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1.
West Afr J Med ; 38(3): 274-281, 2021 Mar 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33765761

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Severe malaria is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in Nigeria and concomitant bacteraemia may potentially worsen clinical outcomes. (Duration of admission, Mortality, Fever clearance time and Coma recovery time). OBJECTIVES: This study aimed at identifying the proportion of children with severe malaria who had concomitant bacteraemia, the pathogens implicated and their drug sensitivity pattern, predictors of bacterial co-infection and its effect on treatment outcome. METHODS: This was a hospital-based cross-sectional study at the Emergency Paediatric Unit of the University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital, Nigeria. The subjects were children aged 6 months to 14 years with severe malaria and microscopy confirmed parasitemia at admission. All subjects had blood culture samples drawn at admission for identification of bacterial isolates. Relevant clinical and laboratory parameters were recorded on case proformas. RESULTS: A total of 944 children were admitted into the Emergency Paediatric Unit during the study period with 176 (18.6%) managed for severe malaria. Of the 176 children with severe malaria, 41 (23.3%) had concomitant bacteraemia. Gram positive bacteria were the most common (70.7%) isolates with Staphylococcus aureus being the most predominant (65.9%). The bacterial isolates were mostly sensitive to Ciprofloxacin. Children with concomitant bacteraemia had a longer duration of admission (p = 0.028) and longer fever clearance time (p=0.015). Increasing duration of coma before presentation was the single independent predictor of bacteraemia (p= 0.010). CONCLUSION: Severe malaria constituted a significant cause of admissions in UITH with approximately a fourth of the subjects having bacterial co-infection and this was associated with a worse prognosis (longer duration of admission and fever clearance time). Increased duration of coma prior to admission was the only predictor of the presence of bacteraemia in children with severe malaria. This highlights the importance of investigating for concomitant bacteraemia, especially in children presenting with coma.


Asunto(s)
Bacteriemia , Coinfección , Malaria , Bacteriemia/tratamiento farmacológico , Bacteriemia/epidemiología , Niño , Coinfección/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Humanos , Lactante , Malaria/complicaciones , Malaria/tratamiento farmacológico , Malaria/epidemiología , Nigeria/epidemiología
2.
BMJ Glob Health ; 6(3)2021 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33758014

RESUMEN

We have worked to develop a Clinical Information Network (CIN) in Kenya as an early form of learning health systems (LHS) focused on paediatric and neonatal care that now spans 22 hospitals. CIN's aim was to examine important outcomes of hospitalisation at scale, identify and ultimately solve practical problems of service delivery, drive improvements in quality and test interventions. By including multiple routine settings in research, we aimed to promote generalisability of findings and demonstrate potential efficiencies derived from LHS. We illustrate the nature and range of research CIN has supported over the past 7 years as a form of LHS. Clinically, this has largely focused on common, serious paediatric illnesses such as pneumonia, malaria and diarrhoea with dehydration with recent extensions to neonatal illnesses. CIN also enables examination of the quality of care, for example that provided to children with severe malnutrition and the challenges encountered in routine settings in adopting simple technologies (pulse oximetry) and more advanced diagnostics (eg, Xpert MTB/RIF). Although regular feedback to hospitals has been associated with some improvements in quality data continue to highlight system challenges that undermine provision of basic, quality care (eg, poor access to blood glucose testing and routine microbiology). These challenges include those associated with increased mortality risk (eg, delays in blood transfusion). Using the same data the CIN platform has enabled conduct of randomised trials and supports malaria vaccine and most recently COVID-19 surveillance. Employing LHS principles has meant engaging front-line workers, clinical managers and national stakeholders throughout. Our experience suggests LHS can be developed in low and middle-income countries that efficiently enable contextually appropriate research and contribute to strengthening of health services and research systems.


Asunto(s)
Servicios de Salud del Niño/normas , Prestación de Atención de Salud/normas , Accesibilidad a los Servicios de Salud/normas , Investigación sobre Servicios de Salud , Mejoramiento de la Calidad , /epidemiología , Niño , Preescolar , Países en Desarrollo , Diarrea/epidemiología , Diarrea/prevención & control , Humanos , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Kenia/epidemiología , Malaria/epidemiología , Malaria/prevención & control , Pandemias , Neumonía/epidemiología , Neumonía/prevención & control
3.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 259, 2021 Mar 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33711940

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Plasmodium cynomolgi is a simian malaria parasite that has been reported as a naturally acquired human infection. The present study aims to systematically review reports on naturally acquired P. cynomolgi in humans, mosquitoes, and macaques to provide relevant data for pre-emptive surveillance and preparation in the event of an outbreak of zoonotic malaria in Southeast Asia. METHODS: The protocol of the systematic review was registered at PROSPERO with approval ID CRD42020203046. Three databases (Web of Science, Scopus, and MEDLINE) were searched for studies reporting the prevalence of P. cynomolgi infections in Southeast Asian countries between 1946 and 2020. The pooled prevalence or pooled proportion of P. cynomolgi parasitemia in humans, mosquitoes, and macaques was estimated using a random-effects model. Differences in the clinical characteristics of P. cynomolgi infections were also estimated using a random-effects model and presented as pooled odds ratios (ORs) or mean differences (MDs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). RESULTS: Thirteen studies reporting on the prevalence of naturally acquired P. cynomolgi in humans (3 studies, 21 cases), mosquitoes (3 studies, 28 cases), and macaques (7 studies, 334 cases) were included. The results demonstrated that the pooled proportion of naturally acquired P. cynomolgi in humans was 1% (95% CI, 0.1%, I2, 0%), while the pooled proportion of P. cynomolgi infecting mosquitoes was 18% (95% CI, 10-26%, I2, 32.7%). The pooled prevalence of naturally acquired P. cynomolgi in macaques was 47% (95% CI, 27-67%, I2, 98.3%). Most of the cases of naturally acquired P. cynomolgi in humans were reported in Cambodia (62%) and Malaysia (38%), while cases of P. cynomolgi in macaques were reported in Malaysia (35.4%), Singapore (23.2%), Indonesia (17.3%), Philippines (8.5%), Laos (7.93%), and Cambodia (7.65%). Cases of P. cynomolgi in mosquitoes were reported in Vietnam (76.9%) and Malaysia (23.1%). CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrated the occurrence of naturally acquired P. cynomolgi infection in humans, mosquitoes, and macaques. Further studies of P. cynomolgi in asymptomatic human cases in areas where vectors and natural hosts are endemic are extensively needed if human infections with P. cynomolgi do become public health problems.


Asunto(s)
Culicidae/parasitología , Macaca/parasitología , Malaria/diagnóstico , Plasmodium cynomolgi/aislamiento & purificación , Animales , Asia Sudoriental/epidemiología , ADN Protozoario/metabolismo , Humanos , Malaria/epidemiología , Oportunidad Relativa , Plasmodium cynomolgi/genética , Prevalencia
4.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33660467

RESUMEN

Malaria was one for the most serious communicable diseases in China. Following the concerted efforts for decades, remarkable achievements have been gained for malaria control in China. Since the national malaria elimination programme was initiated in China in 2010, local malaria transmission was rapidly interrupted, with zero indigenous malaria case reported for the first time in the country in 2017, and the country will undergo the certification of malaria elimination by WHO. Currently, however, malaria remains hyper-endemic across the world. In China, there are more than 2 000 overseas imported malaria cases each year, and prevention of re-establishment of imported malaria will become the major task in future malaria control activities. Here by, we analyze the main challenges in the prevention of re-establishment of imported malaria in China, and propose the corresponding countermeasures, so as to provide insights into the consolidation of malaria elimination achievements.


Asunto(s)
Malaria , China/epidemiología , Humanos , Malaria/epidemiología , Malaria/prevención & control
5.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 1494, 2021 03 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33686061

RESUMEN

Transmission-blocking vaccines that interrupt malaria transmission from humans to mosquitoes are being tested in early clinical trials. The activity of such a vaccine is commonly evaluated using membrane-feeding assays. Understanding the field efficacy of such a vaccine requires knowledge of how heavily infected wild, naturally blood-fed mosquitoes are, as this indicates how difficult it will be to block transmission. Here we use data on naturally infected mosquitoes collected in Burkina Faso to translate the laboratory-estimated activity into an estimated activity in the field. A transmission dynamics model is then utilised to predict a transmission-blocking vaccine's public health impact alongside existing interventions. The model suggests that school-aged children are an attractive population to target for vaccination. Benefits of vaccination are distributed across the population, averting the greatest number of cases in younger children. Utilising a transmission-blocking vaccine alongside existing interventions could have a substantial impact against malaria.


Asunto(s)
Vacunas contra la Malaria/inmunología , Malaria/prevención & control , Malaria/transmisión , Salud Pública , Adolescente , Adulto , Burkina Faso/epidemiología , Niño , Preescolar , Humanos , Lactante , Malaria/epidemiología , Malaria Falciparum/prevención & control , Persona de Mediana Edad , Prevalencia , Vacunación , Adulto Joven
6.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 1555, 2021 03 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33692343

RESUMEN

A counterargument to the importance of climate change for malaria transmission has been that regions where an effect of warmer temperatures is expected, have experienced a marked decrease in seasonal epidemic size since the turn of the new century. This decline has been observed in the densely populated highlands of East Africa at the center of the earlier debate on causes of the pronounced increase in epidemic size from the 1970s to the 1990s. The turnaround of the incidence trend around 2000 is documented here with an extensive temporal record for malaria cases for both Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax in an Ethiopian highland. With statistical analyses and a process-based transmission model, we show that this decline was driven by the transient slowdown in global warming and associated changes in climate variability, especially ENSO. Decadal changes in temperature and concurrent climate variability facilitated rather than opposed the effect of interventions.


Asunto(s)
Malaria/epidemiología , África Oriental/epidemiología , Calentamiento Global , Humanos , Incidencia , Malaria Falciparum/epidemiología , Plasmodium falciparum/patogenicidad , Plasmodium vivax/patogenicidad , Temperatura
7.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 194, 2021 Feb 19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33607958

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) are currently the primary method of malaria control in sub-Saharan Africa and have contributed to a significant reduction in malaria burden over the past 15 years. However, this progress is threatened by the wide-scale selection of insecticide-resistant malaria vectors. It is, therefore, important to accelerate the generation of evidence for new classes of LLINs. METHODS: This protocol presents a three-arm superiority, single-blinded, cluster randomized controlled trial to evaluate the impact of 2 novel dual-active ingredient LLINs on epidemiological and entomological outcomes in Benin, a malaria-endemic area with highly pyrethroid-resistant vector populations. The study arms consist of (i) Royal Guard® LLIN, a net combining a pyrethroid (alpha-cypermethrin) plus an insect growth regulator (pyriproxyfen), which in the adult female is known to disrupt reproduction and egg fertility; (ii) Interceptor G2® LLIN, a net incorporating two adulticides (alpha-cypermethrin and chlorfenapyr) with different modes of action; and (iii) the control arm, Interceptor® LLIN, a pyrethroid (alpha-cypermethrin) only LLIN. In all arms, one net for every 2 people will be distributed to each household. Sixty clusters were identified and randomised 1:1:1 to each study arm. The primary outcome is malaria case incidence measured over 24 months through active case detection in a cohort of 25 children aged 6 months to 10 years, randomly selected from each cluster. Secondary outcomes include 1) malaria infection prevalence (all ages) and prevalence of moderate to severe anaemia in children under 5 years old, measured at 6 and 18 months post-intervention; 2) entomological indices measured every 3 months using human landing catches over 24 months. Insecticide resistance intensity will also be monitored over the study period. DISCUSSION: This study is the second cluster randomised controlled trial to evaluate the efficacy of these next-generation LLINs to control malaria transmitted by insecticide-resistant mosquitoes. The results of this study will form part of the WHO evidence-based review to support potential public health recommendations of these nets and shape malaria control strategies of sub-Saharan Africa for the next decade. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03931473 , registered on 30 April 2019.


Asunto(s)
Resistencia a los Insecticidas/efectos de los fármacos , Mosquiteros Tratados con Insecticida , Malaria/prevención & control , Control de Mosquitos/métodos , Mosquitos Vectores/fisiología , Animales , Benin/epidemiología , Humanos , Incidencia , Insecticidas/farmacología , Malaria/epidemiología , Malaria/transmisión , Prevalencia , Piretrinas/farmacología , Piridinas/farmacología
8.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33477889

RESUMEN

According to the World Health Organization 94% of global malaria cases and 94% of global malaria deaths have been reported from Africa. Unfortunately, it is difficult to determine the exact prevalence of disease in some African countries due to a large number of asymptomatic cases. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of malaria infections in seemingly healthy children living in the Central African Republic (CAR). CareStartTM Malaria HRP2 rapid diagnostic test (RDT) targeting Plasmodium falciparum was used to test a group of 500 asymptomatic children aged 1-15 years old (330 settled Bantu and 170 semi-nomadic BaAka Pygmies) inhabiting the villages in the Dzanga Sangha region (south-west CAR) in March 2020. In total, 32.4% of asymptomatic Bantu and 40.6% of asymptomatic Pygmy children had a positive result of malaria RDT. Our findings allowed us to demonstrate the high prevalence of asymptomatic malaria infections in south-west CAR. RDTs seem to be a useful tool for the detection of Plasmodium falciparum in areas with limited possibilities of using other diagnostic methods, such as light microscopy and molecular biology.


Asunto(s)
Malaria Falciparum , Malaria , Adolescente , África , Infecciones Asintomáticas/epidemiología , República Centroafricana/epidemiología , Niño , Preescolar , Estudios Transversales , Pruebas Diagnósticas de Rutina , Humanos , Lactante , Malaria/epidemiología , Malaria Falciparum/epidemiología , Prevalencia , Sensibilidad y Especificidad
9.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33478166

RESUMEN

CONTEXT: In Mali, malaria transmission is seasonal, exposing children to high morbidity and mortality. A preventative strategy called Seasonal Malaria Chemoprevention (SMC) is being implemented, consisting of the distribution of drugs at monthly intervals for up to 4 months to children between 3 and 59 months of age during the period of the year when malaria is most prevalent. This study aimed to analyze the evolution of the incidence of malaria in the general population of the health districts of Kati, Kadiolo, Sikasso, Yorosso, and Tominian in the context of SMC implementation. METHODS: This is a transversal study analyzing the routine malaria data and meteorological data of Nasa Giovanni from 2016 to 2018. General Additive Model (GAM) analysis was performed to investigate the relationship between malaria incidence and meteorological factors. RESULTS: From 2016 to 2018, the evolution of the overall incidence in all the study districts was positively associated with the relative humidity, rainfall, and minimum temperature components. The average monthly incidence and the relative humidity varied according to the health district, and the average temperature and rainfall were similar. A decrease in incidence was observed in children under five years old in 2017 and 2018 compared to 2016. CONCLUSION: A decrease in the incidence of malaria was observed after the SMC rounds. SMC should be applied at optimal periods.


Asunto(s)
Antimaláricos , Malaria , Antimaláricos/uso terapéutico , Quimioprevención , Niño , Preescolar , Humanos , Incidencia , Malaria/epidemiología , Malaria/prevención & control , Malí/epidemiología , Estaciones del Año
10.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 28(13): 16830-16842, 2021 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33394450

RESUMEN

Malaria is a climate-sensitive infectious disease. Many ecological studies have investigated the independent impacts of ambient temperature on malaria. However, the optimal temperature measures of malaria and its interaction with other meteorological factors on malaria transmission are less understood. This study aims to investigate the effect of ambient temperature and its interactions with relative humidity and rainfall on malaria in Suzhou, a temperate climate city in Anhui Province, China. Weekly malaria and meteorological data from 2005 to 2012 were obtained for Suzhou. A distributed lag nonlinear model was conducted to quantify the effect of different temperature measures on malaria. The best measure was defined as that with the minimum quasi-Akaike information criterion. GeoDetector and Poisson regression models were employed to quantify the interactions of temperature, relative humidity, and rainfall on malaria transmission. A total of 13,382 malaria cases were notified in Suzhou from 2005 to 2012. Each 5 °C rise in average temperature over 10 °C resulted in a 22% (95% CI: 17%, 28%) increase in malaria cases at lag of 4 weeks. In terms of cumulative effects from lag 1 to 8 weeks, each 5 °C increase over 10 °C caused a 175% growth in malaria cases (95% CI: 139%, 216%). Average temperature achieved the best performance in terms of model fitting, followed by minimum temperature, most frequent temperature, and maximum temperature. Temperature had an interactive effect on malaria with relative humidity and rainfall. High temperature together with high relative humidity and high rainfall could accelerate the transmission of malaria. Meteorological factors may affect malaria transmission interactively. The research findings could be helpful in the development of weather-based malaria early warning system, especially in the context of climate change for the prevention of possible malaria resurgence.


Asunto(s)
Malaria , China/epidemiología , Ciudades , Humanos , Humedad , Incidencia , Malaria/epidemiología , Temperatura
12.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 269, 2021 01 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33431834

RESUMEN

Chemical matter is needed to target the divergent biology associated with the different life cycle stages of Plasmodium. Here, we report the parallel de novo screening of the Medicines for Malaria Venture (MMV) Pandemic Response Box against Plasmodium asexual and liver stage parasites, stage IV/V gametocytes, gametes, oocysts and as endectocides. Unique chemotypes were identified with both multistage activity or stage-specific activity, including structurally diverse gametocyte-targeted compounds with potent transmission-blocking activity, such as the JmjC inhibitor ML324 and the antitubercular clinical candidate SQ109. Mechanistic investigations prove that ML324 prevents histone demethylation, resulting in aberrant gene expression and death in gametocytes. Moreover, the selection of parasites resistant to SQ109 implicates the druggable V-type H+-ATPase for the reduced sensitivity. Our data therefore provides an expansive dataset of compounds that could be redirected for antimalarial development and also point towards proteins that can be targeted in multiple parasite life cycle stages.


Asunto(s)
Antimaláricos/uso terapéutico , Descubrimiento de Drogas , Malaria/tratamiento farmacológico , Malaria/transmisión , Pandemias , Aedes/parasitología , Animales , Antimaláricos/química , Antimaláricos/farmacología , Análisis por Conglomerados , Relación Dosis-Respuesta a Droga , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Concentración 50 Inhibidora , Estadios del Ciclo de Vida/efectos de los fármacos , Hígado/efectos de los fármacos , Hígado/parasitología , Malaria/epidemiología , Masculino , Plasmodium falciparum/efectos de los fármacos , Plasmodium falciparum/crecimiento & desarrollo
13.
Infect Dis Poverty ; 10(1): 5, 2021 Jan 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33413680

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The pandemic of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has caused substantial disruptions to health services in the low and middle-income countries with a high burden of other diseases, such as malaria in sub-Saharan Africa. The aim of this study is to assess the impact of COVID-19 pandemic on malaria transmission potential in malaria-endemic countries in Africa. METHODS: We present a data-driven method to quantify the extent to which the COVID-19 pandemic, as well as various non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs), could lead to the change of malaria transmission potential in 2020. First, we adopt a particle Markov Chain Monte Carlo method to estimate epidemiological parameters in each country by fitting the time series of the cumulative number of reported COVID-19 cases. Then, we simulate the epidemic dynamics of COVID-19 under two groups of NPIs: (1) contact restriction and social distancing, and (2) early identification and isolation of cases. Based on the simulated epidemic curves, we quantify the impact of COVID-19 epidemic and NPIs on the distribution of insecticide-treated nets (ITNs). Finally, by treating the total number of ITNs available in each country in 2020, we evaluate the negative effects of COVID-19 pandemic on malaria transmission potential based on the notion of vectorial capacity. RESULTS: We conduct case studies in four malaria-endemic countries, Ethiopia, Nigeria, Tanzania, and Zambia, in Africa. The epidemiological parameters (i.e., the basic reproduction number [Formula: see text] and the duration of infection [Formula: see text]) of COVID-19 in each country are estimated as follows: Ethiopia ([Formula: see text], [Formula: see text]), Nigeria ([Formula: see text], [Formula: see text]), Tanzania ([Formula: see text], [Formula: see text]), and Zambia ([Formula: see text], [Formula: see text]). Based on the estimated epidemiological parameters, the epidemic curves simulated under various NPIs indicated that the earlier the interventions are implemented, the better the epidemic is controlled. Moreover, the effect of combined NPIs is better than contact restriction and social distancing only. By treating the total number of ITNs available in each country in 2020 as a baseline, our results show that even with stringent NPIs, malaria transmission potential will remain higher than expected in the second half of 2020. CONCLUSIONS: By quantifying the impact of various NPI response to the COVID-19 pandemic on malaria transmission potential, this study provides a way to jointly address the syndemic between COVID-19 and malaria in malaria-endemic countries in Africa. The results suggest that the early intervention of COVID-19 can effectively reduce the scale of the epidemic and mitigate its impact on malaria transmission potential.


Asunto(s)
/epidemiología , Malaria/epidemiología , Malaria/terapia , /transmisión , Etiopía/epidemiología , Humanos , Malaria/transmisión , Cadenas de Markov , Nigeria/epidemiología , Pandemias , Sindémico , Tanzanía/epidemiología , Zambia/epidemiología
14.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 91, 2021 Jan 21.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33478414

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Informed decision making is underlined by all tiers in the health system. Poor data record system coupled with under- (over)-reporting of malaria cases affects the country's malaria elimination activities. Thus, malaria data at health facilities and health offices are important particularly to monitor and evaluate the elimination progresses. This study was intended to assess overall reported malaria cases, reporting quality, spatiotemporal trends and factors associated in Gedeo zone, South Ethiopia. METHODS: Past 8 years retrospective data stored in 17 health centers and 5 district health offices in Gedeo Zone, South Ethiopia were extracted. Malaria cases data at each health center with sociodemographic information, between January 2012 and December 2019, were included. Meteorological data were obtained from the national meteorology agency of Ethiopia. The data were analyzed using Stata 13. RESULTS: A total of 485,414 suspected cases were examined for malaria during the previous 8 years at health centers. Of these suspects, 57,228 (11.79%) were confirmed malaria cases with an overall decline during the 8-year period. We noted that 3758 suspected cases and 467 confirmed malaria cases were not captured at the health offices. Based on the health centers records, the proportions of Plasmodium falciparum (49.74%) and P. vivax (47.59%) infection were nearly equivalent (p = 0.795). The former was higher at low altitudes while the latter was higher at higher altitudes. The over 15 years of age group accounted for 11.47% of confirmed malaria cases (p < 0.001). There was high spatiotemporal variation: the highest case record was during Belg (12.52%) and in Dilla town (18,150, 13.17%, p < 0.001) which is located at low altitude. Monthly rainfall and minimum temperature exhibited strong associations with confirmed malaria cases. CONCLUSION: A notable overall decline in malaria cases was observed during the eight-year period. Both P. falciparum and P. vivax were found at equivalent endemicity level; hence control measures should continue targeting both species. The noticed under reporting, the high malaria burden in urban settings, low altitudes and Belg season need spatiotemporal consideration by the elimination program.


Asunto(s)
Malaria/epidemiología , Altitud , Demografía , Notificación de Enfermedades/normas , Notificación de Enfermedades/estadística & datos numéricos , Etiopía/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Malaria/diagnóstico , Malaria/parasitología , Malaria/prevención & control , Masculino , Meteorología , Análisis Multivariante , Plasmodium falciparum/aislamiento & purificación , Plasmodium vivax/aislamiento & purificación , Prevalencia , Estudios Retrospectivos , Estaciones del Año
15.
J Med Virol ; 93(4): 2431-2438, 2021 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33368412

RESUMEN

Healthcare workers (HCWs) are at higher risk of contracting severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. Information regarding co-infection of SARS-CoV-2 with vector-borne diseases (malaria and dengue) is crucial especially for the countries wherein malaria and dengue are endemic. The objective was to study the prevalence, demographic, clinical presentations among HCWs with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and to compare the viral clearance in HCWs with COVID-19 and co-infection of malaria and dengue. This retrospective study was conducted at a dedicated COVID-19 hospital, BYL Nair Charitable Hospital (NH), Mumbai, India April 6th-October 31st 2020. The SARS-CoV-2 infection in HCWs was confirmed by reverse transcription-plymerase chain reaction. Out of 491 HCWs infected with SARS-CoV-2, analysis of viral clearance was carried out in 467 HCWs over seven month periods, The prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 infection in HCWs was 13% (491 out of 3711). Out of the HCWs with COVID-19, prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 infection was higher among security guards (25%) with 1% mortality. The co-infection of malaria or dengue was reported in 31 HCWs (6.3%). The mean duration of virus clearance was longer (12 days) in symptomatic HCWs as compared to asymptomatic (8 days, p < .005). The recovery of SARS-CoV-2 infection in HCWs was faster (mean 8 days) with co-infection of malaria than without malaria (p < .005). We recommend universal testing of HCWs, to optimize staffing levels during the current pandemic as HCWs are the most precious resource. There is a need to effectively implement standard protocols for prevention of vector-borne diseases, especially in the hospital settings.


Asunto(s)
/epidemiología , Coinfección/epidemiología , Malaria/epidemiología , Adolescente , Adulto , Dengue/epidemiología , Femenino , Personal de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Hospitales , Humanos , India/epidemiología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pandemias , Prevalencia , Estudios Retrospectivos , Adulto Joven
17.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 24(24): 13098-13100, 2020 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33378063

RESUMEN

COVID-19 is rapidly spreading throughout the world since December 2019. It has hit South Asian countries with faded impact, which can be attributed to (a) availability of kits, (b) number of people tested for COVID-19, (c) immunity, (d) environmental conditions and (e) vaccination.


Asunto(s)
/estadística & datos numéricos , Humedad , Malaria/inmunología , Temperatura , Vacunas contra la Tuberculosis/uso terapéutico , Tuberculosis/prevención & control , Asia Occidental/epidemiología , /inmunología , Ambiente , Humanos , Malaria/epidemiología , Prevalencia , Juego de Reactivos para Diagnóstico/provisión & distribución , Tuberculosis/epidemiología
18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33348771

RESUMEN

Malaria occurrence in the Chittagong Hill Tracts in Bangladesh varies by season and year, but this pattern is not well characterized. The role of environmental conditions on the occurrence of this vector-borne parasitic disease in the region is not fully understood. We extracted information on malaria patients recorded in the Upazila (sub-district) Health Complex patient registers of Rajasthali in Rangamati district of Bangladesh from February 2000 to November 2009. Weather data for the study area and period were obtained from the Bangladesh Meteorological Department. Non-linear and delayed effects of meteorological drivers, including temperature, relative humidity, and rainfall on the incidence of malaria, were investigated. We observed significant positive association between temperature and rainfall and malaria occurrence, revealing two peaks at 19 °C (logarithms of relative risks (logRR) = 4.3, 95% CI: 1.1-7.5) and 24.5 °C (logRR = 4.7, 95% CI: 1.8-7.6) for temperature and at 86 mm (logRR = 19.5, 95% CI: 11.7-27.3) and 284 mm (logRR = 17.6, 95% CI: 9.9-25.2) for rainfall. In sub-group analysis, women were at a much higher risk of developing malaria at increased temperatures. People over 50 years and children under 15 years were more susceptible to malaria at increased rainfall. The observed associations have policy implications. Further research is needed to expand these findings and direct resources to the vulnerable populations for malaria prevention and control in the Chittagong Hill Tracts of Bangladesh and the region with similar settings.


Asunto(s)
Malaria , Medición de Riesgo , Tiempo (Meteorología) , Anciano , Bangladesh/epidemiología , Niño , Femenino , Humanos , Incidencia , Malaria/epidemiología , Factores de Riesgo , Estaciones del Año
19.
Malar J ; 19(1): 457, 2020 Dec 23.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33357220

RESUMEN

The incidence and mortality of COVID-19, according to the World Health Organization reports, shows a noticeable difference between North America, Western Europe, and South Asia on one hand and most African countries on the other hand, especially the malaria-endemic countries. Although this observation could be attributed to limited testing capacity, mitigation tools adopted and cultural habits, many theories have been postulated to explain this difference in prevalence and mortality. Because death tends to occur more in elders, both the role of demography, and how the age structure of a population may contribute to the difference in mortality rate between countries were discussed. The variable distribution of the ACEI/D and the ACE2 (C1173T substitution) polymorphisms has been postulated to explain this variable prevalence. Up-to-date data regarding the role of hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) and chloroquine (CQ) in COVID-19 have been summarized. The article also sheds lights on how the similarity of malaria and COVID-19 symptoms can lead to misdiagnosis of one disease for the other or overlooking the possibility of co-infection. As the COVID-19 pandemic threatens the delivery of malaria services, such as the distribution of insecticide-treated nets (ITNs), indoor residual spraying, as well as malaria chemoprevention there is an urgent need for rapid and effective responses to avoid malaria outbreaks.


Asunto(s)
/epidemiología , Malaria/epidemiología , Factores de Edad , /diagnóstico , Cloroquina/uso terapéutico , Humanos , Hidroxicloroquina/uso terapéutico , Interferones/fisiología , Malaria/diagnóstico , Malaria/tratamiento farmacológico , Prevalencia
20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33322414

RESUMEN

The life-threatening zoonotic malaria cases caused by Plasmodium knowlesi in Malaysia has recently been reported to be the highest among all malaria cases; however, previous studies have mainly focused on the transmission of P. knowlesi in Malaysian Borneo (East Malaysia). This study aimed to describe the transmission patterns of P. knowlesi infection in Peninsular Malaysia (West Malaysia). The spatial distribution of P. knowlesi was mapped across Peninsular Malaysia using Geographic Information System techniques. Local indicators of spatial associations were used to evaluate spatial patterns of P. knowlesi incidence. Seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average models were utilized to analyze the monthly incidence of knowlesi malaria in the hotspot region from 2012 to 2017 and to forecast subsequent incidence in 2018. Spatial analysis revealed that hotspots were clustered in the central-northern region of Peninsular Malaysia. Time series analysis revealed the strong seasonality of transmission from January to March. This study provides fundamental information on the spatial distribution and temporal dynamic of P. knowlesi in Peninsular Malaysia from 2011 to 2018. Current control policy should consider different strategies to prevent the transmission of both human and zoonotic malaria, particularly in the hotspot region, to ensure a successful elimination of malaria in the future.


Asunto(s)
Malaria , Plasmodium knowlesi , Adolescente , Adulto , Niño , Preescolar , Femenino , Humanos , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Malaria/epidemiología , Malasia/epidemiología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Análisis Espacio-Temporal , Adulto Joven
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