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1.
Environ Monit Assess ; 193(4): 241, 2021 Mar 31.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33791871

RESUMEN

Stormwater runoff is a major concern in urban areas which is mostly the result of vast urbanization. To reduce urban stormwater runoff and improve water quality, low impact development (LID) is used in urban areas. Therefore, it is vital to find the optimal combination of LID controls to achieve maximum reduction in both stormwater runoff and pollutants with optimal cost. In this study, a simulation-optimization model was developed by linking the EPA Storm Water Management Model (SWMM) to the Multi-Objective Particle Swarm Optimization (MOPSO) using MATLAB. The coupled model could carry out multi-objective optimization (MOO) and find potential solutions to the optimization objectives using the SWMM simulation model outputs. The SWMM model was developed using data from the BUNUS catchment in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. The total suspended solids (TSS) and total nitrogen (TN) were selected as pollutants to be used in the simulation model. Vegetated swale and rain garden were selected as LID controls for the study area. The LID controls were assigned to the model using the catchment characteristics. The target objectives were to minimize peak stormwater runoff, TSS, and TN with the minimum number of LID controls applications. The LID combination scenarios were also tested in SWMM to identify the best LID types and combination to achieve maximum reduction in both peak runoff and pollutants. This study found that the peak runoff, TSS, and TN were reduced by 13%, 38%, and 24%, respectively. The optimal number of LID controls that could be used at the BUNUS catchment area was also found to be 25.


Asunto(s)
Monitoreo del Ambiente , Lluvia , Malasia , Control de Calidad , Urbanización , Movimientos del Agua
2.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33805420

RESUMEN

Oxidative stress and inflammation are two common risk factors of various life-threatening disease pathogenesis. In recent years, medicinal plants that possess antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities were extensively studied for their potential role in treating and preventing diseases. Spilanthes acmella (S. acmella), which has been traditionally used to treat toothache in Malaysia, contains various active metabolites responsible for its anti-inflammatory, antiseptic, and anesthetic bioactivities. These bioactivities were attributed to bioactive compounds, such as phenolic, flavonoids, and alkamides. The review focused on the summarization of in vitro and in vivo experimental reports on the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory actions of S. acmella, as well as how they contributed to potential health benefits in lowering the risk of diseases that were related to oxidative stress. The molecular mechanism of S. acmella in reducing oxidative stress and inflammatory targets, such as inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), transcription factors of the nuclear factor-κB family (NF-κB), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways were discussed. Besides, the antioxidant potential of S. acmella was measured by total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonid content (TFC), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), and superoxide anion radical scavenging (SOD) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) assays. This review revealed that S. acmella might have a potential role as a reservoir of bioactive agents contributing to the observed antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and health beneficial effects.


Asunto(s)
Asteraceae , Plantas Medicinales , Antiinflamatorios/farmacología , Antioxidantes/farmacología , Lipopolisacáridos , Malasia , FN-kappa B , Extractos Vegetales/farmacología
3.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33803514

RESUMEN

The escalating trend of murder victim concealment worldwide appears worrying, and literature does not reveal any specific study focusing on victim concealment amongst convicted male Malaysian murderers. Therefore, this study was aimed at investigating the psychological traits that may underlie the act of murder concealment in Malaysia via mixed method approaches. Male murderers (n = 71) from 11 prisons were selected via purposive sampling technique. In the quantitative analysis, a cross-sectional study design using the validated questionnaire was used. The questionnaire contained murder concealment variables and four Malay validated psychometric instruments measuring: personality traits, self-control, aggression, and cognitive distortion. The independent sample t-tests revealed the significantly higher level of anger in murderers who did not commit concealment acts (8.55 ± 2.85, p < 0.05) when compared with those who did so (6.40 ± 2.64). Meanwhile, the Kruskal-Wallis H test revealed that anger and the personality trait of aggressiveness-hostility significantly varied across the different groups of murder concealment acts (p < 0.05). The qualitative data obtained via the in-depth interviews revealed two important themes for the murderers to commit murder concealment acts: (1) fear of discovery and punishment and (2) blaming others. These findings discussed from the perspectives of the murderers within the context of criminology and psychology may provide the first ever insight into the murder concealment acts in Malaysia that can benefit the relevant authorities for crime prevention and investigation efforts.


Asunto(s)
Agresión , Homicidio , Estudios Transversales , Humanos , Malasia , Masculino , Psicometría
4.
Oral Health Prev Dent ; 19(1): 217-227, 2021 Jan 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33829719

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: To develop an evidence-based Clinical Practice Guideline (CPG) on caries management for the Malaysian population using the ADAPTE trans-contextual adaptation framework. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A systematic search was conducted to identify all CPGs related to caries management on guideline repository websites and other platforms. The search findings were screened and the quality of the identified guidelines was evaluated using the AGREE II tool. The currency and the content of the recommendations were assessed by multidisciplinary experts for local adaptation. RESULTS: Following an extensive assessment, six high-quality CPGs were selected for adaptation. Subsequent to the content assessment, the multidisciplinary experts agreed to adopt 24 recommendations, adapt 55, and exclude two recommendations. The adaptation process generated 21 recommendations for caries management in Malaysia. The formulation of the final evidence-based recommendations for caries management in Malaysia was based on the feedback given by the external reviewers. CONCLUSION: The use of the trans-contextual adaptation process is feasible for the development of local guidelines when there are scarce resources and insufficient local evidence. The involvement of the multidisciplinary experts ensures the comprehensiveness of the CPG in terms of its quality and validity and subsequently promotes adherence and ownership of the CPG at the local settings.


Asunto(s)
Caries Dental , Prestación de Atención de Salud , Caries Dental/prevención & control , Humanos , Malasia , Guías de Práctica Clínica como Asunto
5.
Exp Appl Acarol ; 84(1): 171-182, 2021 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33826009

RESUMEN

Orientia tsutsugamushi is the causative agent of scrub typhus vectored by larval stages of trombiculid mites (chiggers) that occur in most tropical regions of Southeast Asia. A total of 242 chiggers extracted from eight small mammals captured from a positive scrub typhus locality in Kelantan, Malaysia, were screened for the presence of O. tsutsugamushi. The chiggers were grouped in 16 pools for extraction of DNA prior to screening of O. tsutsugamushi based on the nucleotide sequence of 56-kDa type specific antigen (TSA) gene using nested polymerase chain reaction. Two species of on-host chiggers were identified, the one, Leptotrombidium deliense, much more dominant (94.8%) than the other, Ascoshoengastia sp. (5.2%). The pathogen was detected in two pools (12.5%) of L. deliense recovered from Rattus rattus and Tupaia sp. The 56-kDa TSA gene sequence analysis revealed the O. tsutsugamushi harboured in those chiggers were Karp prototype strain with high similarity (99.3%). Findings of this study strongly supported the existence of scrub typhus infections in certain parts of Malaysia which agrees with previous local reports. Moreover, this study highlighted the pressing need of a large-scale close observation of O. tsutsugamushi DNA sequences from chiggers that can probably be collected from other positive scrub typhus localities to precisely provide the distribution and prevalence of this zoonotic pathogen.


Asunto(s)
Ácaros y Garrapatas , Orientia tsutsugamushi , Enfermedades de los Roedores , Tifus por Ácaros , Trombiculidae , Animales , Genotipo , Malasia , Orientia tsutsugamushi/genética , Ratas , Roedores
6.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33800008

RESUMEN

Despite the global impact of COVID-19, studies comparing the effects of COVID-19 on population mental health across countries are sparse. This study aimed to compare anxiety and depression symptoms during the COVID-19 lockdown among adults from 11 countries and to examine their associations with country-level COVID-19 factors and personal COVID-19 exposure. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among adults (≥18 years) in 11 countries (Brazil, Bulgaria, China, India, Ireland, North Macedonia, Malaysia, Singapore, Spain, Turkey, United States). Mental health (anxiety, depression, resilient coping, hope) and other study data were collected between June-August 2020. Of the 13,263 participants, 62.8% were female and 51.7% were 18-34 years old. Participants living in Brazil had the highest anxiety and depression symptoms while participants living in Singapore had the lowest. Greater personal COVID-19 exposure was associated with increased anxiety and depression symptoms, but country-level COVID-19 factors were not. Higher levels of hope were associated with reduced anxiety and depression; higher levels of resilient coping were associated with reduced anxiety but not depression. Substantial variations exist in anxiety and depression symptoms across countries during the COVID-19 lockdown, with personal COVID-19 exposure being a significant risk factor. Strategies that mitigate COVID-19 exposure and enhance hope and resilience may reduce anxiety and depression during global emergencies.


Asunto(s)
Pandemias , Adolescente , Adulto , Ansiedad/epidemiología , Brasil/epidemiología , Bulgaria , China , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles , Estudios Transversales , Depresión/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , India , Irlanda , Malasia , Masculino , Salud Mental , República de Macedonia del Norte , Singapur , España , Turquia , Adulto Joven
7.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33809958

RESUMEN

To curb the spread of SARS-CoV-2 virus (COVID-19) in Malaysia, the government imposed a nationwide movement control order (MCO) from 18 March 2020 to 3 May 2020. It was enforced in four phases (i.e., MCO 1, MCO 2, MCO 3 and MCO 4). In this paper, we propose an initiative to assess the impact of MCO by using time-varying reproduction number (Rt). We used data from the Johns Hopkins University Centre for Systems Science and Engineering Coronavirus repository. Day 1 was taken from the first assumed local transmission of COVID-19. We estimated Rt by using the EpiEstim package and plotted the epidemic curve and Rt. Then, we extracted the mean Rt at day 1, day 5 and day 10 for all MCO phases and compared the differences. The Rt values peaked around day 43, which was shortly before the start of MCO 1. The means for Rt at day 1, day 5, and day 10 for all MCOs ranged between 0.665 and 1.147. The average Rt gradually decreased in MCO 1 and MCO 2. Although spikes in the number of confirmed cases were observed when restrictions were gradually relaxed in the later MCO phases, the situation remained under control with Rt values being stabilised to below unity level (Rt value less than one).


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus , Número Básico de Reproducción , Humanos , Malasia/epidemiología
8.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33810525

RESUMEN

In vitro fertilization (IVF) is a hallmark of reproductive medicine. However, the inconclusive outcome leads to marital disharmonies; thus, the choices of gamete donation and surrogacy (GD/S) are often offered. In restricted countries, the child-rearing choice through foster/adoption care is promising, but the uptake remains low. We explore the current reproductive services and adoption scenarios in Asian countries to delineate this issue. The web and literature search using PubMed and Ichushi was conducted in Japanese and English using the keywords "adoption", "foster care", "reproductive medicine", including the interview with the respective Asian clinicians. We found that an established adoption system was seen in China, Malaysia, and the Philippines, mainly due to the restriction of GD/S. Although GD/S were allowed in Thailand, Singapore, and India, the different local affordability of IVF cost led to various adoption system scenarios. Nevertheless, the country's economic aspect does influence the establishment of adoption care, mainly due to financial support from local government. Otherwise, the significant barrier was the cultural/religious background leading to low adoption rates. We concluded that the adoption option should always be highlighted as an alternative strategy as it synergistically contributes to children's and infertile couples' welfare.


Asunto(s)
Medicina Reproductiva , Adopción , Niño , China , Humanos , India , Malasia , Filipinas , Singapur , Tailandia
9.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33802426

RESUMEN

Abdominal bloating (AB) is a prevalent and bothersome symptom, but there are no specific measures for severity and quality of life (QoL) other than the Bloating Severity Questionnaire (BSQ) and Bloating Quality of Life (BLQoL). We aimed to translate the BSQ and BLQoL into the Malay language and to validate them using exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) approaches. The 12-item BSQ has two components, seven-item severity in general (SevGen) and five-item severity in the past 24 h (Sev24), and BLQOL has five items. Translation to the Malay language (BSQ-M and BLQoL-M) was performed using standard forward and backward processes. EFA followed by CFA were performed in participants with AB due to functional bowel disorders, with the purpose of examining the validity and reliability of the questionnaires translated into Malay. After EFA with 152 participants, all the items of BSQ-M remained in the model. Total variance extracted was 53.26% for BSQ-M and 58.79% for BLQoL-M. The internal consistency based on Cronbach's alpha values was 0.52 for SevGen, 0.86 for Sev24, and 0.81 for BLQoL-M. After performing CFA with another 323 participants, the final measurement model for BSQ-M and BLQoL-M fit the data well in terms of several fit indices (BSQ-M: root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA) = 0.050, Comparative Fit Index (CFI) = 0.966, Tucker-Lewis Fit Index (TLI) = 0.956, and standardized root mean squared residual (SRMR) = 0.051; BLQoL-M: RMSEA = 0.071, CFI = 0.985, TLI = 0.962, SRMR = 0.021). The composite reliability for BSQ-M and BLQoL-M were satisfactory (SevGen = 0.83, Sev24 = 0.89, BLQoL = 0.80). The intraclass correlation (ICC) results showed excellent stability for BSQ-M and BLQoL-M, ranging from 0.74 to 0.93. The Malay language versions of BSQ-M and BLQoL-M are valid and reliable instruments for measuring the severity and QoL of AB for the Asian population with functional bowel disorders.


Asunto(s)
Lenguaje , Calidad de Vida , Humanos , Malasia , Psicometría , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33806563

RESUMEN

Background: This study evaluates the effectiveness of parent-assisted children's friendship training intervention for enhancing friendship quality and social skills among children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). We conducted a quasi-experimental study to investigate the effective outcomes of social skills and friendship quality in the pre-and post-parent-assisted CFT intervention phases; Methods: to conduct a 12-week field session, 30 children with their parents were selected. The Social Skills Improvement System Rating Scales and the Quality of Play Questionnaire-Parent were used to assess the effectiveness of the parent-assisted children's friendship training during pre-and post-intervention. A semi-structured interview with parents was conducted at the end of the session; Results: findings revealed that intervention improved the social skills of these children. Additionally, the friendship quality of children with ASD improved before and after the intervention, however, engagement remained unchanged. Parents also showed some sort of improvement after the session as they reported a heightened sense of fear and resistance, awareness, learning and adjustment, change is not easy, and identifying support; Conclusions: there was clear evidence that children with ASD benefitted from parent-assisted CFTs in terms of social skills and friendship quality. However, larger and controlled studies are required to draw firm conclusions about this kind of intervention.


Asunto(s)
Trastorno del Espectro Autista , Trastorno Autístico , Trastornos Generalizados del Desarrollo Infantil , Niño , Amigos , Humanos , Malasia , Habilidades Sociales
11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33806616

RESUMEN

This study aimed to assess the association of exposure to particle-bound (PM2.5) polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) with potential genotoxicity and cancer risk among children living near the petrochemical industry and comparative populations in Malaysia. PM2.5 samples were collected using a low-volume sampler for 24 h at three primary schools located within 5 km of the industrial area and three comparative schools more than 20 km away from any industrial activity. A gas chromatography-mass spectrometer was used to determine the analysis of 16 United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) priority PAHs. A total of 205 children were randomly selected to assess the DNA damage in buccal cells, employing the comet assay. Total PAHs measured in exposed and comparative schools varied, respectively, from 61.60 to 64.64 ng m-3 and from 5.93 to 35.06 ng m-3. The PAH emission in exposed schools was contributed mainly by traffic and industrial emissions, dependent on the source apportionment. The 95th percentiles of the incremental lifetime cancer risk estimated using Monte Carlo simulation revealed that the inhalation risk for the exposed children and comparative populations was 2.22 × 10-6 and 2.95 × 10-7, respectively. The degree of DNA injury was substantially more severe among the exposed children relative to the comparative community. This study reveals that higher exposure to PAHs increases the risk of genotoxic effects and cancer among children.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Atmosféricos , Neoplasias , Hidrocarburos Policíclicos Aromáticos , Contaminantes Atmosféricos/análisis , Contaminantes Atmosféricos/toxicidad , Niño , Daño del ADN , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Humanos , Malasia , Mucosa Bucal , Neoplasias/inducido químicamente , Neoplasias/epidemiología , Material Particulado/análisis , Material Particulado/toxicidad , Hidrocarburos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análisis , Hidrocarburos Policíclicos Aromáticos/toxicidad , Medición de Riesgo , Instituciones Académicas , Estaciones del Año
12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33806713

RESUMEN

The objective of this study was to compare visual parameters and retinal layers' morphology pre-treatment (baseline) and 6 months post-treatment in polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV) eyes. A single centre, longitudinal, prospective study was conducted at a public tertiary hospital of Malaysia. Visual parameters including distance and near visual acuity (DVA and NVA), contrast sensitivity (CS), reading speed (RS), and different qualitative and quantitative optical coherence tomography (OCT) parameters were evaluated pre- and 6 months post-treatment. Thirty-three naïve PCV eyes of 32 patients (mean age of 67.62 years) were evaluated pre- and post-treatment of intravitreal ranibizumab with and without photodynamic therapy. After treatment, sub retinal fluid decreased from 27 eyes (84.35%) at baseline to 7 eyes (21.88%) at 6 months while pigment epithelium detachment decreased from 32 eyes (100%) at base line to 15 eyes (46.87%) at 6 months. Mean pre-treatment quantitative morphological OCT retinal parameters including thickness and volume of central sub field, center thickness, center minimum, and maximum thickness reduced significantly. Similarly, all visual parameters including DVA, NVA, CS, and RS showed statistically significant improvement. While 89% of the eyes showed improvement in CS, 78%, 71%, and 65% of the eyes showed improvement in NVA, RS, and DVA, respectively. Thus, CS was the most treatment responsive visual parameter.


Asunto(s)
Fotoquimioterapia , Ranibizumab , Anciano , Inhibidores de la Angiogénesis/uso terapéutico , Estudios de Seguimiento , Humanos , Inyecciones Intravítreas , Malasia , Estudios Prospectivos , Ranibizumab/uso terapéutico , Estudios Retrospectivos , Resultado del Tratamiento
13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33807598

RESUMEN

In recent years, increased interest in Internet Gaming Disorder has led to the development of the Internet Gaming Disorder Scale-Short Form. Translation and subsequent validation of such a scale are important for cross-cultural use. The aim of the present study was to examine the psychometric properties (factor structure, reliability, and validity) of the Malay Version of the Internet Gaming Disorder Scale-Short Form using a sample of Malaysian undergraduates. The present sample included 137 Malaysian undergraduates. Participants completed a self-administered online survey containing demographic items, the Malay Version of the Internet Gaming Disorder Scale-Short Form, the Problematic Online Gaming Questionnaire-Short Form, and the Malay Version of the Internet Addiction Test. The present findings confirm the one-factor model of the Malay Version of the Internet Gaming Disorder Scale-Short Form. Good reliability, as measured by Cronbach alpha, was found for the Malay Version of the Internet Gaming Disorder Scale-Short Form. The Malay Version of the Internet Gaming Disorder Scale-Short Form has demonstrated concurrent validity by significantly correlating with the Problematic Online Gaming Questionnaire-Short Form as well as demonstrated convergent validity with respect to the Malay Version of the Internet Addiction Test. The Malay Version of the Internet Gaming Disorder Scale-Short Form is a reliable and valid tool for assessing Internet Gaming Disorder in Malaysian undergraduates. As more research is still needed to confirm the status of Internet Gaming Disorder as a formal disorder, it is hoped that the Malay Version of the Internet Gaming Disorder Scale-Short Form can facilitate future research examining antecedents and consequences of Internet Gaming Disorder in a Malaysian setting.


Asunto(s)
Conducta Adictiva , Juegos de Video , Conducta Adictiva/diagnóstico , Humanos , Internet , Malasia , Psicometría , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados
14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33807907

RESUMEN

The current rapid growth of the economy has necessitated an assessment of health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and its associated factors among employees. Unfortunately, there are still limited data available in this area among the Malaysian working population in government sectors. The aim of this study was to evaluate the factors associated with HRQOL among government employees in Putrajaya, Malaysia. This cross-sectional study recruited 460 eligible government employees who worked in the area of Putrajaya through simple random sampling. The self-administered questionnaire was distributed to these participants to collect information on the SF-36 profile of scores, sociodemographic factors, lifestyle factors, and medical history. The results of this study signify that most of the participants were identified as having good HRQOL with the mean score of overall HRQOL was 72.42 ± 14.99. Multivariate analysis showed that being younger, receiving a better monthly personal income, a smaller household number, performing more physical activity, not having any chronic disease, and not using any long-term medication were significantly positively associated with overall HRQOL. The participants who did not have a family history of chronic disease were reported to be significantly associated with better mental component summary (MCS). Further, males were significantly positively associated with bodily pain (BP) and general health (GH) only, whereas better occupational status was limited to social functioning (SF). In conclusion, the results of this study provide motivation for future research and initiatives for improving the physical, emotional, and social well-being of government employees.


Asunto(s)
Empleados de Gobierno , Calidad de Vida , Estudios Transversales , Humanos , Malasia/epidemiología , Masculino , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
15.
PLoS One ; 16(4): e0249394, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33852588

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: The reporting of Coronavirus Disease 19 (COVID-19) mortality among healthcare workers highlights their vulnerability in managing the COVID-19 pandemic. Some low- and middle-income countries have highlighted the challenges with COVID-19 testing, such as inadequate capacity, untrained laboratory personnel, and inadequate funding. This article describes the components and implementation of a healthcare worker surveillance programme in a designated COVID-19 teaching hospital in Malaysia. In addition, the distribution and characteristics of healthcare workers placed under surveillance are described. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A COVID-19 healthcare worker surveillance programme was implemented in University Malaya Medical Centre. The programme involved four teams: contact tracing, risk assessment, surveillance and outbreak investigation. Daily symptom surveillance was conducted over fourteen days for healthcare workers who were assessed to have low-, moderate- and high-risk of contracting COVID-19. A cross-sectional analysis was conducted for data collected over 24 weeks, from the 6th of March 2020 to the 20th of August 2020. RESULTS: A total of 1,174 healthcare workers were placed under surveillance. The majority were females (71.6%), aged between 25 and 34 years old (64.7%), were nursing staff (46.9%) and had no comorbidities (88.8%). A total of 70.9% were categorised as low-risk, 25.7% were moderate-risk, and 3.4% were at high risk of contracting COVID-19. One-third (35.2%) were symptomatic, with the sore throat (23.6%), cough (19.8%) and fever (5.0%) being the most commonly reported symptoms. A total of 17 healthcare workers tested positive for COVID-19, with a prevalence of 0.3% among all the healthcare workers. Risk category and presence of symptoms were associated with a positive COVID-19 test (p<0.001). Fever (p<0.001), cough (p = 0.003), shortness of breath (p = 0.015) and sore throat (p = 0.002) were associated with case positivity. CONCLUSION: COVID-19 symptom surveillance and risk-based assessment have merits to be included in a healthcare worker surveillance programme to safeguard the health of the workforce.


Asunto(s)
/métodos , Brotes de Enfermedades/prevención & control , Adulto , /tendencias , Comorbilidad , Trazado de Contacto/métodos , Estudios Transversales , Monitoreo Epidemiológico , Femenino , Personal de Salud , Hospitales de Enseñanza , Humanos , Malasia/epidemiología , Masculino , Pandemias , /aislamiento & purificación
16.
Front Public Health ; 9: 574135, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33643985

RESUMEN

The COVID-19 pandemic that emerged in 2019 has inflicted numerous clinical and public health challenges worldwide. It was declared a public health emergency by the World Health Organization and activated response teams at almost all Malaysian healthcare facilities. Upon activation of the National Crisis Preparedness and Response Center in January 2020, the National Institutes of Health Malaysia established a COVID-19 operation room at the facility level to address the rise in COVID-19 infection cases each day. The National Institutes of Health COVID-19 operation room committee formed a workforce mobilization team for an effective and efficient mobilization system to fulfill requests received for human resource aid within the Ministry of Health Malaysia facilities. Selected personnel would be screened for health and availability before mobilization letters and logistics arrangements if necessary. The workforce from the National Institutes of Health, consisting of various job positions, were mobilized every week, with each deployment cycle lasting 2 weeks. A total of 128 personnel from the six institutes under the National Institutes of Health were mobilized: tasks included fever screening, active case detection, health management at quarantine centers, and management of dead bodies. A well-organized data management system with a centralized online system integration could allow more rapid deployment and answer some of the key questions in managing a similar pandemic in the future. With improving infected COVID-19 cases throughout the country, the National Institutes of Health COVID-19 operation room was effectively closed on June 15, 2020, following approval from the Deputy Director-General of Health.


Asunto(s)
Cooperación Internacional , National Institutes of Health (U.S.) , Pandemias/prevención & control , Administración en Salud Pública , Recursos Humanos/organización & administración , /epidemiología , Planificación en Desastres , Humanos , Malasia/epidemiología , Estados Unidos
17.
Front Public Health ; 9: 609716, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33732677

RESUMEN

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is still evolving and affecting millions of lives. E-government and social media have been used widely during this unprecedented time to spread awareness and educate the public on preventive measures. However, the extent to which the 2 digital platforms bring to improve public health awareness and prevention during a health crisis is unknown. In this study, we examined the influence of e-government and social media on the public's attitude to adopt protective behavior. For this purpose, a Web survey was conducted among 404 Malaysian residents during the Recovery Movement Control Order (RMCO) period in the country. Descriptive and multiple regression analyses were conducted using IBM SPSS software. Social media was chosen by most of the respondents (n = 331 or 81.9%) as the source to get information related to COVID-19. Multiple regression analysis suggests the roles of e-government and social media to be significantly related to people's attitudes to engage in protective behavior. In conclusion, during the COVID-19 outbreak, public health decision makers may use e-government and social media platforms as effective tools to improve public engagement on protective behavior. This, in turn, will help the country to contain the transmission of the virus.


Asunto(s)
Actitud , Gobierno , Difusión de la Información , Salud Pública , Medios de Comunicación Sociales , Adolescente , Adulto , Concienciación , Femenino , Humanos , Malasia , Masculino , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Adulto Joven
18.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 249, 2021 Mar 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33750347

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Presymptomatic COVID-19 patients have been identified as a major stumbling block in efforts to break the chain of transmission. Studies on temporal dynamics of its shedding suggests it peaks 1-2 days prior to any symptom onset. Therefore, a large proportion of patients are actively spreading the disease unknowingly whilst undetected. However, lengthy lockdowns and isolation leads to a host of socioeconomic issues and are impractical. Conversely, there exists no study describing this group and their clinical significance despite their key role in disease transmission. METHODS: As a result, we devised a retrospective study to look at the prevalence of presymptomatic patients with COVID-19 from data sourced via our medical records office. Subsequently, we identify early indicators of infection through demographic information, biochemical and radiological abnormalities which would allow early diagnosis and isolation. In addition, we will look into the clinical significance of this group and their outcome; if it differs from asymptomatic or symptomatic patients. Descriptive statistics were used in addition to tabulating the variables and corresponding values for reference. Variables are compared between the presymptomatic group and others via Chi-square testing and Fisher's exact test, accepting a p value of < 0.05 as significant. RESULTS: Our analysis shows a higher proportion of presymptomatic patients with atypical symptoms like chest pain while symptomatic patients commonly present with respiratory symptoms like cough and shortness of breath. Besides that, there were more females presenting as presymptomatic patients compared to males (p = 0.019) and these group of patients were likely to receive treatment (p < 0.001). Otherwise, we were not able to identify other statistically significant markers suggesting a patient is presymptomatic. CONCLUSION: As we have little means of identifying these silent spreaders, it highlights further the importance of general measures implemented to stop COVID-19 transmission like social distancing, face mask, and widespread testing.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones Asintomáticas/epidemiología , Pandemias/prevención & control , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Niño , Preescolar , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles , Femenino , Humanos , Malasia , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Prevalencia , Estudios Retrospectivos , Evaluación de Síntomas , Adulto Joven
19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33668186

RESUMEN

Poor management of hazardous waste can lead to environmental pollution, injuries, and adverse health risks. Children's exposure to hazardous waste may cause serious acute and chronic health problems due to their higher vulnerability to the toxic effects of chemicals. This study examines an incident of illegal chemical dumping in Pasir Gudang, Malaysia and its potential health impacts on children. The study introduced a risk assessment of possible health-related effects due to chemical contamination based on a real case scenario where quantification of the contamination was not feasible. A literature review and spatial analysis were used as research methods. On 6th March 2019, tons of hazardous waste were illegally disposed into Kim Kim River, Pasir Gudang, Malaysia. They were identified as benzene, acrolein, acrylonitrile, hydrogen chloride, methane, toluene, xylene, ethylbenzene, and d-limonene. As a result, 975 students in the vicinity developed signs and symptoms of respiratory disease due to the chemical poisoning. The findings of this study indicate that more effective policies and preventive actions are urgently needed to protect human health, especially children from improper hazardous waste management.


Asunto(s)
Salud del Niño , Sitios de Residuos Peligrosos , Niño , Contaminación Ambiental , Residuos Peligrosos , Humanos , Malasia/epidemiología
20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33670850

RESUMEN

Caregiving for children with cerebral palsy (CP) has proved to negatively impact on the physical and psychological well-being of their primary caregivers. The aim of the current study was to examine the overall impact of caregiving for children with CP on the primary caregivers' health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and family functioning, and to identify potential factors associated with primary caregivers' HRQOL and family functioning. The cross-sectional study involved a total of 159 primary caregivers of children with CP with a mean age of 42.8 ± 8.4 years. Demographic data and information on the physical and leisure activities of the primary caregivers were collected, and their quality of life (QOL) was measured based on the self-reported Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory Family Impact Module (PedsQL FIM). Primary caregivers in the current study have shown good HRQOL and family functioning, with scores of 82.4 and 85.3 out of 100, respectively. Through multiple linear regression analyses, the mother's level of education, family monthly income, sleeping problems in children with CP, and the existence of children with other types of disability have been identified as factors contributing to HRQOL and family functioning. The findings help set out the course for stakeholders to establish action to enhance the QOL of primary caregivers.


Asunto(s)
Parálisis Cerebral , Calidad de Vida , Adulto , Cuidadores , Niño , Estudios Transversales , Humanos , Malasia , Persona de Mediana Edad , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
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