and local scientific capacity. METHODS: MIT and Sipayik researchers engaged local communities through public community meetings, mailed flyers sent to residents, and meetings with local stakeholders. MIT and community researchers worked together to design and implement the study to quantify metals in community drinking water samples, as well as hold capacity-building trainings. Individual drinking water results were communicated to households, and generalized results were discussed at community meetings in the report-back phase. RESULTS: The study attained a 29% household participation rate in the region. The researchers completed the analysis and report-back on 652 water samples. Isolated incidences of lead and geologically-attributable arsenic exceeding EPA standards were found. Individual report-backs of the results enabled local participatory scientists to make their own informed public health decisions. The study produced methodologies for navigating potential ethical issues, working with diverse communities, and collaborating over challenging geographical distances. DISCUSSION: This project developed methodologies to build long-term relationships with local scientists and to engage community members and enhance the environmental literacy of rural communities. Both MIT and Sipayik researchers learned from each other throughout the project; Sipayik researchers built technical capacity while MIT researchers gained local and cultural understanding. Community outreach methods were most effective when sent directly to residents as mailed flyers or through Sipayik researchers' outreach.


Asunto(s)
Agua Potable , Creación de Capacidad , Humanos , Maine , Población Rural , Universidades
20.
J Econ Entomol ; 114(1): 320-325, 2021 02 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33367828

RESUMEN

Eastern New York State is frequently the site of Colorado potato beetle (Leptinotarsa decemlineata, Say) populations with the highest observed levels of insecticide resistance to a range of active ingredients. The dominance of a resistant phenotype will affect its rate of increase and the potential for management. On organic farms on Long Island, L. decemlineata evolved high levels of resistance to spinosad in a short period of time and that resistance has spread across the eastern part of the Island. Resistance has also emerged in other parts of the country as well. To clarify the level of dominance or recessiveness of spinosad resistance in different parts of the United States and how resistance differs in separate beetle populations, we sampled in 2010 beetle populations from Maine, Michigan, and Long Island. In addition, a highly resistant Long Island population was assessed in 2012. All populations were hybridized with a laboratory-susceptible strain to determine dominance. None of the populations sampled in 2010 were significantly different from additive resistance, but the Long Island population sampled in 2012 was not significantly different from fully recessive. Recessive inheritance of high-level resistance may help manage its increase.


Asunto(s)
Escarabajos , Insecticidas , Solanum tuberosum , Animales , Escarabajos/genética , Colorado , Combinación de Medicamentos , Macrólidos , Maine , Michigan , New York
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