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1.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33809958

RESUMEN

To curb the spread of SARS-CoV-2 virus (COVID-19) in Malaysia, the government imposed a nationwide movement control order (MCO) from 18 March 2020 to 3 May 2020. It was enforced in four phases (i.e., MCO 1, MCO 2, MCO 3 and MCO 4). In this paper, we propose an initiative to assess the impact of MCO by using time-varying reproduction number (Rt). We used data from the Johns Hopkins University Centre for Systems Science and Engineering Coronavirus repository. Day 1 was taken from the first assumed local transmission of COVID-19. We estimated Rt by using the EpiEstim package and plotted the epidemic curve and Rt. Then, we extracted the mean Rt at day 1, day 5 and day 10 for all MCO phases and compared the differences. The Rt values peaked around day 43, which was shortly before the start of MCO 1. The means for Rt at day 1, day 5, and day 10 for all MCOs ranged between 0.665 and 1.147. The average Rt gradually decreased in MCO 1 and MCO 2. Although spikes in the number of confirmed cases were observed when restrictions were gradually relaxed in the later MCO phases, the situation remained under control with Rt values being stabilised to below unity level (Rt value less than one).


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus , Número Básico de Reproducción , Humanos , Malasia/epidemiología
2.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33807907

RESUMEN

The current rapid growth of the economy has necessitated an assessment of health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and its associated factors among employees. Unfortunately, there are still limited data available in this area among the Malaysian working population in government sectors. The aim of this study was to evaluate the factors associated with HRQOL among government employees in Putrajaya, Malaysia. This cross-sectional study recruited 460 eligible government employees who worked in the area of Putrajaya through simple random sampling. The self-administered questionnaire was distributed to these participants to collect information on the SF-36 profile of scores, sociodemographic factors, lifestyle factors, and medical history. The results of this study signify that most of the participants were identified as having good HRQOL with the mean score of overall HRQOL was 72.42 ± 14.99. Multivariate analysis showed that being younger, receiving a better monthly personal income, a smaller household number, performing more physical activity, not having any chronic disease, and not using any long-term medication were significantly positively associated with overall HRQOL. The participants who did not have a family history of chronic disease were reported to be significantly associated with better mental component summary (MCS). Further, males were significantly positively associated with bodily pain (BP) and general health (GH) only, whereas better occupational status was limited to social functioning (SF). In conclusion, the results of this study provide motivation for future research and initiatives for improving the physical, emotional, and social well-being of government employees.


Asunto(s)
Empleados de Gobierno , Calidad de Vida , Estudios Transversales , Humanos , Malasia/epidemiología , Masculino , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
3.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33668186

RESUMEN

Poor management of hazardous waste can lead to environmental pollution, injuries, and adverse health risks. Children's exposure to hazardous waste may cause serious acute and chronic health problems due to their higher vulnerability to the toxic effects of chemicals. This study examines an incident of illegal chemical dumping in Pasir Gudang, Malaysia and its potential health impacts on children. The study introduced a risk assessment of possible health-related effects due to chemical contamination based on a real case scenario where quantification of the contamination was not feasible. A literature review and spatial analysis were used as research methods. On 6th March 2019, tons of hazardous waste were illegally disposed into Kim Kim River, Pasir Gudang, Malaysia. They were identified as benzene, acrolein, acrylonitrile, hydrogen chloride, methane, toluene, xylene, ethylbenzene, and d-limonene. As a result, 975 students in the vicinity developed signs and symptoms of respiratory disease due to the chemical poisoning. The findings of this study indicate that more effective policies and preventive actions are urgently needed to protect human health, especially children from improper hazardous waste management.


Asunto(s)
Salud del Niño , Sitios de Residuos Peligrosos , Niño , Contaminación Ambiental , Residuos Peligrosos , Humanos , Malasia/epidemiología
4.
BMC Oral Health ; 21(1): 129, 2021 03 18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33736630

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Malignant odontogenic tumours are extremely rare tumours occurring within the jaws. Our study was performed to determine the demographic and clinico-pathological features of malignant odontogenic tumours amongst a multi-ethnic Asian population. METHODS: This was a retrospective cross-sectional study of malignant odontogenic tumours diagnosed at the Institute for Medical Research, Malaysia, from 2009 to 2019. All cases were independently reviewed and reclassified following the criteria set out in the latest edition of the World Health Organization 2017 reference text. Demographic and clinico-pathological data were recorded for each case. RESULTS: Twenty-four cases of malignant odontogenic tumours were identified. The patients' age ranged from 16 to 79 years with the mean age at diagnosis being 50.8 years (SD = 16.18). There was a male predominance (66.7%) in this cohort of patients. The ethnic distribution appeared to reflect the Malaysian population with most cases seen amongst the Malay ethnic group (66.7%). Ameloblastic carcinoma was the most frequently diagnosed malignant odontogenic tumour (45.8%) and was also predominantly seen in males (90.9%). All patients with clear cell odontogenic carcinoma were females. There was no obvious sex predilection in primary odontogenic carcinoma not otherwise specified (NOS). The mandible (79.2%) was more frequently involved compared to the maxilla. CONCLUSIONS: Diagnosis and management of malignant odontogenic tumours are challenging due to the rarity of these tumours. Our study has elucidated the clinico-pathological features of malignant odontogenic tumours seen in a multi-ethnic Asian population.


Asunto(s)
Tumores Odontogénicos , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Malasia/epidemiología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Tumores Odontogénicos/epidemiología , Derivación y Consulta , Estudios Retrospectivos , Adulto Joven
5.
PLoS One ; 16(3): e0248916, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33765039

RESUMEN

Since the first nationwide movement control order was implemented on 18 March 2020 in Malaysia to contain the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak, to what extent the uncertainty and continuous containment measures have imposed psychological burdens on the population is unknown. This study aimed to measure the level of mental health of the Malaysian public approximately 2 months after the pandemic's onset. Between 12 May and 5 September 2020, an anonymous online survey was conducted. The target group included all members of the Malaysian population aged 18 years and above. The Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS-21) was used to assess mental health. There were increased depressive, anxiety and stress symptoms throughout the study period, with the depression rates showing the greatest increase. During the end of the data collection period (4 August-5 September 2020), there were high percentages of reported depressive (59.2%) and anxiety (55.1%) symptoms compared with stress (30.6%) symptoms. Perceived health status was the strongest significant predictor for depressive and anxiety symptoms. Individuals with a poorer health perception had higher odds of developing depression (odds ratio [OR] = 5.68; 95% confidence interval [CI] 3.81-8.47) and anxiety (OR = 3.50; 95%CI 2.37-5.17) compared with those with a higher health perception. By demographics, young people-particularly students, females and people with poor financial conditions-were more vulnerable to mental health symptoms. These findings provide an urgent call for increased attention to detect and provide intervention strategies to combat the increasing rate of mental health problems in the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic.


Asunto(s)
Trastornos de Ansiedad/patología , Trastorno Depresivo/patología , Adolescente , Adulto , Trastornos de Ansiedad/epidemiología , /virología , Estudios Transversales , Trastorno Depresivo/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Malasia/epidemiología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Análisis Multivariante , Oportunidad Relativa , Pandemias , Estrés Psicológico , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Adulto Joven
6.
Front Public Health ; 9: 574135, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33643985

RESUMEN

The COVID-19 pandemic that emerged in 2019 has inflicted numerous clinical and public health challenges worldwide. It was declared a public health emergency by the World Health Organization and activated response teams at almost all Malaysian healthcare facilities. Upon activation of the National Crisis Preparedness and Response Center in January 2020, the National Institutes of Health Malaysia established a COVID-19 operation room at the facility level to address the rise in COVID-19 infection cases each day. The National Institutes of Health COVID-19 operation room committee formed a workforce mobilization team for an effective and efficient mobilization system to fulfill requests received for human resource aid within the Ministry of Health Malaysia facilities. Selected personnel would be screened for health and availability before mobilization letters and logistics arrangements if necessary. The workforce from the National Institutes of Health, consisting of various job positions, were mobilized every week, with each deployment cycle lasting 2 weeks. A total of 128 personnel from the six institutes under the National Institutes of Health were mobilized: tasks included fever screening, active case detection, health management at quarantine centers, and management of dead bodies. A well-organized data management system with a centralized online system integration could allow more rapid deployment and answer some of the key questions in managing a similar pandemic in the future. With improving infected COVID-19 cases throughout the country, the National Institutes of Health COVID-19 operation room was effectively closed on June 15, 2020, following approval from the Deputy Director-General of Health.


Asunto(s)
Cooperación Internacional , National Institutes of Health (U.S.) , Pandemias/prevención & control , Administración en Salud Pública , Recursos Humanos/organización & administración , /epidemiología , Planificación en Desastres , Humanos , Malasia/epidemiología , Estados Unidos
7.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33530307

RESUMEN

Despite the advancement of the healthcare system, low birth weight (LBW) remains as one of the leading causes of under-five mortality. This cross-sectional study aimed to determine the prevalence of LBW and its associated factors among 483 third trimester pregnant women recruited from six selected public health clinics in the Federal Territory of Kuala Lumpur and the state of Selangor, Malaysia. Pregnant women were interviewed for information on socio-demographic characteristics, smoking behaviour, and second-hand smoke (SHS) exposure at home and in the workplace. Information on the obstetrical history and prenatal care visits history were retrieved from the maternal medical records, while infant's birth outcomes were retrieved from infant medical records. The prevalence of LBW (<2.5 kg) in infants was 10.4%, with a mean birth weight of 3.0 [standard deviation (SD) 0.4] kg. Results from the multivariable logistic regression model showed that inadequate weight gained during pregnancy [odds ratio (OR) = 2.41, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.18-4.90] and exposure to SHS at home (OR = 1.92, 95% CI = 1.03-3.55) were significantly associated with LBW. In conclusion, pregnant women should monitor their rate of weight gain throughout pregnancy and avoid SHS exposure at home to reduce the risk of delivering LBW infants.


Asunto(s)
Ganancia de Peso Gestacional , Contaminación por Humo de Tabaco , Peso al Nacer , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Lactante , Recién Nacido de Bajo Peso , Recién Nacido , Malasia/epidemiología , Embarazo , Contaminación por Humo de Tabaco/efectos adversos , Aumento de Peso
8.
J Gerontol Nurs ; 47(3): 23-28, 2021 Mar 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33626161

RESUMEN

The current study examines the public's perception on the mitigation of COVID-19 risk and knowledge of disease symptoms among older adults in nursing homes, with the intention to address gaps in knowledge using mobile technologies. An online survey questionnaire was completed by 611 adults residing in Malaysia. The four domains, derived from factor analysis, affirmed the supportive perception among the public (score range = 4.42 to 4.64/5.0). However, among the gaps identified were the perception toward hand sanitizing and susceptibility of older adults to COVID-19. Public knowledge on symptoms of COVID-19 was limited (e.g., 41.4% to 53.4% incorrect responses to anosmia, diarrhea, confusion). Multivariate analysis of variance found that males and participants with less education had significantly lower supportive perceptions (p < 0.05). With >86% of participants having access to internet communication technology, mobile interventions tailored to gender and educational level are recommended to promote long-term pandemic preparedness among stakeholders and the public. [Journal of Gerontological Nursing, 47(3), 23-28.].


Asunto(s)
Actitud Frente a la Salud , /psicología , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Personal de Salud/psicología , Percepción , Opinión Pública , Adulto , Factores de Edad , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Hogares para Ancianos , Humanos , Malasia/epidemiología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Casas de Salud , Factores de Riesgo , Factores Sexuales , Factores Socioeconómicos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
9.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33498401

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The pervasiveness of obesity is a growing concern in the world. This study aims to determine the prevalence of obesity among a segment of the Malaysian population, as well as investigate associated factors and psychological determinants of obesity. METHODS: A cross-sectional study design was carried out in Selangor, Malaysia. A total of 1380 Malaysian adults (≥18 years old) participated in a structured and validated questionnaire survey. TANITA body scale and SECA 206 body meter were used to measure the respondents' weight and height, from which measurements of their body mass index (BMI) were calculated. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of obesity (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2) among adults in Selangor, Malaysia, was 18.6%. Factors significantly associated with increased risk of obesity were: being female (OR = 1.61, 95% CI [1.20-2.17]), aged between 30 to 39 years old (OR = 1.40, 95% CI [1.04-1.88]), being Indian (OR = 1.55, 95% CI [1.13-2.12]), married (OR = 1.37, 95% CI [1.03-1.83]), and having only primary school education (OR = 1.80, 95% CI [1.17-2.78] or secondary school education (OR = 1.37, 95% CI [1.04-1.81]). In the multiple linear regression analysis (stepwise method), perceived stress (B = -0.107, p = 0.041), suicidal ideation (B = -2.423, p = 0.003), and quality of life in the physical health domain (B = -0.350, p = 0.003) inversely and significantly contributed to BMI among males. Among females, stressful life events contributed positively to BMI (B = 0.711, p < 0.001, whereas quality of life in the psychological domain had a negative effect (B = -0.478, p < 0.001) in this respect. CONCLUSION: There is an urgent need to integrate psychological approaches to enhance the effectiveness of obesity prevention strategies and weight-loss programs.


Asunto(s)
Obesidad , Calidad de Vida , Adolescente , Adulto , Índice de Masa Corporal , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Malasia/epidemiología , Masculino , Obesidad/epidemiología , Prevalencia , Factores de Riesgo
10.
Turk Neurosurg ; 31(1): 99-106, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33491172

RESUMEN

AIM: To determine the mitochondrial microsatellite instability (mtMSI) status in a series of Malaysian patients with brain tumors. Furthermore, we analyzed whether the mtMSI status is associated with the clinicopathological features of the patients. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Forty fresh frozen tumor tissues along with blood samples of brain tumor patients were analyzed for mtMSI by PCR amplification of genomic DNAs, and the amplicons were directly sequenced in both directions using Sanger sequencing. RESULTS: Microsatellite analysis revealed that 20% (8 out of 40) of the tumors were mtMSI positive with a total of 8 mtMSI changes. All mtMSI markers were detected in D310 and D16184 of the D-loop region. Additionally, no significant association was observed between mtMSI status and clinicopathological features. CONCLUSION: The variations, specifically the mtMSI, suggest that the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) can be targeted for genomic alteration in brain tumors. Therefore, the specific role of mtDNA alteration in brain tumor development and prognosis requires further investigation.


Asunto(s)
Neoplasias Encefálicas/epidemiología , Neoplasias Encefálicas/genética , ADN Mitocondrial/genética , Inestabilidad de Microsatélites , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Neoplasias Encefálicas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias del Sistema Nervioso Central/diagnóstico , Neoplasias del Sistema Nervioso Central/epidemiología , Neoplasias del Sistema Nervioso Central/genética , Niño , Preescolar , Femenino , Humanos , Malasia/epidemiología , Masculino , Repeticiones de Microsatélite/genética , Persona de Mediana Edad , Mitocondrias/genética , Reacción en Cadena de la Polimerasa/tendencias , Adulto Joven
11.
J Parasitol ; 107(1): 1-15, 2021 01 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33429430

RESUMEN

The lecanicephalidean cestodes parasitizing the spiral intestine of the endangered giant freshwater whipray, Urogymnus polylepis (Bleeker), are investigated for the first time. Eight host specimens were collected between 2002 and 2008 at 2 collecting sites off the eastern coast of Borneo: 6 from the Kinabatangan River (Malaysia) and 2 from a fish market in Tarakan (Indonesia). Two of these individuals were found to be infected with a total of 3 new species of TetragonocephalumShipley and Hornell, 1905. Tetragonocephalum georgei n. sp. and Tetragonocephalum opimum n. sp. were recovered from a host specimen from the Kinabatangan River, and Tetragonocephalum levicorpum n. sp. was found parasitizing a host specimen purchased at a fish market in Tarakan. Specimens of each of the new species were prepared for light microscopy; specimens of 2 of the new species were prepared for scanning electron microscopy, and histological sections were prepared for 1 of the new species. The 3 new species are distinct from the 9 valid species of Tetragonocephalum and the 1 species inquirendum based on, for example, total length, number of proglottids and testes, and size of the scolex and acetabula. Tetragonocephalum georgei n. sp. and T. levicorpum n. sp. are unusual among their congeners in that they are euapolytic (i.e., gravid proglottids were not observed) rather than apolytic. They differ from one another in scolex and acetabula size. Tetragonocephalum opimum n. sp. is unusual among its congeners in its possession of vitelline follicles arranged in 2, rather than 3, regions in the proglottid. These new species increase the total number of valid species of Tetragonocephalum to 12 and the total number of known cestodes from U. polylepis to 13 species across 6 genera in 4 orders. This is the first account of lecanicephalideans reported from freshwater. The taxonomic status of each of the 32 nominal taxa historically associated with Tetragonocephalum is re-assessed. Type host identities of all valid species are revised and discussed in light of recent taxonomic efforts in the Dasyatidae Jordan and Gilbert.


Asunto(s)
Cestodos/aislamiento & purificación , Infecciones por Cestodos/veterinaria , Enfermedades de los Peces/parasitología , Agua Dulce/parasitología , Rajidae/parasitología , Animales , Borneo/epidemiología , Cestodos/clasificación , Cestodos/ultraestructura , Infecciones por Cestodos/epidemiología , Infecciones por Cestodos/parasitología , Femenino , Enfermedades de los Peces/epidemiología , Indonesia/epidemiología , Intestinos/parasitología , Malasia/epidemiología , Masculino , Microscopía Electrónica de Rastreo , Ríos/parasitología
12.
PLoS One ; 16(1): e0245164, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33406112

RESUMEN

Rapid diagnosis is an important intervention in managing the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) outbreak. Real time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) remains the primary means for diagnosing the new virus strain but it is time consuming and costly. Recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) is an isothermal amplification assay that does not require a PCR machine. It is an affordable, rapid, and simple assay. In this study, we developed and optimized a sensitive reverse transcription (RT)-RPA assay for the rapid detection of SARS-CoV-2 using SYBR Green I and/or lateral flow (LF) strip. The analytical sensitivity and specificity of the RT-RPA assay were tested by using 10-fold serial diluted synthetic RNA and genomic RNA of similar viruses, respectively. Clinical sensitivity and specificity of the RT-RPA assay were carried out using 78 positive and 35 negative nasopharyngeal samples. The detection limit of both RPA and RT-qPCR assays was 7.659 and 5 copies/µL RNA, respectively with no cross reactivity with other viruses. The clinical sensitivity and specificity of RT-RPA were 98% and 100%, respectively. Our study showed that RT-RPA represents a viable alternative to RT-qPCR for the detection of SARS-CoV-2, especially in areas with limited infrastructure.


Asunto(s)
/diagnóstico , Reacción en Cadena en Tiempo Real de la Polimerasa/métodos , /genética , /genética , Humanos , Malasia/epidemiología , Técnicas de Amplificación de Ácido Nucleico/métodos , Recombinasas/genética , Recombinasas/metabolismo , Transcripción Reversa/genética , Sensibilidad y Especificidad
13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33467781

RESUMEN

The need for assistance among the elderly is rising, which poses challenges for healthcare systems. Thus, this study aims to determine the factors associated with the need for assistance in the daily living activities of Malaysia's elderly population. A total of 1204 elderly individuals, aged 60 years and above, were recruited. An interview was conducted using the Bahasa Malaysia version of the Japan Gerontological Evaluation Study (JAGES-BM) questionnaire. Overall, 7.7% of the elderly participants required assistance. A logistic regression model showed that difficult financial statuses (aOR 4.56), hearing difficulties (aOR 1.78), and severe limitations in daily activity over the past 6 months (aOR 11.99) were associated with a higher likelihood of needing assistance. In addition, daily activities such as an inability to feed (aOR 8.46), stand without support (aOR 2.06), or walk for 15 min without stopping (aOR 1.99) were significantly associated with the need for assistance. Factors associated with the need for assistance are health status, disability, and the financial status of the elderly. Preventive measures should be included in policies to ensure the sustainability of the care provided to the elderly in terms of promoting healthy ageing and a good quality of life.


Asunto(s)
Personas con Discapacidad , Calidad de Vida , Actividades Cotidianas , Anciano , Humanos , Japón , Malasia/epidemiología , Persona de Mediana Edad
14.
Nutrients ; 13(2)2021 Jan 25.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33503860

RESUMEN

This study aimed to investigate the impact of food insecurity and poor nutrient intake on the psychological health of middle-aged and older adults during the COVID-19 pandemic. A sub-sample of 535 individuals aged 52 years and above, from the earlier cohort and interventional studies (n = 4) from four selected states in Peninsular Malaysia, were recruited during the COVID-19 outbreak (April to June 2020). Telephone interviews were conducted by trained interviewers with a health sciences background to obtain participants' information on health status, physical activity, food security, and psychological health (General Health Questionnaire-12; normal and psychological distress). Univariate analyses were performed for each variable, followed by a logistic regression analysis using SPSS Statistics version 25.0. Results revealed food insecurity (OR = 17.06, 95% CI: 8.24-35.32, p < 0.001), low protein (OR = 0.981, 95% CI: 0.965-0.998, p < 0.05), and fiber intakes (OR = 0.822, 95% CI: 0.695-0.972, p < 0.05) were found to be significant factors associated with the psychological distress group after adjusting for confounding factors. The findings suggested that food insecurity and insufficiencies of protein and fiber intakes heightened the psychological distress during the COVID-19 pandemic. Optimal nutrition is vital to ensure the physical and psychological health of the older population, specifically during the current pandemic.


Asunto(s)
/epidemiología , Estado Nutricional , Pandemias , Distrés Psicológico , Estrés Psicológico/epidemiología , Anciano , /psicología , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Vida Independiente/economía , Vida Independiente/psicología , Vida Independiente/estadística & datos numéricos , Malasia/epidemiología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Cuestionario de Salud del Paciente/estadística & datos numéricos , Estrés Psicológico/diagnóstico , Estrés Psicológico/economía , Estrés Psicológico/psicología
15.
BMC Oral Health ; 21(1): 34, 2021 01 19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33468125

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Throughout the years, oral healthcare utilisation in Malaysia has been low despite various efforts by the Ministry of Health Malaysia for improvement. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of oral healthcare utilisation and identify factors associated with oral healthcare utilisation among adults in Malaysia. METHODS: Secondary data analysis of adults aged 18 years and over from the National Health and Morbidity Survey 2019 was conducted in this study. Characteristics of respondents and those who utilised oral healthcare were described using complex sample descriptive statistics. Logistic regression analysis was performed to examine the association between the dependent and independent variables. Dependent variable was oral healthcare utilisation in the last 12 months. Independent variables were demographic and socioeconomic factors (predisposing, enabling and need characteristics) based on Andersen's Behavioural Model. RESULTS: A total of 11,308 respondents, estimated to represent 21.7 million adults aged 18 years and over in Malaysia were included in the analysis. Prevalence of oral healthcare utilisation in the last 12 months was 13.2%. Demographic factors of sex, age, marital status, and socioeconomic factors of education level and occupation as well as health belief such as medical check-up were significantly related to oral healthcare utilisation. Enabling factor of household income quintile had significant association with oral healthcare utilisation. Inequalities were observed; females (OR = 1.57, 95% CI = 1.25, 1.96), younger adults (OR = 1.64, 95% CI = 1.15, 2.33), those who were married (OR = 1.65, 95% CI = 1.23, 2.22), those with higher education (OR = 2.21, 95% CI = 1.23, 3.99), those who had medical check-up in the last 12 months (OR = 1.86, 95% CI = 1.53, 2.25) and those with higher income (OR = 1.43, 95% CI = 1.04, 1.96) were more likely to utilise oral healthcare. CONCLUSION: Understanding factors associated with utilisation of oral healthcare could help in formulating effective interventions to improve oral healthcare utilisation. Demographic and socioeconomic factors are strong determinants of oral healthcare utilisation in Malaysia. Appropriate interventions to strengthen the existing programmes aimed to promote regular and timely oral health check-ups are needed to improve oral healthcare utilisation.


Asunto(s)
Renta , Aceptación de la Atención de Salud , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Malasia/epidemiología , Salud Bucal , Factores Socioeconómicos
16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33503972

RESUMEN

A patient's survival may depend on several known and unknown factors and it may also vary spatially across a region. Socioeconomic status, accessibility to healthcare and other environmental factors are likely to contribute to survival rates. The aim of the study was to model the spatial variation in survival for colorectal cancer patients in Malaysia, accounting for individual and socioeconomic risk factors. We conducted a retrospective study of 4412 colorectal cancer (ICD-10, C18-C20) patients diagnosed from 2008 to 2013 to model survival in CRC patients. We used the data recorded in the database of the Malaysian National Cancer Patient Registry-Colorectal Cancer (NCPR-CRC). Spatial location was assigned based on the patients' central district location, which involves 144 administrative districts of Malaysia. We fitted a parametric proportional hazards model in which the spatially correlated frailties were modelled by a log-Gaussian stochastic process to analyse the spatially referenced survival data, which is also known as a spatial survival model. After controlling for individual and area level characteristics, our findings indicate wide spatial variation in colorectal cancer survival across Malaysia. Better healthcare provision and higher socioeconomic index in the districts where patients live decreased the risk of death from colorectal cancer, but these associations were not statistically significant. Reliable measurement of environmental factors is needed to provide good insight into the effects of potential risk factors for the disease. For example, a better metric is needed to measure socioeconomic status and accessibility to healthcare in the country. The findings provide new information that might be of use to the Ministry of Health in identifying populations with an increased risk of poor survival, and for planning and providing cancer control services.


Asunto(s)
Neoplasias Colorrectales , Neoplasias Colorrectales/epidemiología , Humanos , Malasia/epidemiología , Modelos de Riesgos Proporcionales , Estudios Retrospectivos , Factores de Riesgo
17.
BMJ Open ; 11(1): e041379, 2021 01 18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33462099

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: A large number of international migrants in Malaysia face challenges in obtaining good health, the extent of which is still relatively unknown. This study aims to map the existing academic literature on migrant health in Malaysia and to provide an overview of the topical coverage, quality and level of evidence of these scientific studies. METHODS: A scoping review was conducted using six databases, including Econlit, Embase, Global Health, Medline, PsycINFO and Social Policy and Practice. Studies were eligible for inclusion if they were conducted in Malaysia, peer-reviewed, focused on a health dimension according to the Bay Area Regional Health Inequities Initiative (BARHII) framework, and targeted the vulnerable international migrant population. Data were extracted by using the BARHII framework and a newly developed decision tree to identify the type of study design and corresponding level of evidence. Modified Joanna Briggs Institute checklists were used to assess study quality, and a multiple-correspondence analysis (MCA) was conducted to identify associations between different variables. RESULTS: 67 publications met the selection criteria and were included in the study. The majority (n=41) of studies included foreign workers. Over two-thirds (n=46) focused on disease and injury, and a similar number (n=46) had descriptive designs. The average quality of the papers was low, yet quality differed significantly among them. The MCA showed that high-quality studies were mostly qualitative designs that included refugees and focused on living conditions, while prevalence and analytical cross-sectional studies were mostly of low quality. CONCLUSION: This study provides an overview of the scientific literature on migrant health in Malaysia published between 1965 and 2019. In general, the quality of these studies is low, and various health dimensions have not been thoroughly researched. Therefore, researchers should address these issues to improve the evidence base to support policy-makers with high-quality evidence for decision-making.


Asunto(s)
Salud Poblacional , Refugiados , Migrantes , Estudios Transversales , Salud Global , Humanos , Malasia/epidemiología
18.
BMJ Open ; 11(1): e039869, 2021 01 21.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33478961

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To identify the prevalence of stage B heart failure (SBHF) in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) with no history of cardiovascular disease (CVD). DESIGN: Observational study. SETTING: A single-centre study in which eligible patients were recruited from T2DM clinic. Following consent, patients completed a questionnaire and underwent physical examinations. Patients had blood drawn for laboratory investigations and had a transthoracic echocardiography. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 305 patients who were not known to have CVD were recruited. Patients with deranged liver function tests and end stage renal failure were excluded. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Echocardiographic parameters such as left ventricular ejection fraction, left ventricular mass index (LVMI), left ventricular hypertrophy, left atrial enlargement and diastolic function were examined. RESULTS: A total of 305 patients predominantly females (65%), with mean body mass index of 27.5 kg/m2 participated in this study. None of them had either a history or signs and symptoms of CVD. Seventy-seven percent of patients had a history of hypertension and 83% of this study population had T2DM for more than 10 years. Mean HbA1c of 8.3% was recorded. Almost all patients were taking metformin. Approximately, 40% of patients were on newer anti-T2DM agents such as sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 and dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibitors. Fifty-seven percent (n=174) of the study population had SBHF at the time of study: diastolic dysfunction, increased LVMI and increased left atrial volume index (LAVI) were noted in 51 patients (17%), 128 patients (42%) and 98 patients (32%), respectively. Thirty-seven patients (12%) had both increase LVMI and LAVI. CONCLUSION: Our study has revealed a high prevalence of SBHF in T2DM patients without overt cardiac disease in Malaysia that has one of the highest prevalence of TDM in the world.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedad de la Arteria Coronaria/epidemiología , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiología , Insuficiencia Cardíaca/epidemiología , Cardiomiopatías/epidemiología , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicaciones , Ecocardiografía , Femenino , Insuficiencia Cardíaca/diagnóstico por imagen , Humanos , Hipertensión/epidemiología , Malasia/epidemiología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Prevalencia , Factores de Riesgo , Volumen Sistólico , Disfunción Ventricular Izquierda/diagnóstico por imagen , Disfunción Ventricular Izquierda/epidemiología , Función Ventricular Izquierda
19.
Arch Osteoporos ; 16(1): 14, 2021 01 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33452644

RESUMEN

Lactose intolerance has been proposed to cause poor bone health. This study found the prevalence of lactose intolerance was high among Malaysian young adults, but not associated with bone health status, unlike calcium intake. This is the first study that investigated the association of lactose intolerance and bone health status in Malaysia. PURPOSE: The aims of this study were to determine the prevalence of lactose intolerance, calcium intake and physical activity level and to investigate the association between these variables with bone health status among young adults. METHODS: This cross-sectional study consisted of 300 Malay, Chinese and Indian students from Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia with mean age of 22.5 ± 3.2 years. Determination of lactose tolerance status was performed using hydrogen breath test, lactose tolerance test and visual analogue scales. Calcium intake and physical activity level were evaluated using Food Frequency Questionnaire and International Physical Activity Questionnaire, respectively. Bone health status was assessed on calcaneal bone, using quantitative ultrasound. RESULTS: Lactose intolerance was highly reported among the Malay subjects (72%) followed by Chinese (59%) and Indians (42%). The mean calcium intake was 542.9 ± 365.2 mg/day whilst the mean physical activity was 2757.6 ± 2007.2 MET-min/week. The bone assessment showed that 91% of the subjects had a low risk of developing osteoporosis. Only calcium intake showed a significant association with bone health status (ß = 0.006; p = 0.033), whilst no association was shown for lactose intolerance and physical activity level. CONCLUSIONS: Malaysian young adults showed a high prevalence of lactose intolerance. Calcium intake is associated with increased bone health status. In contrast, lactose intolerance and physical activity level did not directly influence bone health status. Nutrition education promoting adequate calcium intake should be implemented among young adults due to high lactose intolerance prevalence and low calcium intake among subjects.


Asunto(s)
Calcio , Intolerancia a la Lactosa , Adulto , Densidad Ósea , Calcio en la Dieta , Estudios Transversales , Ejercicio Físico , Humanos , Intolerancia a la Lactosa/diagnóstico por imagen , Intolerancia a la Lactosa/epidemiología , Malasia/epidemiología , Universidades , Adulto Joven
20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33406582

RESUMEN

Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and tuberculosis (TB) together impose a high disease burden in terms of both mortality and health economics worldwide. The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence and risk factors of latent TB infection (LTBI) in patients with T2DM in Malaysia. A cross-sectional study was performed, and adult T2DM patients (n = 299) were included. Simple and multiple logistic regression analyses were performed to identify the LTBI-associated risk factors in patients with T2DM. Multiple logistic regression was used to estimate adjusted odds ratios (aOR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) between T2DM and LTBI and was adjusted for potential confounders. The prevalence of LTBI in patients with T2DM was 11.4% (95% CI: 8.0-15.0%). There was no significant difference in the socio-demographic characteristics between LTBI and non-LTBI subjects. No significant difference in the smoking status, the duration of smoking, and the duration of T2DM, HbA1c, or treatments was observed. Interestingly, a higher level of education was observed to be associated with a lower prevalence of LTBI in T2DM patients (aOR: 0.08, 95% CI: 0.01-0.70, p = 0.02). Although the prevalence of LTBI in T2DM was low, it is important to screen for it in T2DM patients due to the risk of developing severe active TB.


Asunto(s)
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Tuberculosis Latente , Estudios Transversales , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicaciones , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Tuberculosis Latente/epidemiología , Malasia/epidemiología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Prevalencia , Factores de Riesgo , Prueba de Tuberculina
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