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1.
Rev Med Suisse ; 16(693): 978-983, 2020 May 13.
Artículo en Francés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32401437

RESUMEN

Long-term travelers are particularly exposed to malaria. It is essential to inform them about this risk, the recognition of the symptoms of the disease and the need for prompt treatment. Addressing any fears of travelers and answering their questions improve therapeutic adherence. Personal protective measures (repellents, mosquito nets) are fundamental and safe to reduce exposure to the vector of the disease. Depending on the individual risk of malaria and the special vulnerability of the traveler, short-term or prolonged chemoprophylaxis and/or emergency self-treatment and a rapid diagnostic test for malaria may be offered.


Asunto(s)
Antimaláricos/administración & dosificación , Educación en Salud , Malaria/prevención & control , Enfermedad Relacionada con los Viajes , Animales , Antimaláricos/uso terapéutico , Quimioprevención , Diagnóstico Precoz , Humanos , Malaria/diagnóstico , Malaria/tratamiento farmacológico , Mosquiteros , Mosquitos Vectores , Prevención Secundaria
2.
Washington, D.C.; PAHO; 2020-05-06. (PAHO/CDE/VT/Covid-19/20-0011).
en Inglés | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-52080

RESUMEN

The PAHO Regional Malaria Program is aware of the imminent negative impact that the present COVID-19 pandemic is causing in the countries and their health systems, and consequently, in the fight against malaria in the countries of the Americas; considers that it is essential to guide national authorities; and draws attention to the main measures to be taken to maintain the continuity of actions against malaria, while protecting the health of healthcare workers and in line with national provisions for response to COVID-19. Malaria-specific guidance on the response to COVID-19 has been developed by WHO1 and is the main reference for this document. This material is subject to updates by WHO and PAHO on malaria and on the COVID-19 response.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus , Coronavirus , Malaria , Enfermedades Desatendidas , Américas
3.
Washington, D.C.; OPS; 2020-05-06. (OPS/CDE/VT/COVID-19/20-0011).
en Español | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-52079

RESUMEN

El Programa Regional de Malaria de la OPS, consciente del inminente impacto negativo que la presente pandemia de COVID-19 está causando en los países y en sus sistemas de salud, y consecuentemente en la lucha contra la malaria en los países de las Américas, considera fundamental orientar a las autoridades nacionales y llamar la atención sobre medidas principales a tomar para mantener la continuidad de las acciones contra la malaria, protegiendo la salud de los trabajadores y en consonancia con las disposiciones nacionales de respuesta a la COVID-19. La OMS ha elaborado orientaciones específicas sobre malaria durante la respuesta a la COVID-19, que constituyen la referencia principal de este documento. Este material está sujeto a actualizaciones de la OMS y la OPS sobre malaria y sobre la respuesta a la COVID-19.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus , Coronavirus , Malaria , Enfermedades Desatendidas
4.
Washington; Organización Panamericana de la Salud; abr. 6, 2020. 16 p.
No convencional en Inglés, Español | Coleciona SUS | ID: biblio-1096784

RESUMEN

El Programa Regional de Malaria de la OPS, consciente del inminente impacto negativo que la presente pandemia de COVID-19 está causando en los países y en sus sistemas de salud, y consecuentemente en la lucha contra la malaria en los países de las Américas, considera fundamental orientar a las autoridades nacionales y llamar la atención sobre medidas principales a tomar para mantener la continuidad de las acciones contra la malaria, protegiendo la salud de los trabajadores y en consonancia con las disposiciones nacionales de respuesta a la COVID-19. La OMS ha elaborado orientaciones específicas sobre malaria durante la respuesta a la COVID-19, que constituyen la referencia principal de este documento. Este material está sujeto a actualizaciones de la OMS y la OPS sobre malaria y sobre la respuesta a la COVID-19.


The PAHO Regional Malaria Program is aware of the imminent negative impact that the present COVID-19 pandemic is causing in the countries and their health systems, and consequently, in the fight against malaria in the countries of the Americas; considers that it is essential to guide national authorities; and draws attention to the main measures to be taken to maintain the continuity of actions against malaria, while protecting the health of healthcare workers and in line with national provisions for response to COVID-19. Malaria-specific guidance on the response to COVID-19 has been developed by WHO1 and is the main reference for this document. This material is subject to updates by WHO and PAHO on malaria and on the COVID-19 response.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Pandemias/prevención & control , Atención Ambulatoria/organización & administración , Betacoronavirus , Malaria/diagnóstico , Malaria/prevención & control
7.
Gac Med Mex ; 156(2): 124-131, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32285860

RESUMEN

From 1990 to 2012, the Sanitary and Tropical Diseases Institute experienced the most important changes. In 1989, its name and orientation were modified to become the National Institute of Epidemiological Diagnosis and Reference. Shortly before, it had been formalized as the apex of the National Network of Public Health Laboratories and had incorporated laboratories for preventive programs such as exfoliative cytology and rabies, malaria and tuberculosis diagnosis; subsequently, it would incorporate other networks that emerged as part of the response to major epidemic outbreaks and to the new epidemiological outlook. In this period, 27 priority diagnostic algorithms were defined, organized in 18 networks, some of which began to collaborate with global networks. In 2001, the Institute started working with pathogens related to bioterrorism. By then, space restrictions of the headquarter's building were evident; in 2008, starting the construction of new facilities was decided. The Institute and its diagnostic networks constitute a milestone in Latin American public health of the 21st century.


Asunto(s)
Academias e Institutos , Brotes de Enfermedades , Humanos , Malaria/diagnóstico , Malaria/epidemiología , Salud Pública , Factores de Tiempo , Tuberculosis/diagnóstico , Tuberculosis/epidemiología
8.
Cell Host Microbe ; 27(4): 496-498, 2020 04 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32272073

RESUMEN

Recently, two Plasmodium aspartyl proteases were identified as druggable targets impacting parasite survival. In this issue of Cell Host & Microbe, Favuzza et al. describe the optimization of a compound series acting on both targets, heralding the prospect of a new class of antimalarials for clinical studies.


Asunto(s)
Antimaláricos , Malaria , Parásitos , Animales , Ácido Aspártico Endopeptidasas
11.
Lancet ; 395(10232): 1292-1303, 2020 04 18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32305094

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) are the primary malaria prevention tool, but their effectiveness is threatened by pyrethroid resistance. We embedded a pragmatic cluster-randomised trial into Uganda's national LLIN campaign to compare conventional LLINs with those containing piperonyl butoxide (PBO), a synergist that can partially restore pyrethroid susceptibility in mosquito vectors. METHODS: 104 health sub-districts, from 48 districts in Uganda, were randomly assigned to LLINs with PBO (PermaNet 3.0 and Olyset Plus) and conventional LLINs (PermaNet 2.0 and Olyset Net) by proportionate randomisation using an iterative process. At baseline 6, 12, and 18 months after LLIN distribution, cross-sectional surveys were done in 50 randomly selected households per cluster (5200 per survey); a subset of ten households per cluster (1040 per survey) were randomly selected for entomological surveys. The primary outcome was parasite prevalence by microscopy in children aged 2-10 years, assessed in the as-treated population at 6, 12, and 18 months. This trial is registered with ISRCTN, ISRCTN17516395. FINDINGS: LLINs were delivered to households from March 25, 2017, to March 18, 2018, 32 clusters were randomly assigned to PermaNet 3.0, 20 to Olyset Plus, 37 to PermaNet 2.0, and 15 to Olyset Net. In the as-treated analysis, three clusters were excluded because no dominant LLIN was received, and four clusters were reassigned, resulting in 49 PBO LLIN clusters (31 received PermaNet 3.0 and 18 received Olyset Plus) and 52 non-PBO LLIN clusters (39 received PermaNet 2.0 and 13 received Olyset Net). At 6 months, parasite prevalence was 11% (386/3614) in the PBO group compared with 15% (556/3844) in the non-PBO group (prevalence ratio [PR] adjusted for baseline values 0·74, 95% CI 0·62-0·87; p=0·0003). Parasite prevalence was similar at month 12 (11% vs 13%; PR 0·73, 95% CI 0·63-0·85; p=0·0001) and month 18 (12% vs 14%; PR 0·84, 95% CI 0·72-0·98; p=0·029). INTERPRETATION: In Uganda, where pyrethroid resistance is high, PBO LLINs reduced parasite prevalence more effectively than did conventional LLINs for up to 18 months. This study provides evidence needed to support WHO's final recommendation on use of PBO LLINs. FUNDING: The Against Malaria Foundation, UK Department for International Development, Innovative Vector Control Consortium, and Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation.


Asunto(s)
Mosquiteros Tratados con Insecticida/estadística & datos numéricos , Malaria/prevención & control , Sinergistas de Plaguicidas/farmacología , Butóxido de Piperonilo/farmacología , Animales , Anopheles/parasitología , Anopheles/fisiología , Niño , Preescolar , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Resistencia a los Insecticidas , Malaria/sangre , Masculino , Mosquitos Vectores/parasitología , Mosquitos Vectores/fisiología , Uganda
12.
BMJ ; 369: m1043, 2020 04 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32241761

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: To outline which infectious diseases in the pre-covid-19 era persist in children and adolescents in China and to describe recent trends and variations by age, sex, season, and province. DESIGN: National surveillance studies, 2008-17. SETTING: 31 provinces in mainland China. PARTICIPANTS: 4 959 790 Chinese students aged 6 to 22 years with a diagnosis of any of 44 notifiable infectious diseases. The diseases were categorised into seven groups: quarantinable; vaccine preventable; gastrointestinal and enteroviral; vectorborne; zoonotic; bacterial; and sexually transmitted and bloodborne. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Diagnosis of, and deaths from, 44 notifiable infectious diseases. RESULTS: From 2008 to 2017, 44 notifiable infectious diseases were diagnosed in 4 959 790 participants (3 045 905 males, 1 913 885 females) and there were 2532 deaths (1663 males, 869 females). The leading causes of death among infectious diseases shifted from rabies and tuberculosis to HIV/AIDS, particularly in males. Mortality from infectious diseases decreased steadily from 0.21 per 100 000 population in 2008 to 0.07 per 100 000 in 2017. Quarantinable conditions with high mortality have effectively disappeared. The incidence of notifiable infectious diseases in children and adolescents decreased from 280 per 100 000 in 2008 to 162 per 100 000 in 2015, but rose again to 242 per 100 000 in 2017, largely related to mumps and seasonal influenza. Excluding mumps and influenza, the incidence of vaccine preventable diseases fell from 96 per 100 000 in 2008 to 7 per 100 000 in 2017. The incidence of gastrointestinal and enterovirus diseases remained constant, but typhoid, paratyphoid, and dysentery continued to decline. Vectorborne diseases all declined, with a particularly noticeable reduction in malaria. Zoonotic infections remained at low incidence, but there were still unpredictable outbreaks, such as pandemic A/H1N1 2009 influenza. Tuberculosis remained the most common bacterial infection, although cases of scarlet fever doubled between 2008 and 2017. Sexually transmitted diseases and bloodborne infections increased significantly, particularly from 2011 to 2017, among which HIV/AIDS increased fivefold, particularly in males. Difference was noticeable between regions, with children and adolescents in western China continuing to carry a disproportionate burden from infectious diseases. CONCLUSIONS: China's success in infectious disease control in the pre-covid-19 era was notable, with deaths due to infectious diseases in children and adolescents aged 6-22 years becoming rare. Many challenges remain around reducing regional inequalities, scaling-up of vaccination, prevention of further escalation of HIV/AIDS, renewed efforts for persisting diseases, and undertaking early and effective response to highly transmissible seasonal and unpredictable diseases such as that caused by the novel SARS-CoV-2 virus.


Asunto(s)
Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles , Programas de Inmunización , Vacunación , Enfermedades Prevenibles por Vacunación , Adolescente , Betacoronavirus , Niño , China/epidemiología , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles/métodos , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles/normas , Infecciones por Coronavirus , Brotes de Enfermedades , Femenino , Humanos , Incidencia , Subtipo H1N1 del Virus de la Influenza A , Gripe Humana/prevención & control , Malaria/economía , Malaria/prevención & control , Masculino , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral , Estudios Retrospectivos , Escarlatina/epidemiología , Escarlatina/prevención & control , Enfermedades de Transmisión Sexual/epidemiología , Enfermedades de Transmisión Sexual/prevención & control , Tuberculosis/epidemiología , Tuberculosis/prevención & control , Enfermedades Prevenibles por Vacunación/prevención & control
14.
Lancet ; 395(10233): e72, 2020 04 25.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32334709
15.
Lancet ; 395(10233): e67, 2020 04 25.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32334704
16.
Lancet ; 395(10233): e68, 2020 04 25.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32334705
17.
Lancet ; 395(10233): e69, 2020 04 25.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32334706
18.
Lancet ; 395(10233): e70, 2020 04 25.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32334707
19.
Lancet ; 395(10233): e71, 2020 04 25.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32334708
20.
Lancet ; 395(10233): e73, 2020 04 25.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32334710

Asunto(s)
Malaria , Humanos
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