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1.
Acta Vet Scand ; 63(1): 50, 2021 Nov 27.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34838073

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Ketoconazole, an antifungal agent, adversely affects spermatogenesis in rodents, but knowledge on adverse effects of prolonged administration of ketoconazole on the fertility of male dogs is lacking. A case of reversible infertility with azoospermia in a male American Staffordshire terrier treated with ketoconazole is reported here. CASE PRESENTATION: A seven-year old male American Staffordshire terrier treated for 3 months with ketoconazole for a persistent Malassezia dermatitis displayed reduced libido and mating of 3 bitches had been unsuccessful. The dog was presented at the clinic 40 days after the treatment had been stopped. At first presentation, low libido and complete absence of sperm in the ejaculate (azoospermia) associated with low testosterone level were found. Repeated examinations revealed that sperm quality and testosterone level had restored 100 days after ketoconazole had been withdrawn. Thereafter, the dog successfully mated 2 bitches. CONCLUSION: The treatment with ketoconazole for 3 months may have led to reversible infertility characterized by azoospermia. Therefore, owners of stud dogs should be informed of this risk prior to initiating such treatment and in case of infertility, previous treatment with ketoconazole should be considered as a possible cause.


Asunto(s)
Dermatitis , Enfermedades de los Perros , Infertilidad , Malassezia , Animales , Dermatitis/veterinaria , Enfermedades de los Perros/inducido químicamente , Enfermedades de los Perros/tratamiento farmacológico , Perros , Infertilidad/veterinaria , Cetoconazol/efectos adversos , Masculino
2.
Molecules ; 26(19)2021 Oct 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34641603

RESUMEN

Jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis (Link) Schneider) wax is used for various dermatological and pharmaceutical applications. Several reports have previously shown beneficial properties of Jojoba wax and extracts, including antimicrobial activity. The current research aimed to elucidate the impact of Jojoba wax on skin residential bacterial (Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis), fungal (Malassezia furfur), and virus infection (herpes simplex 1; HSV-1). First, the capacity of four commercial wax preparations to attenuate their growth was evaluated. The results suggest that the growth of Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and Malassezia furfur was unaffected by Jojoba in pharmacologically relevant concentrations. However, the wax significantly attenuated HSV-1 plaque formation. Next, a complete dose-response analysis of four different Jojoba varieties (Benzioni, Shiloah, Hatzerim, and Sheva) revealed a similar anti-viral effect with high potency (EC50 of 0.96 ± 0.4 µg/mL) that blocked HSV-1 plaque formation. The antiviral activity of the wax was also confirmed by real-time PCR, as well as viral protein expression by immunohistochemical staining. Chemical characterization of the fatty acid and fatty alcohol composition was performed, showing high similarity between the wax of the investigated varieties. Lastly, our results demonstrate that the observed effects are independent of simmondsin, repeatedly associated with the medicinal impact of Jojoba wax, and that Jojoba wax presence is required to gain protection against HSV-1 infection. Collectively, our results support the use of Jojoba wax against HSV-1 skin infections.


Asunto(s)
Antiinfecciosos/farmacología , Antivirales/farmacología , Herpes Simple/tratamiento farmacológico , Herpesvirus Humano 1/efectos de los fármacos , Ceras/farmacología , Acetonitrilos/farmacología , Animales , Supervivencia Celular/efectos de los fármacos , Chlorocebus aethiops , Ciclohexanos/farmacología , Relación Dosis-Respuesta a Droga , Ácidos Grasos/química , Ácidos Grasos/farmacología , Alcoholes Grasos/química , Alcoholes Grasos/farmacología , Glucósidos/farmacología , Humanos , Malassezia/efectos de los fármacos , Pruebas de Sensibilidad Microbiana , Staphylococcus aureus/efectos de los fármacos , Staphylococcus epidermidis/efectos de los fármacos , Células Vero , Ceras/química
3.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 11: 673465, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34712619

RESUMEN

Background: Microbial dysbiosis and microbiome-induced inflammation have emerged as important factors in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) tumorigenesis during the last two decades. However, the "rare biosphere" of the oral microbiome, including fungi, has been sparsely investigated. This study aimed to characterize the salivary mycobiome in a prospective Sudanese cohort of OSCC patients and to explore patterns of diversities associated with overall survival (OS). Materials and Methods: Unstimulated saliva samples (n = 72) were collected from patients diagnosed with OSCC (n = 59) and from non-OSCC control volunteers (n = 13). DNA was extracted using a combined enzymatic-mechanical extraction protocol. The salivary mycobiome was assessed using a next-generation sequencing (NGS)-based methodology by amplifying the ITS2 region. The impact of the abundance of different fungal genera on the survival of OSCC patients was analyzed using Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression survival analyses (SPPS). Results: Sixteen genera were identified exclusively in the saliva of OSCC patients. Candida, Malassezia, Saccharomyces, Aspergillus, and Cyberlindnera were the most relatively abundant fungal genera in both groups and showed higher abundance in OSCC patients. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed higher salivary carriage of the Candida genus significantly associated with poor OS of OSCC patients (Breslow test: p = 0.043). In contrast, the higher salivary carriage of Malassezia showed a significant association with favorable OS in OSCC patients (Breslow test: p = 0.039). The Cox proportional hazards multiple regression model was applied to adjust the salivary carriage of both Candida and Malassezia according to age (p = 0.029) and identified the genus Malassezia as an independent predictor of OS (hazard ratio = 0.383, 95% CI = 0.16-0.93, p = 0.03). Conclusion: The fungal compositional patterns in saliva from OSCC patients were different from those of individuals without OSCC. The fungal genus Malassezia was identified as a putative prognostic biomarker and therapeutic target for OSCC.


Asunto(s)
Carcinoma de Células Escamosas , Neoplasias de Cabeza y Cuello , Malassezia , Neoplasias de la Boca , Micobioma , Humanos , Estudios Prospectivos , Saliva , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeza y Cuello , Sudán
4.
Mycopathologia ; 186(6): 863-869, 2021 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34498139

RESUMEN

Acne vulgaris is a common chronic inflammatory skin disease of the pilosebaceous unit. Clinical manifestations include seborrhea, non-inflammatory lesions, inflammatory lesions, or scar formation. Fourteen eligible participants of either sex, aged 18-28 years old, with mild to moderate acne lesions, were recruited in this observational study. The contents of 10 pilosebaceous units of non-inflammatory (comedones) and inflammatory lesions (papules and pustules) were collected from each participant's face and examined by amplicon metagenomics sequencing and real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). Male participants, participants with a higher body mass index (BMI) than normal, and participants younger than 20 years old, were revealed to have a higher proportion of Malassezia in their non-inflammatory lesions than that in inflammatory lesions. There was an increased abundance of Malassezia restricta (M. restricta) and Cutibacterium acnes (C. acnes) in the non-inflammatory group. Correlation analysis indicated that Staphylococcus epidermidis (S. epidermidis) and M. restricta have similar proliferation trends with C. acnes during the transformation from non-inflammatory to inflammatory lesions. M. restricta probably involve in the microecological balance within the pilosebaceous unit.


Asunto(s)
Acné Vulgar , Microbiota , Adolescente , Adulto , Humanos , Malassezia , Masculino , Propionibacterium acnes , Piel , Adulto Joven
5.
BMC Vet Res ; 17(1): 288, 2021 Aug 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34454490

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Lifestyle factors such as hair length, the frequency of ear cleaning and bathing, age, cat rearing, and sex may contribute to opportunistic yeast infections in the external ear canal of cats. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of commensal yeast organisms in cats' external ear canals, evaluate their predisposing lifestyle factors, and test the susceptibility of Malassezia pachydermatis to antifungal agents. RESULTS: A total of 53 cats (33 male and 20 female) seronegative for feline leukemia virus and feline immunodeficiency virus were enrolled in this study. Their mean age (± standard deviation) was 6.04 (± 3.49) years. Fungal cultures and polymerase chain reaction tests were performed to identify the yeast species derived from the external ear canal. The association between lifestyle factors and the presence of M. pachydermatis was evaluated using Fisher's exact test. The susceptibility of M. pachydermatis to antifungal agents was also analyzed. M. pachydermatis was the most frequently recovered yeast species, with a prevalence of 50.94 % (95 % confidence interval [CI]: 36.84-64.94 %). There was an association between hair length and a positive culture for M. pachydermatis (p = 0.0001). The odds of a negative culture for M. pachydermatis among short-haired cats was 11.67 (95 % CI, 3.22-42.24) times higher than that among long-haired cats (p = 0.0002). There was also an association between the frequency of ear cleaning and the presence of M. pachydermatis (p = 0.007). The odds of a negative culture for M. pachydermatis in cats that were receiving ear cleaning at intervals of ≤ 2 weeks was 5.78 (95 % CI, 1.67-19.94) times greater than that of cats receiving ear cleaning at intervals greater than 2 weeks or never (p = 0.0055). Ranges of minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and minimum fungicidal concentrations for itraconazole, ketoconazole, miconazole, and terbinafine against M. pachydermatis were ≤ 0.063-4 and ≤ 0.063-≥32, ≤ 0.063-8 and 0.125-≥32, ≤ 0.063-≥32 and 0.5-≥32, and ≤ 0.016-1 and 0.125-8 µg/ml, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: M. pachydermatis was the most commonly identified yeast organism in the external ear canal of healthy cats. Hair length and the frequency of ear cleaning played a role in the colonization of M. pachydermatis. The M. pachydermatis isolates had various MIC levels for common fungicides.


Asunto(s)
Antifúngicos/farmacología , Enfermedades de los Gatos/microbiología , Conducto Auditivo Externo/microbiología , Levaduras/aislamiento & purificación , Pelaje de Animal , Animales , Gatos , Femenino , Malassezia/efectos de los fármacos , Malassezia/aislamiento & purificación , Masculino , Prevalencia , Levaduras/efectos de los fármacos
6.
Mycopathologia ; 186(6): 871-876, 2021 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34410567

RESUMEN

The prevalence of fungal otitis externa, or otomycosis, has been increasing in recent decades. Fungi may act as primary pathogens in this condition, or they may occur as secondary infections after prolonged ototopical treatment with antibiotics, which alters the flora of the external auditory canal (EAC) and enables overgrowth of its fungal inhabitants. We report here a case of otomycosis by Candida parapsilosis, Malassezia obtusa, and Malassezia furfur as a secondary infection following prolonged otic ofloxacin treatment. To the best of our knowledge, although isolation of C. parapsilosis and M. furfur from the EAC is not uncommon, the recovery of M. obtusa has not yet been reported. We also conducted a literature review of the searchable data on PubMed concerning the isolation of Malassezia species from the human EAC.


Asunto(s)
Malassezia , Otitis Externa , Otomicosis , Hongos , Humanos , Ofloxacino , Otitis Externa/diagnóstico , Otitis Externa/tratamiento farmacológico
7.
Bull Cancer ; 108(9): 877-885, 2021 Sep.
Artículo en Francés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34246455

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Hematopoietic stem cell allograft is a treatment for patients with severe constitutional or acquired hematopoietic system diseases. This act is always linked to complications requiring multidisciplinary care. Our study describes the post-allograft cutaneous complications. METHODS: A prospective study was conducted at the Hematology department of "20 Août Hospital" in Casablanca during a period going from January 2018 to December 2020; including all patients who presented acute or chronic cutaneous complications post-allograft. RESULTS: Twenty-five patients were included. All patients received induction chemotherapy (Busulfan/Fludarabine or Busulfan/Melphalan). A skin infection was found in 8 patients : four cases of Malassezia folliculitis, one case of perineal zona, one case of genital herpes, one case of varicella and one case of Candida sepsis. The acute graft versus host reaction was found in 3 patients, revealed by an erythematous rash all over the body. The chronic graft versus host reaction was found in five patients on a lichenoid form. Nine patients had a hyperpigmentation of the folds followed by detachment in the same areas, concluding to a Busulfan toxidermy. DISCUSSION: Hematopoietic stem cell allograft has many complications. The literature mainly specifies hematological and digestive complications, while skin complications are little described. Our series is special by reporting different types and mechanisms of skin complications that can occur; with a predominance of skin graft-on-host reactions and infections. It also reports an unusual Busulfan toxidermy.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades Hematológicas/terapia , Trasplante de Células Madre Hematopoyéticas/efectos adversos , Enfermedades de la Piel/etiología , Enfermedad Aguda , Adolescente , Adulto , Aloinjertos , Busulfano/uso terapéutico , Candidiasis/diagnóstico , Varicela/diagnóstico , Niño , Enfermedad Crónica , Dermatomicosis/diagnóstico , Dermatomicosis/microbiología , Femenino , Enfermedad Injerto contra Huésped/diagnóstico , Herpes Genital/diagnóstico , Humanos , Quimioterapia de Inducción/métodos , Malassezia , Masculino , Melfalán/uso terapéutico , Persona de Mediana Edad , Marruecos , Estudios Prospectivos , Enfermedades de la Piel/patología , Enfermedades Cutáneas Infecciosas/diagnóstico , Vidarabina/análogos & derivados , Vidarabina/uso terapéutico , Adulto Joven
8.
An Bras Dermatol ; 96(5): 591-594, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34294464

RESUMEN

Aiming at disclosing the semiotic method used in the diagnosis of pityriasis versicolor, the authors go through the history of the creation of Zirelí sign, describing the method, its usefulness and practicality in dermatological clinical practice, whether public or private, and to give credit to the author of this semiological maneuver, in memoriam.


Asunto(s)
Malassezia , Tiña Versicolor , Humanos , Proyectos de Investigación , Tiña Versicolor/diagnóstico
9.
Hautarzt ; 72(10): 860-867, 2021 Oct.
Artículo en Alemán | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34304284

RESUMEN

Lipophilic Malassezia yeasts are an important part of the human resident skin flora, especially in seborrheic areas. Besides mutualistic interactions with the host they are also linked to diseases although the specific causes are not yet comprehensively understood. The amount of available lipids on the skin correlates with the Malassezia density and also with the occurrence of certain diseases like tinea versicolor. Here, the naturally produced lipids of the sebaceous glands play a role. Hardly studied thus far is the impact of topically applied lipids. Here, growth promotion as well as inhibition of Malassezia cells as well as the production of new metabolites through ester cleavage are possible. One example is the release of antimicrobial fatty acids from hydroxypropyl caprylate through the action of Malassezia lipases. This "self-kill" principle results in the reduction of the amount of Malassezia cells and can be applied as new therapy option for dandruff treatment. A better understanding of the interaction between topica and Malassezia would increase their skin tolerance and open new therapy options.


Asunto(s)
Caspa , Dermatitis Seborreica , Malassezia , Tiña Versicolor , Caspa/tratamiento farmacológico , Dermatitis Seborreica/tratamiento farmacológico , Humanos , Lípidos
10.
Clin Dermatol ; 39(2): 194-198, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34272008

RESUMEN

Necrotizing infundibular crystalline folliculitis is a rare condition characterized by folliculocentric waxy papules in the seborrheic areas of adult patients, with intrafollicular filamentous birefringent crystalline deposits as the histopathologic clue. Although the real pathogenesis of necrotizing infundibular crystalline folliculitis remains unclear, the intrafollicular material seems to be derived from an interaction between such superficial microorganisms as gram-positive bacteria (Propionibacterium acnes, Staphylococcus spp), Malassezia yeasts, and sebaceous lipids. Topical or systemic antiacne agents or antimycotics appear to be effective therapy.


Asunto(s)
Foliculitis , Malassezia , Adulto , Foliculitis/diagnóstico , Foliculitis/tratamiento farmacológico , Humanos
11.
J Vet Pharmacol Ther ; 44(6): 910-918, 2021 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34258792

RESUMEN

Canine otitis externa is frequently encountered in veterinary practice, caused by primary factors with bacteria and yeast overgrowth acting as secondary and perpetuating factors. The pharmacological support includes anti-inflammatory, antimicrobials, and antimycotic drugs, but therapeutic failure and antimicrobial resistance are leading to alternative strategies based on phytotherapic products. This study aimed to evaluate an essential oil blend (Otogen® ) to treat otitis externa in dogs. The experimental design was divided in: (a) an in vitro approach, based on the European Normative UNI EN 1275:2006, to assess the efficacy of the product against the most frequently isolated microorganisms during otitis externa. (b) an in vivo part, 12 owned dogs presenting with acute otitis externa were enrolled. A significant growth reduction (>99.9%) of Malassezia pachydermatis and Candida albicans after 15 min of contact and Pseudomonas aeruginosa after 1 h of incubation was recorded. For Staphylococcus pseudintermedius, 50% of growth reduction were appreciated after 15 min. Results obtained in vivo after 7 days of blend administration, noted a significant improvement of all the considered parameters (most important were head shaking, erythema, and scraping). The results obtained may support the usefulness of the tested phytotherapic blend to manage acute otitis externa in dogs.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades de los Perros , Otitis Externa , Animales , Antifúngicos/uso terapéutico , Enfermedades de los Perros/tratamiento farmacológico , Perros , Malassezia , Pruebas de Sensibilidad Microbiana/veterinaria , Otitis Externa/tratamiento farmacológico , Otitis Externa/veterinaria , Staphylococcus
12.
Vet Dermatol ; 32(5): 441-e119, 2021 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34189776

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Otitis externa (OE) is a common disorder in dogs. Infection by the commensal yeast, Malassezia pachydermatis, may result in chronic disease that does not respond to standard primary care. Chronic infectious OE may be associated with otitis media (OM). HYPOTHESIS/OBJECTIVE: To report medical management, clinical outcomes and frequency of middle ear involvement, in dogs with Malassezia otitis unresponsive to primary care. ANIMALS: Fifty-nine dogs from one referral veterinary hospital from January 2007 to September 2018. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Retrospective analysis of medical records of dogs referred with chronic otitis and treated for Malassezia otitis at a referral veterinary hospital. RESULTS: Chronic Malassezia OE was treated successfully in 91% of ears, in 87% of these cases with one ear flush intervention. Median time-to-resolution was 27 days after ear flush intervention. Neither duration of otitis, presence of neutrophils in aural discharge nor administration of oral itraconazole affected clinical outcome. Malassezia OM occurred concurrently in 17% of ears. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: These findings assist clinicians and carers of affected dogs in decision-making, by documenting that most cases of canine Malassezia otitis that have not resolved with standard primary care, can be treated successfully with a well-staged and intense medical treatment plan. Malassezia OM should be suspected to occur concurrently in around a fifth of affected ears.


Asunto(s)
Dermatomicosis , Enfermedades de los Perros , Malassezia , Otitis Externa , Animales , Dermatomicosis/tratamiento farmacológico , Dermatomicosis/veterinaria , Enfermedades de los Perros/tratamiento farmacológico , Perros , Otitis Externa/tratamiento farmacológico , Otitis Externa/veterinaria , Atención Primaria de Salud , Estudios Retrospectivos
13.
Infectio ; 25(2): 130-134, abr.-jun. 2021. graf
Artículo en Español | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1250079

RESUMEN

Resumen El género Malassezia comprende levaduras lipofílicas, comensales de la piel de humanos y animales, responsables de infecciones dermatológicas y sistémicas, particularmente en recién nacidos pretérmino hospitalizados en Unidades de Cuidados Intensivos Neonatal (UCIN) con catéteres venosos centrales, antibióticos de amplio espectro y nutrición parenteral rica en lípidos. La información acerca de las fungemias por este microorganismo es limitada, sin embargo, la mayoría de infecciones invasivas reportadas en la literatura han sido asociadas con M. furfur y M. pachydermatis. Se reporta un caso de fungemia por M. sympodialis en un recién nacido pretérmino hospitalizado en la UCIN de un hospital colombiano con sospecha clínica de sepsis neonatal, antibioticoterapia de amplio espectro y hemocultivos de rutina negativos. El aislamiento fue susceptible a fluconazol y voriconazol, y resistente a anfotericina B. Existen pocos reportes de fungemia producida por M. sympodialis, pero todos concuerdan en que es una levadura subestimada en individuos con factores predisponentes.


Abstract The genus Malassezia comprises lipophilic yeasts, commensals of the skin of humans and animals, responsible for dermatological and systemic infections, particu larly in preterm infants hospitalized in Neonatal Intensive Care Units (NICU) with central venous catheters, broad-spectrum antibiotics and parenteral nutrition rich in lipids. Information about fungemia by this microorganism is limited, however, the majority of invasive infections reported in the literature have been associated with M. furfur and M. pachydermatis. A case of M. sympodialis fungemia is reported in a preterm newborn hospitalized in the NICU of a Colombian hospital with clinical suspicion of neonatal sepsis, broad-spectrum antibiotic therapy and negative routine blood cultures. The isolation was susceptible to fluconazole and voriconazole, and resistant to amphotericin B. There are few reports of fungemia produced by M. sympodialis, but all agree that it is an underestimated yeast in individuals with predisposing factors.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Recién Nacido , Unidades de Cuidado Intensivo Neonatal , Fungemia , Malassezia , Piel , Levaduras , Colombia , Sepsis Neonatal , Infecciones
14.
Infectio ; 25(2): 120-129, abr.-jun. 2021. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1250078

RESUMEN

Abstract Seborrheic dermatitis (SD) is a chronic inflammatory disease that that is difficult to manage and with a high impact on the individual's quality of life. Besides, it is a multifactorial entity that typically occurs as an inflammatory response to Malassezia species, along with specific triggers that contribute to its pathophysiology. Sin ce the primary underlying pathogenic mechanisms include Malassezia proliferation and skin inflammation, the most common treatment includes topical antifungal keratolytics and anti-inflammatory agents. However, the consequences of eliminating the yeast population from the skin, the resistance profiles of Malassezia spp. and the effectivity among different groups of medications are unknown. Thus, in this review, we summarize the current knowledge on the disease´s pathophysio logy and the role of Malassezia sp. on it, as well as, the different antifungal treatment alternatives, including topical and oral treatment in the management of SD.


Resumen La dermatitis seborreica (DS) es una enfermedad inflamatoria crónica, con un elevado impacto en la calidad de vida del individuo. Además, DS es una entidad multifactorial que ocurre como respuesta inflamatoria a las levaduras del género Malassezia spp., junto con factores desencadenantes que contribuyen a la fisio patología de la enfermedad. Dado que el mecanismo patogénico principal involucra la proliferación e inflamación generada por Malassezia spp., el tratamiento más usado son los agentes tópicos antifúngicos y antiinflamatorios. Sin embargo, se desconocen las consecuencias de eliminar la población de levaduras de la piel, los perfiles de resistencia de Malassezia spp. y la efectividad entre grupos diferentes de medicamentos. Por tanto, en esta revisión de la literatura, resumimos el conocimiento actual sobre la fisiopatología de la enfermedad y el papel de Malassezia sp., así como de las diferentes alternativas de tratamiento antifúngico tanto tópico como oral en el manejo de la DS.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Dermatitis Seborreica , Malassezia , Piel , Preparaciones Farmacéuticas , Inflamación , Antiinflamatorios
15.
Curr Protoc ; 1(5): e122, 2021 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33950584

RESUMEN

Malassezia spp. are lipid-dependent yeasts that have been related to skin mycobiota and dermatological and systemic diseases. Study of lipid droplets (LDs) is relevant to elucidate the unknown role of these organelles in Malassezia and to gain a broader overview of lipid metabolism in Malassezia. Here, we standardized two protocols for the analysis of LDs in M. pachydermatis and M. globosa. The first describes co-staining for confocal laser-scanning fluorescence microscopy, and the second details extraction and purification of LDs. The double stain is achieved with three different neutral lipid fluorophores, namely Nile Red, BODIPY™ 493/503, and HCS LipidTOX™ Deep Red Neutral, in combination with Calcofluor White. For LD extraction, cell wall rupture is conducted using Trichoderma harzianum enzymes and cycles of vortexing with zirconium beads. LD purification is performed in a three-step ultracentrifugation process. These standardizations will contribute to the study of the dynamics, morphology, and composition of LDs in Malassezia. © 2021 Wiley Periodicals LLC. Basic Protocol 1: Lipid droplet fluorescence staining Basic Protocol 2: Lipid droplet extraction and purification Support Protocol: Malassezia spp. culture conditions.


Asunto(s)
Malassezia , Hypocreales , Gotas Lipídicas
16.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(7): 1223-1230, 2021 10 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34009270

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Infective endocarditis (IE) is a severe disease requiring microbial identification to successfully adapt its treatment. Currently, identification of its etiological microorganism remains unresolved in 5.2% of cases. We aimed to improve IE diagnosis using an ultra-sensitive molecular technique on cardiac samples in microbiologically nondocumented (culture and conventional polymerase chain reaction [PCR]) IE (NDIE) cases. METHODS: Cardiac samples explanted in a tertiary hospital in Lyon, France, from patients with definite IE over a 5-year period were retrospectively analyzed. NDIE was defined as Duke definite-IE associated with negative explorations including cardiac samples culture, bacterial amplification, and serologies. Ultrasensitive molecular diagnosis was achieved using the Universal Microbe Detection kit (Molzym®). Fungal identification was confirmed using 26S-rDNA and internal transcribed spacer amplifications. Fungal infection was confirmed using Grocott-Gromori staining, auto-immunohistochemistry on cardiac samples, and mannan serologies. RESULTS: Among 88 included patients, microbial DNA was detected in all 16 NDIE cases. Bacterial taxa typical of IE etiologies were detected in 13/16 cases and Malassezia restricta in the 3 other cases. In these 3 cases, histological examination confirmed the presence of fungi pathognomonic of Malassezia that reacted with patient sera in an auto-immunohistochemistry assay and cross-reacted with Candida albicans in an indirect immunofluorescent assay. CONCLUSIONS: M. restricta appears to be an underestimated causative agent of NDIE. Importantly, serological cross-reaction of M. restricta with C. albicans may lead to its misdiagnosis. This is of major concern since M. restricta is intrinsically resistant to echinocandins; the reference treatment for Candida-fungal IE.


Asunto(s)
Endocarditis Bacteriana , Endocarditis , Malassezia , Cultivo de Sangre , Endocarditis/diagnóstico , Válvulas Cardíacas , Humanos , Malassezia/genética , ARN Ribosómico 16S , Estudios Retrospectivos
17.
Vet Dermatol ; 32(4): 316-e86, 2021 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34009660

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Malassezia pachydermatis is a commensal organism of the skin, yet it may induce dermatitis and/or otitis. Lactoferricin (Lfcin) is an antimicrobial peptide obtained by the pepsin-mediated digestion of lactoferrin, a multifunctional innate-defence milk protein. The antibacterial activity of Lfcin is thought to cause alteration of bacterial membrane permeability, thus inducing cell death. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate in vitro antifungal activity of different dilutions of Lfcin solution against M. pachydermatis strains isolated from ears of dogs and cats with otitis externa. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Fifty clinical Malassezia isolates from 40 dogs and 10 cats were tested. A dilution method in microtitre plates was used starting with a 20% Lfcin water solution. The different dilutions were 2:1 (13.3%), 1:1 (10%), 1:2 (6.7%), 1:5 (3.3%) and 1:10 (1.8%). Results were expressed as the value at which the growth of 50% (minimal fungicidal concentration MFC50 ) and 90% (MFC90 ) of yeast cells was inhibited. RESULTS: All strains showed susceptibility to 20% Lfcin solution (100%). With 1:5 and 1:10 dilutions corresponding to 3.3% and 1.8% Lfcin solutions, all strains showed resistance. The MFC50 and MFC90 values were observed at 13.3% and 20% Lfcin solutions. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: The results indicated that Lfcin solution exhibits the antimicrobial activity specific to antimicrobial peptides. In particular, the 20% solution can be effective in killing M. pachydermatis isolated strains. Some susceptibilities also are evident at lower concentrations of ≤6.7% for four strains.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades de los Gatos , Dermatomicosis , Enfermedades de los Perros , Malassezia , Otitis Externa , Animales , Enfermedades de los Gatos/tratamiento farmacológico , Gatos , Dermatomicosis/tratamiento farmacológico , Dermatomicosis/veterinaria , Enfermedades de los Perros/tratamiento farmacológico , Perros , Lactoferrina/farmacología , Otitis Externa/tratamiento farmacológico , Otitis Externa/veterinaria
18.
PLoS One ; 16(5): e0251136, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34029350

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Seborrheic dermatitis (SD) is a chronic inflammatory skin disease with a multifactorial aetiology. Malassezia yeasts have been associated with the disease but the role of bacterial composition in SD has not been thoroughly investigated. OBJECTIVES: To profile the bacterial microbiome of SD patients and compare this with the microbiome of individuals with no inflammatory skin disease (controls). METHODS: This was a cross sectional study embedded in a population-based study. Skin swabs were taken from naso-labial fold from patients with seborrheic dermatitis (lesional skin: n = 22; non-lesional skin SD: n = 75) and controls (n = 465). Sample collection began in 2016 at the research facility and is still ongoing. Shannon and Chao1 α- diversity metrics were calculated per group. Associations between the microbiome composition of cases and controls was calculated using multivariate statistics (permANOVA) and univariate statistics. RESULTS: We found an increased α-diversity between SD lesional cases versus controls (Shannon diversity: Kruskal-Wallis rank sum: Chi-squared: 19.06; global p-value = 7.7x10-5). Multivariate statistical analysis showed significant associations in microbiome composition when comparing lesional SD skin to controls (p-value = 0.03;R2 = 0.1%). Seven out of 13 amplicon sequence variants (ASVs) that were significantly different between controls and lesional cases were members of the genus Staphylococcus, most of which showed increased composition in lesional cases, and were closely related to S. capitis S. caprae and S. epidermidis. CONCLUSION: Microbiome composition differs in patients with seborrheic dermatitis and individuals without diseases. Differences were mainly found in the genus Staphylococcus.


Asunto(s)
Dermatitis Seborreica/microbiología , Microbiota/fisiología , Piel/microbiología , Administración Cutánea , Adulto , Anciano , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Estudios Transversales , Dermatitis Atópica/microbiología , Femenino , Humanos , Inflamación/microbiología , Malassezia/aislamiento & purificación , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Staphylococcus epidermidis/aislamiento & purificación
19.
Vet Dermatol ; 32(3): 228-e59, 2021 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33844368

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Antifungal shampoos are widely used for canine Malassezia dermatitis. Few studies have evaluated effective bathing methods for atopic dogs with Malassezia overgrowth. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the efficacy of an emollient bathing product (AFLOAT VET) and 2% miconazole/2% chlorhexidine shampoo (2% MIC/CHX) in atopic dogs, and to evaluate the influence on skin barrier function of both products in healthy dogs. ANIMALS: Sixteen atopic dogs with secondary Malassezia overgrowth and 11 healthy dogs. METHODS AND MATERIALS: This study was a randomized, single-blinded trial. The dogs were randomly treated with either emollient bathing or 2% MIC/CHX, twice weekly for four weeks. Clinical assessment used the Canine Atopic Dermatitis Extent and Severity Index, 4th iteration (CADESI-04), pruritus Visual Analog Scale (pVAS), and cytological evaluation of yeast numbers at Day (D)0, D14 and D28. Skin barrier function was determined by measuring transepidermal water loss (TEWL) after a single bathing procedure with each product in the healthy dogs. RESULTS: The pVAS scores and yeast counts were significantly reduced on D28 compared with D0 in both groups (P < 0.05). CADESI-04 was significantly decreased on D28 in the emollient bathing group (P = 0.003). There were no significant differences in each endpoint score between the groups. In healthy dogs, TEWL was significantly increased after bathing in both groups (P < 0.01). CONCLUSION: An emollient bathing product can be effective for Malassezia overgrowth in dogs with atopic dermatitis. Bathing with shampoo products might affect skin barrier function even when using an emollient product.


Asunto(s)
Dermatitis Atópica , Fármacos Dermatológicos , Enfermedades de los Perros , Malassezia , Animales , Dermatitis Atópica/tratamiento farmacológico , Dermatitis Atópica/veterinaria , Fármacos Dermatológicos/uso terapéutico , Enfermedades de los Perros/tratamiento farmacológico , Perros , Prurito/tratamiento farmacológico , Prurito/veterinaria
20.
Wiad Lek ; 74(1): 112-117, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33851599

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study is to reveal in the experiment the morphological features of the infected skin wounds healing, which are a manifestation of acne vulgaris severe and very severe forms, using a gel with carbon dioxide extract of hops. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Materials and methods: An experimental study was carried out on 80 male WAG rats of three months of age. The animals were divided into 9 groups. Group 1 consisted of intact animals (n=6). Group 2 was represented by animals (n=6), which had hair epilation on the dorsal surface of the body in an area of 1 сm2, followed by application of 2 ml of placebo gel to this area. Group 3 included animals (n=6), which were epilated on the dorsal surface of the body in an area of 1 сm2 and applied 2 ml of 1 % gel with carbon dioxide extract of hops. Group 4 included rats (n=6), which were epilated on the dorsal surface of the body in an area of 1 сm2 and simulated thermal damage. Group 5 was represented by 10 rats, who were epilated on the dorsal surface of the body in an area of 1 сm2, simulated thermal damage, followed by applying 2 ml of placebo gel to the wound surface. Group 6 included rats (n=10), who underwent measures similar to group 5, followed by application of 2 ml of 1 % gel with carbon dioxide extract of hops to the wound surface. In group 7, there were 6 rats, which were epilated on the dorsal surface of the body in an area of 1 сm2, thermal damage to the skin with underlying soft tissues was simulated, followed by application to the wound surface the reference strains of Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, Proteus vulgaris, Propionibacterium acnes, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Malassezia slooffiae, Malassezia pachydermatis, Candida albicans, Candida parapsilosis. In groups 8 and 9, there were 15 rats each, which underwent measures similar to group 7, followed by applying 2 ml of placebo gel on its surface on the next day after infection of the wound in group 8, and in group 9 - 2 ml of 1 % gel with carbon dioxide extract hops. The material for the study was the skin with underlying soft tissues. It was used histological, histochemical, morphometric and statistical methods. RESULTS: Results: This experimentally created gel with carbon dioxide extract of hops activates separation processes of horny masses from the surface of the epidermis, cleaning the pores of the skin; stimulating the proliferative activity of the epidermis, which is located in the marginal sections of the wound or covers the surface of the regenerate; activating the processes of cleansing the wound from necrotic tissue; activating the growth and maturation of granulation tissue with its subsequent transformation into connective tissue. It has anti-inflammatory, bactericidal and antimycotic effects, normalizing skin microbiocenosis. CONCLUSION: Conclusions: The complex morphological study has showed that gel with carbon dioxide extract of hops is a highly effective drug in treatment of severe and very severe acne vulgaris, characterized by the development of deep and infected wound defects.


Asunto(s)
Acné Vulgar , Humulus , Infección de Heridas , Animales , Dióxido de Carbono , Malassezia , Masculino , Ratas , Cicatrización de Heridas
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